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Article

Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Aug 3, 1906; d Marlborough, Sept 27, 1975). English writer on music. At London University he took the BSc (1929) and BMus (1939). After teaching music at Belle Vue High School, Bradford (1939–44), and serving as a radio and telegraph instructor with the RAF, he taught physics at Marlborough Grammar School, where he was head of the science department (1945–66).

Brown was the leading Schubert scholar of his generation. His work was notable for its disciplined accuracy and depth, balance and perception, and was informed both by his thorough knowledge of the progress of Schubert research and by his enthusiasm for the music under discussion. His knowledge of and delight in literature contributed greatly to his understanding of the devices of word-setting in lieder. The other major subject of his research was Chopin: he compiled the standard thematic index of his works and studied their publishing history....

Article

Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...

Article

John Tyrrell and Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Galaţi, May 20, 1852; d Bucharest, c1918). Romanian music critic, flautist and teacher. He studied at the Bucharest Conservatory with Luigi de Santis (flute) and Gheorghe Brătianu (theory). After working for a short period as a flautist in the orchestra of the Romanian Philharmonic Society, he became a teacher at the Pedagogical Seminary and at the Gheorghe Şincai secondary school in Bucharest. In 1890 he founded and directed the important music journal România Musicală, and began his activity as a music critic; he also initiated the collection Biblioteca Lirică, editing more than 50 booklets on Romanian and European music. He formed an artistic salon in Bucharest, inviting outstanding Romanian and foreign musicians to give concerts in his own home. For the Götzl company of Austria he invented a new type of flute. Cordoneanu drew up the Curs elementar de musică pentru uzul şcoalelor în genere (‘An elementary course of music for general school use’, Bucharest, ...

Article

(b San Francisco, CA, June 2, 1903, d Shady, NY, Feb 23, 1995). American music documentarian. After college graduation, she taught music in Palo Alto and studied music theory with Ernest Bloch. Following her divorce from Kenneth Robertson in 1933, she moved to New York, studied with the composer henry Cowell, and worked at Henry Street Settlement. After joining the New Deal in 1936, she moved to Washington, DC, as Charles Seeger’s music assistant in the Resettlement Administration. A trip to North Carolina in 1936 inaugurated her documentary career. Soon she was documenting folk music in many states for the Resettlement Administration. By 1937 her focus had shifted from the South to the Great Lakes states and included the region’s varied ethnic music traditions. From 1938 to 1940 she headed the WPA-sponsored California Folk Music Project, documenting the state’s English-language, Spanish-language, and recent immigrant traditions. In 1941 she moved back to New York and married Cowell. She returned to documentary work in the 1950s. Tape replaced disc recordings, and the locale shifted to Nova Scotia, Ireland, and the folk and classical traditions of South and East Asia. Several Folkways albums highlight her fieldwork of the 1950s. She and her husband wrote ...

Article

William Kirk Bares

(b Los Angeles, CA, Dec 14, 1945). American critic, syndicated columnist, educator, and novelist. Described as a celebrated cultural conservative, Crouch rejects the term in favor of “radically pragmatic.” He is a longtime champion of trumpeter Wynton Marsalis, for whom he has written all album liner notes since 1982. He also served as a consultant for jazz programming at Lincoln Center (since 1987) and for Ken Burns’s Jazz (2001). He worked as a staff writer for the Village Voice (1979–88) and has served as syndicated columnist for the New York Daily News since 1995. He has contributed to Esquire, The New Yorker, Harper’s, Down Beat, and JazzTimes, among others. Among his awards are a Whiting Writers Award in 1991, a MacArthur Foundation “genius” grant in 1993, a Fletcher Fellowship in 2005, and induction into the Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2009. His essay collections ...

