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Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Orense, Oct 1, 1918). Spanish pianist, composer, conductor, administrator, critic and writer on music. He studied piano and composition with José Cubiles and Conrado del Campo at the Madrid Conservatory, taking diplomas in piano (1935) and composition (1944); later he was a pupil of Marguerite Long, Lazare Lévy and Yves Nat in Paris and of Isidore Philipp in New York, and studied conducting with Luís de Freitas Branco and Louis Fourestier. He has made concert tours of Europe, North Africa and the USA. His professional activities have included the founding (1957) and directing of the Orense Conservatory of Music, giving piano masterclasses and teaching the interpretation of Spanish music at Música en Compostela (from 1958) and organizing the Manuel de Falla seminars and courses at Granada. He created (1962) the Semanas de Música Religiosa at Cuenca and as music adviser to the Instituto de Cultura Hispánica planned music festivals in Spain and the USA in collaboration with the Organization of American States; he has served as secretary-general of the Spanish section of ISCM (whose festivals he organized in ...

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Vera Lampert

[Alexander]

(b Budapest, Aug 9, 1890; d Balaton Földvár, Aug 8, 1963). Hungarian composer, critic and conductor . He studied composition with Koessler at the Budapest Academy of Music (1906–8) and then went to the Leipzig Conservatory, where he was a pupil of Reger (composition), Nikisch (conducting), Straube (organ) and Sitt (violin). Between 1911 and 1913 he was active in several smaller opera companies: as répétiteur at Bremen and as conductor at Czernowitz (now Černovice), Jihlava and Scheveningen. He lived in Berlin from 1913 and there took further composition lessons from Schoenberg and began to write studies on music, publishing several articles in Die Musik in 1914–15. In 1916 he returned to Hungary. He wrote for various newspapers and periodicals before becoming regular music critic of the daily paper Népszava (1924–50), in which post he established himself as one of the most respected Hungarian critics of the period. He was a propagandist for modern music but also helped to make the Classics more widely known; at the same time he reported on Hungarian musical life for the foreign press. From ...

Article

Miroslav K. Černý

(Michal)

(b Prague, May 2, 1817; d Prague, July 22, 1868). Czech choirmaster, teacher, composer and critic. He was the son of the distinguished Prague choirmaster František Xaver Kolešovský (b Prague, 1781; d Prague, 12 June 1839), a pupil of J.A. Kozeluch. He studied the violin at the Prague Conservatory, theory, organ and singing at the Prague Organ School, and theory and composition with Tomášek and others. He was a member of the Estates Theatre Orchestra in Prague from 1835 until 1839, when he succeeded his father as choirmaster of St Štěpána; here, and later at St Ignác he continued his father's practice of presenting music by earlier Czech masters, especially F.X. Brixi. In the 1850s he was director of the Žofín Academy, an important Prague music institution with choir and school, but gave up the post to found his own school of singing and theory, where his pupils included Fibich. He also taught from ...

Article

Susan Fast

(b Paris, April 19, 1928; d London, Jan 1, 1984). British guitarist, bandleader, journalist and broadcaster. In the late 1940s and 50s he played traditional jazz and skiffle, but his musical sympathies lay with the country blues of artists such as Leadbelly, Robert Johnson and Big Bill Broonzy. He befriended the jazz musician Chris Barber, who had similar musical interests and had brought several blues artists over to England; Korner met many of these artists and promoted them in articles for journals including Melody Maker and Jazz on Record, and from 1958 through broadcasts on the BBC. With Cyril Davies, he formed the first British blues club, the London Blues and Barrelhouse Club. He had played acoustic guitar in the armed forces in Germany (1947–9), but took up electric guitar only after hearing Muddy Waters in 1958. With Davies he formed the electric band Blues Incorporated (...

