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John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...


Calvin Bower

[Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius]

(b Rome, c480 ce; d Pavia, c524 ce). Roman writer and statesman. He was born into one of the foremost patrician families of Rome; following the death of his father in 487 ce he was taken into the home of Symmachus, another patrician. Boethius learnt Greek philosophy and the liberal arts from Symmachus and married his daughter. Both men were colleagues in later senatorial struggles.

Boethius’s erudition in both the practical and speculative arts attracted the attention of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, then ruler of Italy. Through Cassiodorus, Theodoric requested Boethius’s aid in various matters, including the selection of a kitharode for Clovis, King of the Franks. Cassiodorus, writing in his official capacity as quaestor, repeatedly praised Boethius’s learning. Boethius became consul in 510, and in 522 was called to Ravenna to become Theodoric’s magister officium. In 523 Cyprian, Theodoric’s referendary, brought charges of treason against a senator, Albinus, and Boethius argued in Albinus’s defence. Boethius was himself then charged and imprisoned with Albinus in Pavia, and ultimately executed....


Kathleen Dale

revised by Axel Helmer

(b Stockholm, June 6, 1804; d Stockholm, March 17, 1861). Swedish music critic, historian and composer. He was a pupil of Per Frigel. He earned his living as a clerk in the Swedish Customs and was for many years music critic for the Post och inrikes tidningar. In 1849 he was elected a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Music, the library of which he helped to catalogue. In 1850 he translated Birch’s Darstellung der Bühnenkunst into Swedish. He lectured extensively on music history at the conservatory in 1852, and wrote articles for the Ny tidning för musik during the whole period of its existence (1853–7). The most important of these was ‘En blick på tonkonsten i Sverige’, a survey of Swedish music during the previous 50 years. Boman is considered one of the most reliable and important Swedish writers on music before Adolf Lindgren. (...


Albert Cohen

(b Pont-de-Vaux, Ain, April 24, 1633; d Paris, May 4, 1691). French lawyer and man of letters. He is often confused with his great-grandson, Charles-Emmanuel Borjon de Scellery (c1715–95). He was active in the law courts of both Dijon and Paris and is known chiefly for his writings on jurisprudence. He also composed poetry (noëls ‘en patois bressan’), published after his death and later set to music, and is credited with Traité de la musette, avec une nouvelle méthode, pour apprendre de soy-mesme à jouer de cet instrument facilement, et en peu de temps (Lyons, 1672, 2/1678/R), which describes an instrument in vogue throughout France at the time and includes examples of music collected by the author.

DBF (M. Prevost) P. LeDuc: Les noëls bressans de Bourg, de Pont-de-Vaux et des paroisses voisines (Bourg-en-Bresse, 1845) C.-J. Dufaÿ: Dictionnaire biographique des personnages notables du département de l’Ain...


(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Zürich, May 31, 1923). Swiss musicologist and music critic. He studied at Zürich Conservatory and at Zürich University, where he took the doctorate with Hindemith in 1955 with a dissertation on the concept of time in music. After working for a short time at Radio Zürich, he served as assistant professor of music history and music theory at the University of Pennsylvania (1955–64). In 1964 he was appointed music critic of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, and the following year succeeded Willi Schuh as its music editor. He retired in 1988. Like his predecessor, Briner based his critical judgments of the works being performed on a detailed analysis of the score. Briner is known primarily for his work on Hindemith, having written one of the first comprehensive studies on the composer ever published (1971); he has also examined 20th-century Swiss composers and the music history of Zürich. He was appointed president of the Paul Hindemith Foundation in ...


Jamie C. Kassler

(b Rothbury, Northumberland, Nov 5, 1715; d Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept 23, 1766). English clergyman, writer and amateur musician. He was educated at Cambridge University and held several positions in the Church of England. His contribution to music historiography is contained in his Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music (London, 1763; Ger. trans. by J.J. Eschenburg, Leipzig, 1769; It. trans. by Oresbio Agieo, academic name of Francesco Corsetti, Florence, 1772). Proceeding on the assumption that music arose from the passions and principles of the human mind, Brown isolated 36 stages of musical history, from the early unity of gesture, voice and speech and its perfection as dance, melody and song in Greek society to the separation and degeneration of those arts in the 18th century. Thus, like Isaac Vossius (whom he cited with approval), he believed that music reached its perfection among the ancients and declined with the moderns....


Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Aug 3, 1906; d Marlborough, Sept 27, 1975). English writer on music. At London University he took the BSc (1929) and BMus (1939). After teaching music at Belle Vue High School, Bradford (1939–44), and serving as a radio and telegraph instructor with the RAF, he taught physics at Marlborough Grammar School, where he was head of the science department (1945–66).

Brown was the leading Schubert scholar of his generation. His work was notable for its disciplined accuracy and depth, balance and perception, and was informed both by his thorough knowledge of the progress of Schubert research and by his enthusiasm for the music under discussion. His knowledge of and delight in literature contributed greatly to his understanding of the devices of word-setting in lieder. The other major subject of his research was Chopin: he compiled the standard thematic index of his works and studied their publishing history....


(b 1843–4; d ?1917). English translator . He was a scholar of Oriel College, Oxford (BA 1866), and was ordained in the Church of England in 1868. He was choirmaster and organist of Christ Church, Marylebone, London, from 1878 to 1882.

For the production of Così fan tutte (at that time rarely staged) by the Royal College of Music at the Savoy Theatre in 1890, he wrote an amusing and elegant English version, ‘translated and adapted from the original Italian and the German paraphrase’, in a style Richard Brinsley Sheridan would not have disdained. It was published in vocal score by Novello, with the characters Fiordiligi and Guglielmo renamed Isidora and Gratiano, presumably for the convenience of English tongues. The long survival of this version, with modifications, extended to the ENO production of 1990. Browne also translated Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad (RCM, Savoy, 1891) and Hermann Goetz’s ...


Albert Dunning

(b Noyon, July 10, 1509; d Geneva, May 27, 1564). French theologian, one of the leaders of the Reformation in Switzerland.

In 1523 he studied theology in Paris, then studied law in Orléans in 1528 and in Bourges in 1529. In 1531 he returned to Paris to complete his classical studies, publishing a commentary on Seneca’s De clementia in the following year. Between 1528 and 1533 he became converted to reformed doctrines and in 1533 he had to leave Paris when the Lutheran sect at the university was proscribed by the court. He went to Basle at the end of 1534 and began work on his Christianae religionis institutio; in the dedication of the first edition (1536) to François I he called for toleration of Protestants. In 1536 he stayed for a short time at the court of Renée of France in Ferrara, and there met Clément Marot. On his way back to Strasbourg he went to Geneva, where the reformer Guillaume Favel persuaded him to help with the organization of the Church. However, in ...


Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...


Almonte Howell

(fl 1689–1702). Spanish theologian. A Jesuit priest, he taught theology at the royal college of his order in Salamanca and was the author of several works on moral and theological questions. His Discurso theológico sobre los theatros y comedias de este siglo (Salamanca, 1689), a vigorous attack on moral grounds on the theatre of his day, is frequently quoted for its account of contemporary Spanish stage music. He describes its beauties with great eloquence, suggesting that they may have been inspired by the Devil, and elaborates in suspiciously vivid terms on its power to arouse amorous feelings. It is unlikely that he can be identified with the Ignacio Camargo who in the 1660s composed some 40 vocal works ( E-V ).

SubiráHME G. Chase: The Music of Spain (New York, 1941, 2/1959) M. Querol: ‘Neuvos datos para la biografía de Miguel Gómez Camargo’, Miscelánea en homenaje a Monseñor Higinio Anglés...


Albert Cohen

revised by Philippe Vendrix

(b Montpellier, Nov 5, 1688; d Paris, Jan 19, 1757). French mathematician, physicist, journalist and theorist. According to Schier his birthdate was not 11 November as stated in the Journal de Trévoux. He joined the Jesuit order on 16 October 1703 at Toulouse, where he first undertook humanistic studies and later concentrated on mathematics and philosophy. After assuming teaching responsibilities for the order in Toulouse (1707), Clermont (1711), Aubelas (1714), Pamiers (1716) and Cahors (1719), he was sent in 1720 to the Jesuit school in Paris, where he taught physics, mathematics, mechanics, architecture and military science. He held this post for the rest of his life. From the time of his arrival in Paris he contributed articles and criticisms to the Mercure de France and the Journal de Trévoux on a wide variety of subjects, including music, where his criticisms of the theories and works of Rameau are of note....


