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Article

Speranța Rădulescu

(b Romania, 1930; d Copenhagen, 4 April 2015). Romanian-Danish ethnochoreologist. She worked as a researcher at the Institute of Ethnography and Folklore in Bucharest from 1953 to 1979. She contributed to the foundation and development of scientific research on traditional dance in Romania, where she conducted extensive fieldwork, filming dances and rituals in over 200 villages. Her main interests concerned the contextual study of dance, the analysis of dance structure, the processes of dance improvisation, and dance as an identity marker for the Roma minority group. She also investigated the way traditional symbols were manipulated in Romania for national and political power legitimation.

After 1980 she lived in Denmark, where she conducted research on topics such as continuity and change in the traditional culture of the Vlachs (a Romanian speaking ethnic minority of Serbia) living in Denmark, the Romanian healing ritual căluş, and on the theory and methods of field research in contemporary society. She was the Honorary Chairperson of the ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology and the leader of the Sub-Study Group on Fieldwork Theory and Methods, a Board member of Danish National Committee for ICTM, and Doctor Honoris Causa of Roehampton University, London. She had a great number of publications and a fruitful activity as a lecturer on an international level. In her last years, she worked with Margaret Beissinger and Speranța Rădulescu on the volume ...

Article

Alfons Ott

revised by Inge Kovács

(Alexander) [Alfred Grant]

(b Berlin, March 1, 1920). American composer and musicologist of German birth. He received his first music lessons from his father, the music critic Oskar Guttmann. He entered the Stern Conservatory in Berlin in 1938 but was forced to leave after six months because of his Jewish background. In 1939 he emigrated to London and in 1940 to New York, where he arranged music for dance bands and for the popular theatre. During the period 1947–52 he studied composition with Luening and Cowell and musicology with Hertzmann at Columbia University. After receiving the MA he worked as an assistant to his teacher Rudolph Thomas at the same university, and as a lecturer at the Henry Street Settlement; he was also music critic for the newspaper Aufbau. Upon taking American citizenship he changed his name to Goodman. In 1960 he moved to Munich, and began working for Bavarian radio as a composer, broadcaster and (from ...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

(Emanuel)

(b Berlin, Jan 24, 1910; d Tel Aviv, July 27, 2001). Israeli musicologist of German birth. He studied in Freiburg with Wilibald Gurlitt and Berlin with Arnold Schering and Curt Sachs and (from 1934) at the German University of Prague, where he specialized in musicology under Gustav Becking and took his doctorate in 1936 with a dissertation on Stamitz. He was also a composition pupil of Julius Weismann in Freiburg and Josef Rufer in Berlin. He became a freelance lecturer and critic and edited a broadcast series, but soon after the establishment of the Nazi regime he was exiled, settling first in London, where he took courses in piano technology and instrument building at the Northern Polytechnic. In 1936 he went to Israel and as a publisher contributed to the development of modern and avant-garde art music by Israeli composers. With the establishment of a musicology department at the Tel-Aviv University in ...

Article

Pamela Jones

[Wilhelm]

(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1914; d Buenos Aires, Jan 22, 1993). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher, later an Argentine citizen. He studied composition with Pisk and Hindemith. In 1939 he emigrated to Argentina, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His early compositions are strongly influenced by Hindemith, but from the 1950s his style evolved beyond that of his mentor into realms of polytonality, atonality and serialism. His music displays a refined sense of orchestral texture and colour. He delved deeply into his Jewish roots (Canciones hebreas, 1940) and also into the indigenous culture of his adopted Latin America (La creación según el ‘Pop wuj maya’, 1989).

As a musicologist Graetzer edited both scholarly and practical editions of early music and directed the Collegium Musicum of Buenos Aires, which he founded in 1946. His philosophy was grounded in a humanist belief in the essential role of music in the development of a fully integrated human personality. He taught advanced students at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and undertook important work in music education for the young. His achievements in this area include an adaptation of Orff’s ...

Article

Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Budapest, March 5, 1932). Israeli composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. As a young boy, he survived the Nazi invasion and miraculously escaped deportation. In 1949 he entered the composition department of the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, where he studied the piano with György Kósa and Erno Szégedi, composition with Endre Szervánszky and Ferenc Szabó, and ethnomusicology with Zoltán Kodály. As a Kodály disciple, he spent two years among the Hungarian gypsies, collecting songs and stories. This resulted in his Gypsy Cantata on poems of Miklos Randoti, which won first prize at the Warsaw International Youth Festival (1955).

