21-40 of 1,271 results  for:

  • Chordophones (Stringed Instruments) x
Clear all

Article

Ampico  

Article

Amponga  

Article

Hugh Davies

Instrument constructed by Akio Suzuki in several versions since 1972. It consists of a long, flexible spring stretched between two metal cylinders, each with an ‘echo-plate’ across one end. One cylinder is normally fixed. The spring, which can be extended up to at least 8 metres, is stroked, plucked, or struck; the instrument is also effective if, when the spring is extended, the performer sings into the cylinder that is held. Three types of Analapos have been made: Type A is a single unit (many of which have been sold to collectors); Type B (four models) consists of a tall stand from which between four and about 20 units are suspended; and Type C, the Deep-Sea Sonar, consists of a single spring mounted inside a cardboard tube about 1 to 1½ metres long, which is shaken to produce the sound (hundreds have been made for educational purposes). The long resonances and echoes of the first two types are matched visually: especially when the spring is fully stretched, a ‘wave’ can be seen to travel across the instrument several times in each direction before dying away. Suzuki has explored similar sound qualities in the Spring Cong family, in which lengths of thin sprung steel ‘ribbon’ are mounted on a stand (in spiral or arc configurations, or in two interlocking vertical loops at right angles to each other) or on a wooden base (in arc or ‘omega’ shapes)....

Article

Alastair Dick

revised by Jeremy Montagu

[gubgubī, khamak]

Variable tension chordophone of Bengal (east India and Bangladesh). Ānandalaharī (‘waves of joy’) appears to be a literary name; in the countryside the instrument is more often called by the onomatopoeic names gubgubī or khamak. The body is a wooden cylinder open at both ends and somewhat barrel-shaped or tapering inward towards the top. The lower opening is completely covered by a skin and the upper by a skin with the centre cut away; both skins are laced to plaited leather hoops and braced by cord V-lacings, each having a metal tuning-ring, giving an inverted Y-shape. (Older models had only a lower skin, glued on.) A gut string is looped through two holes and a protective button (or piece of bamboo etc.) in the centre of the lower skin, passing up through the body as a single or double string to a hole in the bottom of a small brass pot, where the string is attached with another toggle. The body is tucked into the left armpit and the string tensioned by the left hand gripping the small pot; the right hand plucks the string with a small plectrum of bone, plastic, or other material. The tension of the string, and hence its pitch, can be greatly and instantly varied by the left hand to produce a dramatic accompaniment for song or dance; it can play both rhythms and melodies, with swooping portamento leaps within about an octave. The ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

In 

Article

Ian Harwood and Tim Crawford

(Fr.: ‘angel lute’; Ger. Angelika; It. angelica).

A two-headed lute with ten single strings on the lower head and six or seven on the upper. Its characteristic diatonic tuning greatly restricts its compass, but the tone of the open strings is full and clear. An instrument of the lute family, tuned in this way, was depicted by Praetorius (Theatrum instrumentorum, pl.xxxvi), who said it was played like a harp. The 23 strings shown, however, run between a sloping bridge and a single pegbox angled to one side. The name ‘angel lute’ or ‘angélique’ is found in the late 17th century and the 18th. The instrument can usually be distinguished by the ten pegs of the lower pegbox. James Talbot ( GB-Och Music 1187, c1695) gave the tuning for the 16-course angel lute, spreading diatonically on ‘white’ notes from D to e′. He also said that the instrument had nine frets and was ‘more proper for slow and grave lessons than for quick and brisk by reason of the continuance of sound when touched which may breed discord’....

Article

Article

Laurence Libin

[angkuoch, kangkuoch]

Jew’s harp of Cambodia. It is a thin, narrow, tapering slip of bamboo about 24 cm long, with an idioglot tongue tuned with a blob of beeswax. The bamboo can be decorated with a painted design. It was traditionally used as a voice disguiser in courting and sometimes played for recreation by herders. Nowadays it is available commercially and played by children. Reportedly the name also denotes an iron jew’s harp with heteroglot tongue, also tuned with wax....

Article

Mikaela Minga

(b Tirana, Albania, April 12, 1949; d Tirana, Sept 28, 2012). Albanian cellist. His parents were acclaimed artists. His father, Kristaq Antoniu, was a singer, actor, and stage director. His mother, Androniqi Zengo, was a painter. Between 1967 and 1973 Antoniu completed his cello studies at the Albanian Higher Institute of Arts (Instituti i Lartë i Arteve), with Y. Skënderi and M. Denizi. During this time he became one of the most acclaimed cello soloists in Albania of both chamber music and solo works, being the first performer of pieces by Albanian composers such as Ç. Zadeja, F. Ibrahimi, K. Laro, S. Kushta, T. Gaqi, and A. Peçi,. Antoniu gave numerous concerts, primarily in Albania, though a few abroad. He participated in the most important musical events of his time and made radio recordings. In his repertory are included cello pieces from Classic and Romantic European composers. Antoniu was appointed professor at the High Institute of Arts and taught there for more than thirty years....

Article

Apang  

Geneviève Dournon

Variable tension chordophone of Rajasthan, north India. It has a cylindrical body, originally of wood or gourd but now commonly a tin can with ends removed. A skin is stretched over the lower end. A straight wooden neck about 60 cm long, affixed along the body, has a large movable peg through its upper part. A metal string extends from the peg to the centre of the skin. The musician plucks the string with one hand, using either fingers or a plectrum, and with the other hand turns the peg to vary the pitch. The apang provides rhythmic support for devotional songs. It is used in the Udaipur region, notably by the Bhil, a tribal people of the Aravalli hills (southwestern Rajasthan). See also Ektār.