Article

Agnes Gádor

[Brenner, József]

(b Szabadka [now Subotica, Serbia], Feb 13, 1887; d nr Szabadka, Sept 11, 1919). Hungarian music critic. In 1901 he started writing music criticism for the Bácskai Hírlap newspaper. After failing the entrance exam for the Budapest Music Academy, he enrolled in the medical faculty. In 1906 he became music critic of the Budapest Napló and the journal Nyugat regularly published his lectures and reviews from 1908 onwards. He also made a few attempts at composition: songs, pieces for piano and violin, as well as incidental music for his own play, Hamvazószerda ‘Ash Wednesday’. He was among the first to recognize the importance of Bartók and Kodály, and his study of Puccini (1909) and article on Wagner (both in Zeneszerző portrék, 1911) were highly influential. Csáth's main work was as a neurologist. From 1914 to 1915 he worked as an army doctor on the Serbian and Russian fronts, and later in Budapest. He was relieved of his military duties in ...

Article

Saadalla Agha Al-Kalaa

(b Aleppo, Syria, 1884; d Aleppo, Nov 26, 1952). Syrian musician and music researcher. He studied music and muwashsha singing in Aleppo and Istanbul. From 1912 to 1920 he lived in Turkey, where he taught music and wrote an unpublished book entitled The Real Theories in the Science of Musical Readings. On return to Aleppo he became leader of the Mawlawi Sufi group, playing the flute (nāy) during the ceremonies and teaching muwashsha singing.

In 1927 he was invited to teach at the Royal Institute of Music in Cairo; his pupils included the composers Riyād al-Sunbaṭī and Muḥammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb. In Egypt he documented many old muwashsha and musical pieces. In 1931 he went to Tunisia to do joint research with the French musicologist Baron D'Erlanger, and while resident in Tunis taught muwashsha for six years. He made the first notations of Tunisian Andalusian ...

Article

Anthony Lewis and Nigel Fortune

(b Ribston, Yorks., July 16, 1876; d London, Aug 22, 1957). English musicologist, teacher, translator and critic. He was educated at Eton, where he studied music with C.H. Lloyd, and Cambridge, where his teachers were Charles Wood and Stanford. He was elected a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, in 1902, began lecturing on the history of music that year and also taught harmony, counterpoint and composition. In 1918 he left for London, where he worked as a music critic. He returned to Cambridge as professor of music in 1926, when he was again elected to a fellowship at King’s. He occupied the Cambridge chair for 15 years. From his retirement until his death he lived in London.

At Cambridge, Dent completely reorganized the teaching for the MusB degree. He realized that this degree would no longer be taken mainly by church organists but that a Cambridge education in music would produce members of other branches of the musical profession – school and university teachers, composers, critics, BBC staff and so on – and he consistently aimed at giving the curriculum greater breadth as a sound foundation, stressing particularly the study of music history and encouraging the performance of pre-19th-century, especially Baroque, music. He exercised a profound influence on several generations of young musicians, whose subsequent success as composers, teachers, performers or scholars owed much to his teaching and example. He himself composed a small amount of music, mainly of a conservative cast....

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Jon Stroop

(b Boston, Aug 12, 1911; d New York, Dec 26, 2001). American musicologist and music critic, son of Olin Downes. He attended Columbia University, the Manhattan School of Music and universities in Paris and Munich. From 1939 to 1941 he was music critic for the Boston Transcript. He taught at Wellesley College and the Longy School of Music (1948–9), and was assistant professor of music at the University of Minnesota (1950–55). After taking the doctorate in musicology at Harvard University in 1958 he was musicologist-in-residence at the Bayreuth Festival masterclasses until 1965. He was on the faculty of Queens College and the Graduate School, CUNY (1966–81), and New York University (1981–6), and in 1986 he was appointed professor at the Juilliard School of Music.

As a musicologist Downes concentrated on opera of the early Classical period. In 1958 he became quizmaster for the Metropolitan Opera radio broadcasts, and he wrote programme notes for the New York PO from ...

Article

Roksanda Pejović

(b Belgrade, March 31, 1903; d Dec 25, 1971). Serbian critic and writer on music. He studied at the Stanković Music School and with Milojević at the Belgrade Faculty of Philosophy. He taught music in a secondary school and was the choirmaster of the Obilić Academic Singer Society (1925–38). He worked at the Belgrade Opera as secretary (1938–40) and dramaturg (from 1950) and at the Belgrade Academy of Music as secretary and assistant professor (1945–50). A writer of broad intellect, he was of the generation that sought to popularize Serbian music among its citizens. He was one of the foremost critics in Belgrade for almost half a century. His criticism appeared in journals such as Letopis Matice srpske, Zvuk, Kulturni život and Pravda and he contributed an article on the history of Serbian opera and ballet to Jedan vek Narodnog pozorista u Beogradu, 1868–1968...