Article

Cecelia H. Porter

(b Breslau [now Wrocław, Poland], July 27, 1812; d Stettin [now Szczecin, Poland], Dec 1, 1893). German conductor, music critic and composer. Kossmaly’s writings reveal much about 19th-century German musical life and intellectual history. He studied in Berlin (1828–30) with Mendelssohn’s teachers Ludwig Berger and C.F. Zelter, and also with Bernhard Klein. From 1838 to 1849 he was music director at opera houses in Wiesbaden, Mainz, Amsterdam, Bremen, Detmold, and Stettin, where he settled and became a highly respected teacher and orchestra conductor. In 1837 Schumann invited Kossmaly to report on music in Frankfurt and Holland for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik; in 1839 he moved to Leipzig, continuing to contribute profusely to the journal. Schumann, who published some of his lieder there, commended his reviews for their practical musicianship and philosophical depth. Kossmaly’s review of Schumann’s piano works (AMZ, xlvi (1844), 1–5, 17–21, 33–7; trans. in R.L. Todd, ed.: ...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Brusque, Santa Catarina, March 17, 1928). Brazilian composer, conductor and critic. He began violin studies at an early age with his father, a composer, conductor and founder of the local conservatory. A state scholarship took him in 1943 to Rio de Janeiro, where he studied the violin with Edith Reis at the conservatory and took lessons in harmony, counterpoint, fugue and composition with Koellreutter (1944–8). He became an active member of Koellreutter's Música Viva group, winning their prize in 1945 for the Woodwind Trio. In 1948 he won first prize at the Berkshire Music Center competition for Latin American composers. He then studied orchestration and composition with Copland, composition with Mennin at the Juilliard School (1948–9) and the violin with Nowinsky at the Henry Street Settlement School. While in New York he had several of his works performed, and he conducted the New York PO on ...

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Article

Charles Jahant

(b New York, NY, March 18, 1912; d New York, NY, Aug 9, 1981). American conductor and music critic. He studied at Columbia University (MA 1934) and the Institute of Musical Art, and was a critic for the New York Herald Tribune from 1939 to 1943. During World War II he served with the US Army in Italy; in 1944 he conducted opera performances at Rome’s Teatro Quirino, and in 1944 and 1945 conducted at the Rome Opera, working with such artists as Gigli, Ferruccio Tagliavini, and Maria Caniglia. He led the Phoenix SO from 1949 to 1952, then went to Turkey where he was conductor of the Ankara SO from 1957 to 1958. In 1959 and 1960 he led the American Opera Society in complete performances of Berlioz’s Les troyens at Carnegie Hall when the scheduled conductor, Sir Thomas Beecham, was indisposed. In 1961 he founded the Friends of French Opera, which presented a number of neglected works, especially those of Jules Massenet. In the early 1970s he was director of Opera Atlanta, then head of the opera department at the Peabody Conservatory. For more than 40 years his radio commentaries were heard during the intermissions of Metropolitan Opera broadcasts. His published writings include ...

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

(b Berlin, June 13, 1887; d New York, April 22, 1967). American musicologist, conductor and critic, of German birth . He studied musicology with Friedlaender at the University of Berlin and law at the University of Heidelberg, where he received the doctorate in 1911. From 1913 to 1921 he worked as an operetta conductor in Osnabrück, Essen, Strasbourg, Bremen and elsewhere; later (1921–3) he was music director of the Berlin Kammeroper. In the 1920s and 30s he was a critic for the Lokalanzeiger and other newspapers (including a few Jewish ones) and a writer of programme notes for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He taught music theory and history at the Stern Conservatory and conducted several madrigal choirs. The Nazis identified him as an important Jewish music critic, but on account of his non-Jewish wife Anni he was spared the concentration camps. He did, however, have to endure forced labour as a porter in the Jüdische Bibliothek des Sicherheitshauptamtes. After the war he was able to resume teaching and was even invited to form an orchestra by the mayor of Schöneberg, but he was abruptly arrested by a Soviet patrol for obscure reasons. After his release he emigrated to the USA in ...

Article

Rolf Haglund

(Juan Magnus)

(b Almeria, Oct 15, 1874; d Tällberg, April 29, 1957). Swedish composer, conductor and critic, of Spanish birth. He moved to Sweden at the age of seven and, after schooling in Göteborg, he studied the piano and composition at the Stockholm Conservatory (1891–9) and in Berlin (1899–1901). He was music critic of the Göteborgs handels- och sjöfartstidning (1901–5), the Dagens nyheter (1909–11) and the Svenska dagbladet (1911–18), and conductor of the Göteborg SO (1905–9). From 1917 to 1939 he taught conducting and other subjects at the Stockholm Conservatory, where in 1921 he was made professor. He was secretary to the Academy of Music (1918–40) and undertook numerous public commissions. As a conductor he appeared in Scandinavia, Germany and Switzerland. His colourful music combines a Spanish Impressionism with Nordic Romanticism.