John Tyrrell and Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Havana, Sept 4, 1906; d Chapel Hill, NC, Feb 22, 1992). American music historian and critic. He studied at Columbia University and the University of North Carolina (AB), and privately (piano, music theory) with Max Drittler in New York and Max Weld in Paris. He was awarded the honorary LLD degree from the University of Miami, Florida (1955). From 1929 to 1935 he was music critic in Paris for the continental edition of the London Daily Mail and correspondent for Musical America and the Musical Times. He was associate editor of the International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1938) and of the fourth edition of Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (1940). From 1940 to 1943 he served as Latin American specialist in the music division of the Library of Congress, from 1943 to 1947 as educational music supervisor at NBC. He was American cultural attaché in Lima and Buenos Aires (...


Tat′yana S. Kyuregyan

(b Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, Sept 1, 1952; d Moscow, Nov 28, 2003). Russian musicologist, cultural historian and music journalist. She studied musicology under Yu.N. Kholopov (1969–76) at the Moscow Conservatory, where she also completed her postgraduate studies. She obtained the Kanditat degree in philosophical sciences in 1979 and the doctorate in 1989. She taught aesthetics and the history of culture at the Moscow Conservatory from 1979 and was appointed senior lecturer in 1988 and professor in 1991. In 1993 she was made head of the department created at the conservatory to assist the post-Soviet reform in the teaching of social sciences. She wrote more than 100 items on matters concerning musical aesthetics, the avant garde and post-avant garde, the history of 20th-century musical theatre and the theory of mass culture. As an expert on reconstituting literary texts, she took part in reconstructing a number of Russian operas including Pashkevich's ...


Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b Arpinum [now Arpino], Jan 3, 106 bce; d Caieta [now Gaeta], Dec 7, 43 bce). Roman statesman, orator and man of letters. The hundreds of references to music in his writings (see Wille, 1967) include no comprehensive statement of theory; individual passages show that his usual eclecticism prevailed here as well. The Epicurean condemnation of music and of late Stoic musical theory by a philosopher well known to him personally, Philodemus of Gadara, influenced his thinking; nevertheless, he occasionally used Platonic and Stoic doctrines. He accepted the view of Democritus and Epicurus that music is one of the fine arts, not a pursuit necessary for life (Tusculan Disputations, i.25.62); at the same time, the musical culture of Hellenic Greece seemed to him admirable (ibid., i.2.4).

Cicero's orations usually referred to the place of music in private life and for forensic purposes treated it as a sign of dissolute tendencies; but his treatises on rhetoric show a lively awareness of the rhythmic and melodic elements that entered into oratorical technique. The influence of Cicero's oratorical theory is most directly seen in the ...


Viorel Cosma

(b Botoşani, Feb 2, 1890; d Bucharest, June 13, 1962). Romanian writer on music and critic. He studied music history and the violin at the Iaşi Conservatory (1906–8), and at the Leipzig Conservatory (1912–14) with Arnold Schering. He studied law in Paris, taking the doctorate at the Sorbonne. He taught music history at the Pro-Arte Conservatory in Bucharest (1936–9) and became director of the Enescu PO (1945–7). Ciomac wrote criticism and scholarly articles for numerous periodicals and also made Romanian translations of oratorio and opera librettos, including Ariadne auf Naxos, Prince Igor, Gounod’s Faust, and Enescu’s Oedipe. An excellent orator, he was much in demand as a lecturer in Romania and throughout Europe, and became one of the most respected Romanian teachers of the first half of the 20th century.

George Enescu (Bucharest, 1915) Viaţa şi opera lui Richard Wagner...


Mary Berry

(b Fontaines-lès-Dijon, 1090; d Clairvaux, 1153). French theologian, reformer and mystic. He was educated at Châtillon by the canons of St Vorles. In 1112 or 1113 he entered Cîteaux, and in 1115, in obedience to his abbot, St Stephen Harding, he left it to found Clairvaux, which was to become one of the most famous houses of the Cistercian order. Bernard was its first abbot, ruling over it until his death. Many of his written works were designed for delivery in the chapter house before his own monks. His influence, however, extended far beyond the confines of Clairvaux. He travelled throughout Europe, from Speyer to Palermo and from Madrid to Bordeaux, crossing and recrossing the Alps and the Pyrenees. He made active contributions to synods and councils, notably at Troyes (1128), Pisa (1135), Sens (1140) and Reims (1148). At Troyes he was responsible for establishing the Order of the Knights Templar and he may have been the author of their Rule. He supported Pope Innocent II against the antipope Anacletus II at the disputed election after the death of Honorius II in ...