Article

Manuela Schwartz and G.W. Hopkins

(Abraham)

(b Paris, Oct 1, 1865; d Paris, May 17, 1935). French composer, critic and teacher. Dukas was not only an influence on many French 20th-century composers and others such as Zemlinsky and Berg, but also remains important in his own right. His reputation rests on only a small number of compositions, notably the Piano Sonata, Ariane et Barbe-bleue, the ballet La Péri and L'apprenti sorcier. Dukas's influence as a critic, from 1892 to 1932, can be compared with Debussy's; his informed opinions reveal great sensitivity to the musical and aesthetic changes that took place during the period. With his high ideal of craftsmanship, Dukas was extremely self-critical and he destroyed a number of his compositions.

Dukas was the second son in a family of three children. His mother was a fine pianist and had a strong influence on him in the early years of his life, but she died giving birth to his sister when he was only five years old. His father, Jules Dukas, remained a central figure until his death in ...

Article

H.C. Colles

(Alfred)

(b Vienna, Oct 5, 1822; d Berlin, Dec 30, 1899). Austrian pianist, teacher, writer and critic of Hungarian descent. He studied the piano under Henselt, Bocklet and Thalberg, and composition under Sechter. Unwilling to establish himself in one place or occupation, by the time he was 40 he had lived and worked in Bucharest, Hanover (1852–5 as court pianist to King George V), Wiesbaden, London and Frankfurt. In 1862 he settled in Berlin, working as a journalist and piano teacher. From 1864 to 1872 and again at the end of his life (1886–98) he taught the piano at the Stern Conservatory. He wrote political correspondence for the Vossische Zeitung and L’indépendence (1867–9) and later for the Allgemeine Zeitung (1872), and was music critic for the Neue Berliner Musikzeitung (1865–6), Die Gegenwart (1872–92), Die Tribüne (1878) and the ...

Article

Pamela M. Potter

(b Iserlohn, Feb 24, 1893; d ?). German writer on music. He studied German, modern languages and music in Munich and Leipzig and was certified to teach languages and singing at the high school level; he then became director of the agricultural college in Goslar. Despite his lack of musicological training, his writings on music and race were widely cited as authoritative by musicologists, including Friedrich Blume, during the Nazi regime. His most widely quoted work, ...

Article

John G. Suess

(b Minneapolis, May 10, 1898; d Cleveland, April 17, 1974). American composer, critic and teacher. After graduating from the University of Minnesota he studied composition with Bloch in New York (1919–21) and with Boulanger in Paris (1921–4). He received a Prix de Rome (1923), and during his stay in Rome (1924–7) he composed his best-known work, the ballet The Happy Hypocrite. In 1928 he returned to the USA and was appointed head of composition and theory at the Cleveland Institute. He quickly acquired a reputation as a teacher, working also at the Oberlin College Conservatory and the Eastman School summer school before he retired in 1945 to give his attention to composition and music criticism. From 1930 to 1936 he wrote programme notes for the Cleveland Orchestra, and he was music critic of the Cleveland Plain Dealer (1932–64), where his reviews were noted for candour and wit. Among the awards he received were the Paderewski Prize (...

Article

Scott Warfield

(b Jackson, MS, Sept 14, 1910; d New York, NY, Aug 29, 1982). American conductor, composer, arranger, educator, and writer on music. After studying composition at the Cincinnati Conservatory, Engel moved to New York, where he had lessons in composition at the Juilliard School with rubin Goldmark and then privately with roger Sessions . During the late 1930s Engel provided incidental music for plays and dance groups and conducted his own Madrigal Singers under the auspices of the WPA. He conducted the premieres of Kurt Weill’s Johnny Johnson and Aaron Copland’s The Second Hurricane, and he also led the chorus in the audience at the improvised premiere of Marc Blitzstein’s The Cradle Will Rock.