(selective list)

Article

Walter Aaron Clark and William Craig Krause

(b Madrid, March 3, 1891; d Madrid, Sept 12, 1982). Spanish composer, conductor and critic. He first studied music with his father, José Moreno Ballesteros, an organist and teacher at the Royal Conservatory in Madrid, and with whom he collaborated on his first zarzuela, Las decididas (1912). He later studied composition with Conrado del Campo at the Royal Conservatory, where his tone poem La ajorca de oro was first performed in 1918. In 1926 he married Pilar Larregla, the daughter of a Navarrese composer; the folk music of Navarra along with that of Castile was to serve as a major source of inspiration in his music. Although not a guitarist himself, in the 1920s his growing friendship with Segovia inspired him to begin writing for the guitar, and the resulting compositions such as Sonatina (1924) and Piezas características (1931) are among his finest works. He also established himself as a composer for the stage, and his zarzuela ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Bucharest, Romania, Oct 1, 1890; d Bucharest, Jan 19, 1951). Romanian composer, conductor, music critic, teacher, and violinist. Along with Alfred Alessandrescu and Ion Nonna Otescu, Nottara was among the first disciples of the renowned composition professor Alfonso Castaldi from the Bucharest Conservatory. First under the influence of French impressionism, then of Italian verismo, Nottara’s work then gradually integrated with the tendency of forming a Romanian national style in the first half of the 20th century.

He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory (1900–07) with D.G. Kiriac (music theory and solfège), Alfonso Castaldi (composition), and Robert Klenck (violin); he continued his studies under George Enescu and Berthelier (violin) in Paris (1907–9), and under Klinger (violin) and Schatzenholz (composition) at the Königliche Akademie der Künste, Berlin, (1909–13). His career as a violinist included orchestral playing in the Bucharest PO (1905–7, 1918–20), leading a string quartet (...

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Paul-André Bempéchat

(b Besançon, June 13, 1875; d Paris, May 15, 1959). French composer, conductor and critic. Born into an aristocratic family with a lengthy, distinguished military lineage, d'Ollone struggled to reconcile these inherited responsibilities with his Utopian, socialist perspective of music. Thoroughly committed to the deeper appreciation of music through public education, he strove to impress its pivotal role in the evolution of the human character. He developed this philosophy through the study of theology and symbolist literature, and projected it through opera, his preferred medium of expression.

A pupil of Gédalge, Lavignac, Lenepveu and Massenet at the Paris Conservatoire, d'Ollone reaped numerous honours there and throughout his lengthy career, notably the Prix de Rome (1897) for his cantata, Frédégonde. Twice honoured by the Légion d'Honneur (Chevalier in 1926, Officier in 1938), he was appointed director of the Concerts populaires d'Angers (1907–15), at the Ministry of Fine Arts (...

Article

Guido M. Gatti and John C.G. Waterhouse

[Parma, Ildebrando da]

(b Parma, Sept 20, 1880; d Rome, Feb 13, 1968). Italian composer, conductor and critic. He was the most respected and influential of the more conservative Italian musicians of his generation.

The son of a piano teacher, Pizzetti spent most of his childhood (from 1884) in Reggio Emilia. While at school there he showed less inclination towards music than towards the theatre, writing plays for casual performance among his schoolmates. In 1895, however, he entered the Parma Conservatory, where he studied under Telesforo Righi, a modest but outstanding teacher of harmony and counterpoint, and gained his composition diploma in 1901. Meanwhile he became conversant with 15th- and 16th-century Italian instrumental and choral music performed and expounded by Giovanni Tebaldini, one of the pioneers of Italian musicology, who directed the conservatory from 1897 and took a personal interest his development. Pizzetti’s leanings towards the theatre by no means diminished, and he grew more and more anxious to compose an opera. Various early attempts, mostly unfinished, already showed his preference for heroic subjects, exalted romantic characters and large-scale construction....

Article

Ivan Čavlović

(b Županja, March 6, 1905; d Sarajevo, March 28, 1979). Bosnian-Herzegovinian composer, conductor, pianist, and critic. He studied composition in the class of Blagoje Bersa, conducting in the class of Fran Lhotka, and the piano in the class of Svetislav Stančić at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, graduating in 1927. From 1927 to 1928 he studied composition with Vincent d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum de Paris, and from 1928 to 1929 with Joseph Marx in Vienna.