K. Kothari: Folk Musical Instruments of Rajasthan (Borunda, 1977) B.C. Deva: Musical Instruments of India (Calcutta, 1978), 147ff C.J. Adkins and others: ‘Frequency Doubling Chordophones’, ...

Article

[aphyartsa]

Short-necked bowed lute of Abkhazia. The pear-shaped body with arched back extends into an unfretted neck surmounted by a flat circular pegdisk. Two gut strings are affixed to a short tailpiece, cross a tall bridge below a small circular soundhole, and are tuned a 5th apart by pegs inserted from the back. The instrument’s total length is about 70 to 80 cm. It is held vertically with the body between the knees, and bowed with a high-arched bow, its hair tightened by the fingers of the bowing hand. It is played mostly by men to accompany epic, ceremonial, and domestic songs, and to perform dance tunes....

Article

Lucy M. Long

[lap dulcimer, mountain dulcimer, Kentucky dulcimer, plucked dulcimer]

Fretted zither traditional to the southern Appalachian mountains of the eastern USA, consisting of a narrow fingerboard attached to a larger soundbox underneath. Variant names include ‘delcumer’, ‘dulcymore’, ‘harmonium’, ‘hog fiddle’, ‘music box’, and ‘harmony box’. Long found only in scattered pockets of tradition, the dulcimer has since the 1950s gained popularity outside the mountains; at the beginning of the 21st century it was being widely used by both amateur and professional musicians in folk-based repertories.

The organological development of the Appalachian dulcimer divides into three periods: transitional (1700 to the mid-1800s), traditional (mid-1800s to 1940), and revival or modern (after 1940). During the transitional period the dulcimer developed in the Shenandoah River Valley region of southwestern Pennsylvania through the blending of British (predominantly Scottish) musical traditions with those of other immigrants, who brought with them the German ...

Article

Arababu  

Margaret J. Kartomi

revised by Mayco A. Santaella

Indonesian spike fiddle. It is also known as rababo in Bolaang Mongondow (North Sulawesi), as alababu in Gorontalo, as arababoe in Halmahera, and as erbabi in Buru and elsewhere. Its resonator is half a coconut shell, usually covered with a membrane of buffalo bladder as a soundtable. A slender bamboo neck passes through the shell and meets the proximal end of the instrument’s wooden foot. It has a single string of vegetable fibre or cotton. The bamboo bow has resined ‘hair’ of fibre from the sheath of sugar palm leaves....

Article

Arbab  

Margaret J. Kartomi

[marbab]

Spike fiddle of the Batak Karo and Batak Toba areas in North Sumatra. Its spike and neck are made of wood, and the body is made of a coconut shell hemisphere, 8 to 15 cm in diameter, its opening covered with goat skin. The top of the neck, above the long lateral tuning pegs, is sometimes decorated with a carved scroll. The two strings (sometimes only one), made of strands of pineapple leaf, are about 75 cm long and pass over a low bridge located high on the skin belly. The curved spike is angled at the end to rest flat on the ground, where it is supported by the seated player’s foot. The horsehair of the wooden bow is tightened by the player’s bowing hand....

Article

Ārbajo  

Mireille Helffer

revised by Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Long-necked lute of Nepal. It is carved from one piece of khirro wood, the neck widening gradually into the curved, bulging body. The neck is hollowed to extend the resonator and is covered by a fingerboard. The body has a stretched skin belly on which the bridge rests. The four strings extend from the tail to lateral tuning pegs in the pegbox and are plucked with a plectrum, commonly nowadays a plastic guitar plectrum. The ...

Article

Article

Article

Article

A type of ‘open’ harp (i.e. without forepillar) in which the strings are at one end attached to the resonator (usually by being tied to a spine beneath a skin belly) and at the other to a curved neck that arches over the resonator. The term Bow harp has been incorrectly applied to a form of arched harp. ...

Article

Lynda Sayce

(Fr. archiluth; Ger. Erzlaute; It. arciliuto, arcileuto)

A generic term for lutes with fretted courses tuned like the Renaissance lute, and with extended, unfretted bass courses (diapasons). The archlute differs from the Theorbo mainly in that the body is smaller and the first and second courses are at lute pitch rather than an octave lower (this was possible because the string length was shorter). The term ‘arciliuto’ was in use in Italy before 1590; it is not known precisely what form of instrument the term then implied, but the prefix ‘arci-’ indicates some form of enhanced lute, the extension of the bass courses (for greater volume as much as for additional notes) being the most probable enhancement. The various early archlutes preserved the tuning, double stringing, octave bass courses, and musical role of the Renaissance lute; consequently they were often simply called ‘liuto’. Contemporary paintings show some lutes with a short neck extension bearing a second bent-back pegbox, and some with extended diapasons attached to the bass side of a single, straight pegbox. By the second decade of the 17th century some archlutes bore a short form of theorbo-like extension with its characteristic shepherd's-crook head carrying double-strung, octaved diapasons about one-and-a-half times the length of the fretted courses. This development coincides with the first appearance of the term ‘liuto attiorbato’ (theorboed lute) which is the normal modern term for archlutes of this kind, following Spencer's classification (...