Engel is best known for his work in commercial venues. He supplied vocal and choral arrangements and other forms of incidental music for theatrical and broadcast productions. As a conductor, his most successful shows on Broadway included Gian Carlo Menotti’s ...

Article

Owain Edwards

revised by A.F. Leighton Thomas

(b Newcastle Emlyn, Dyfed, Sept 21, 1843; d London, April 19, 1913). Welsh music critic, teacher and composer. He earned his living as a draper and travelling salesman. Apart from taking lessons with John Roberts in 1858, he was self-taught in music, yet he became an influential figure in Welsh musical life. A prolific composer of vocal music, he was reputed to have won more than 60 prizes at eisteddfods but only his hymn tunes have lasted, notably ‘Glanceri’, ‘Eirinwg’, ‘Trewen’, ‘Gorffwysfa’ and ‘Bryndioddef’. In his 20s he began adjudicating in smaller eisteddfods and from 1879 appeared regularly at the National Eisteddfod of Wales, where his sound critical judgment and sincerity were valued by competitors. His concern to temper musical enthusiasm with a high standard of skill led him to produce an enormous number of articles aimed at educating his countrymen. Besides his weekly columns in the Cardiff Times...

Article

Jeremy Leong

(b Vienna, 9 March 1885; d Vienna, 27 May 1964). Austrian Jewish music historian, educator, and critic. In 1912 he graduated from Vienna’s Imperial Academy of Science with a doctoral dissertation entitled Die indische Musik der vedischen und der klassischen Zeit (‘The Indian Music of the Vedic and the Classical Period’) under the supervision of Leopold Shröder. Felber’s dissertation remains an authoritative source for modern scholars interested in the recitation techniques and ethos of early South Asian music. Prior to his arrival in China, he was active in the Indian community in Vienna and had given lectures on Indian music at the Indian Club. Furthermore, he felt privileged to have met the legendary Nobel laureate Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore who was also a noted musician. During their meeting, Tagore shared his views on the aesthetics of European music and Indian classical music with him. After the Anschluss (...

Article

Sue Carole DeVale

(b Franklin, CT, Feb 4, 1843; d Taftville, CT, Aug 14, 1898). American writer on music. He studied the organ at Oberlin College, then (1866–7) at Leipzig; he held appointments at Oberlin (1867–8), Ripon College, Wisconsin (1868–78), Milwaukee College for Women (1878–84), Milwaukee School of Music (1884–95) and Pomona College, California (1895). Fillmore was one of the first American writers to take a serious interest in the study of traditional (primarily Amerindian) musics. He believed that, according to the natural laws of physics and acoustics, the music of all cultures, like Western art music, has a harmonic basis in major and minor triads. Since few trained musicians shared his interest, his elaborate but misguided evolutionary scheme outlining the origin and development of all music received little criticism until after his death. Fillmore claimed to have transcribed many recordings collected by Alice Cunningham Fletcher, Franz Boas and others for their publications, but recent research does not corroborate this. His greatest contributions were his textbooks on Western music, which were widely read....

Article

Margery Morgan Lowens

(b Bethel, MO, Sept 22, 1854; d Rumford Falls, ME, Oct 1, 1926). American music critic. After graduating from Harvard in 1876 with highest honours in philosophy (he also studied music with John Knowles Paine), he went to Europe and reviewed the first Bayreuth Wagner Festival for the New York World and The Atlantic Monthly. He returned to Harvard for graduate study a year later and won a three-year scholarship which gave him the opportunity to pursue his studies from 1878 to 1881 in Berlin, Heidelberg and Vienna. While abroad he continued to contribute articles to various American periodicals. In 1881 he returned to the USA and became music critic of The Nation and the New York Evening Post, positions he held until his retirement in 1924. He lectured on music history at the National Conservatory in New York from 1888 until his death. One of the most prolific and influential critics of his day, Finck embraced the musical aesthetics of the Romantics and was an ardent and eloquent champion of Liszt, Wagner, Grieg and MacDowell. He wrote 24 books on music, anthropology, psychology, travel, diet and horticulture, and also edited four collections of songs....