From 1930 he made his mark conducting several choral ensembles in Zagreb, including Oratorijski zbor sv. Marka, Sloga, Lisinski, and Zagrebački madrigalisti. From 1947 he worked in Sarajevo as a conductor at the Sarajevo Opera House and the Sarajevo Philharmonic Orchestra. From 1955 he taught conducting at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo. He was very active as an accompanist, historian, and critic. He wrote the first historical studies of music in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as many articles for newspapers, magazines, radio, and TV programmes. His rather modest composing legacy is permeated with folk elements, within formal designs of (neo)-classical orientation. He also made arrangements of the works of other Bosnian-Herzegovinian composers (notably Franjo Maćojevksi and Bogomir Kačerovski) to meet the particular needs of local performance contexts....

Article

(b Stockholm, Nov 30, 1884; d Stockholm, May 11, 1947). Swedish composer, conductor and critic. He studied composition with Lindegren (1903–4) and with Pfitzner in Berlin (1905–6), where he had singing lessons with Hey (1905–6), continuing these latter studies in Munich (1906–7). As a music critic he worked for the Svenska dagbladet (1907–9), the Stockholms dagblad (1910–14, 1927–30), the Dagens nyheter (1920–21), and the Nya dagligt allehanda (1938–42). In the decade after 1910 he was active as a singing teacher, and he was press adviser at the Swedish Royal Opera from 1930 to 1936. He made his conducting début in 1915 and was chief conductor of the Göteborg Orchestral Society (1922–5); later he made guest appearances with various orchestras. He was a founder of the Society of Swedish Composers (...

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Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Russia, 1899; d Tel Aviv, 1968). Israeli critic, choral conductor and composer of Russian birth. In 1925, soon after his emigration to Palestine, he was appointed music critic of the newly founded socialist daily Davar, a position he retained throughout his life. He changed his surname from Rabinowitz to the more Hebrew Ravina in 1930. His frequent and detailed reviews, which insisted on a high standard of performance and programming, and sought a genuine Jewish musical style, were highly influential. In an attempt to bring music to the people, he collaborated with David Shor on an ambitious education project that included public lectures, the publication of popular music appreciation booklets and song anthologies, and the establishment of a nation-wide network of amateur choirs. He was also a strong supporter of contemporary music in Palestine. His many songs (around 60), mostly written for young children, were intended as part of a newly composed folksong repertory....

Article

Joseph Clark

(b Graz, Oct 6, 1896; d Vienna, Nov 9, 1978). Austrian composer, conductor and critic. He studied composition at the Schule des Steiermärkischen Musikvereins, Graz (1901–15, 1918–20) with Mojsisovics, Kroemer, Künzel and later Kornauth. During the years 1921–3 he worked as a violin teacher in Leoben, a violinist in the Vienna SO and a conductor, vocal coach and critic in Graz. He edited the Viennese Musikbote (1924–5) and in 1926 he moved to Germany, settling first in Munich and then working as a music director in Paderborn and Herford, as a choral conductor in Essen and Bielefeld and as a theory teacher in Hagen. In 1933 he was appointed to teach theory and composition at the Cologne Musikhochschule where he was made professor in 1935. He also took over the direction of the university chorus and the Gürzenich choir in succession to Abendroth (...

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Marta Ottlová, Milan Pospíšil, John Tyrrell and Kelly St Pierre

[Friedrich]

(b Leitomischl, Bohemia [now Litomyšl, Czech Republic], 2 March 1824; d Prague, 12 May 1884). Czech composer, conductor, teacher, and music critic often described as the ‘father’ or ‘inventor’ of Czech national music. While his first language was German and his first nationalist compositions were based on Swedish narratives, Smetana asserted himself as composer of specifically Czech music from the 1860s, and his music posthumously became synonymous with a Czech national musical style. Today, Smetana’s eight operas, including Prodaná nevěsta (‘The Bartered Bride’), as well as his cycle of symphonic poems Má vlast (‘My Fatherland’) form the foundation of the Czech classical musical canon. His opera Libuše is also frequently cited as an ‘apotheosis’ of Czech music, especially in conjunction with the first movement of Má vlast, entitled ‘Vyšehrad’.

After his death, Smetana was transformed in the minds of his audiences and advocates from a composer of nationalistic music to a national symbol himself; he and his works became enduring points of reference for Czechs’ ever-shifting borders, politics, administrations, ethnicities, and imagined futures through the 20th century. For this reason, the actual Smetana in many ways has become inseparable from the myth of ‘Smetana’, as later critics and historians molded his life and work to match their needs. The composer’s supposed greatness, genius, Czechness, tragic deafness, and heroism all give voice to the shifting needs, anxieties, and interests of his audiences as much as to the composer himself....