Following the failure of the Hungarian uprising, Hajdu escaped to France, where he studied with Milhaud and Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. At the same time he wrote music for films and conducted youth choirs. From 1959 to 1961 he taught the piano and composition at the Tunis Conservatory and was active in ethnomusicological research there. This period is represented in his ...

Article

William Y. Elias

[Hersh, Donald Lee ]

(b Cambridge, MA, April 22, 1936). Israeli musicologist of American birth. At Yale University he studied French literature (1953–7); he then studied musicology at the University of California, Berkeley (1957–62, MA 1959), where he took the doctorate under Kerman in 1963 with a dissertation on Verdelot and the early madrigal. In 1963 he settled in Israel, where he lectured at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (1963–6), before being appointed to the musicology department of the Hebrew University (1966); he has also been a regular guest lecturer at the Bar-Ilan University (from 1970) and worked as corresponding reporter in Israel for Current Musicology of Columbia University (from 1968). He has received research grants from the Edmond de Rothschild Foundation for work on mannerism in Renaissance music (1964), from the Hebrew University for work on madrigali cromatici...

Article

Susan Parisi

revised by Paula Matthews and Jon Stroop

(b Düsseldorf, Sept 24, 1911; d Louisville, KY, Sept 4, 2000). American musicologist of German birth. He studied at the universities of Freiburg (under Wilibald Gurlitt) and Berlin (under Curt Sachs and Friedrich Blume), and received the doctorate in 1934 from the University of Zürich, to which he had transferred because of the political climate in Germany, with a dissertation on J.S. Bach. From 1934 to 1936 he worked as a freelance music critic in Düsseldorf, where he reviewed concerts in the city’s synagogue, and in Florence, where he covered the Maggio Musicale of 1935 for the newspaper Jüdische Rundschau in Berlin and the Frankfurter Zeitung. Aided by recommendations from Albert Schweitzer, he emigrated to the USA in December 1936, and in 1938 became the first instructor of musicology at the University of Louisville. He was chairman of the university’s music history department (1956–78), and held visiting appointments at Indiana University (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Israel J. Katz

(b Filzburg, nr Libau [now Liepāja, Latvia], June 11, 1882; d Johannesburg, Aug 15, 1938). Jewish cantor and musicologist of Russian birth. Raised in a traditional German Jewish environment, he trained as a cantor in Libau; he also studied briefly at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) where he met Eduard Birnbaum. Later he studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and at the conservatory and university in Leipzig; his claim to have studied at both institutions with Kretzschmar (history), Zöllner (composition) and Jadassohn (harmony) remains unsubstantiated. He served as cantor at the Adat Jeshurun congregation, Leipzig (1902). From 1903 to 1905 he was a cantor at Regensburg and then after a year in Johannesburg he was persuaded by the president of the Zionist movement, David Wolffsohn, to emigrate to Jerusalem, where he lived from 1906 to 1921. These were decisive years for Idelsohn's research into the diverse musical traditions of the Sephardi and ‘Oriental’ Jewish communities and Muslim and Christian sects. Although his plans in ...

Article

Jürg Stenzl

(b Strasbourg, Sept 21, 1909; d Zürich, Feb 27, 1978). Swiss musicologist of Alsatian origin. He studied economics in Munich and Berlin – receiving the diploma in engineering in 1933. He lived in Israel from 1934 to 1952, and after working for many years as an agricultural and industrial economist he studied the harpsichord with Frank Pelleg and music theory with Paul Ben-Haim (1951–2). He completed his training with Landowska, Curt Sachs, Eduard Müller and Hindemith, under whom he received the doctorate at Zürich University in 1957 with a dissertation on the development of music theory in England. From 1956 he lived in Switzerland as an interpreter and teacher, and in 1961 he was appointed lecturer at the Zürich University musicology department. In 1970–71 he was visiting professor at the University of Iowa and in 1971–2 at Indiana University.

Jacobi’s research centred on the theory and practice of music in the 17th and 18th centuries. As well as making a complete edition of Rameau’s theoretical works, a subject to which he devoted numerous writings, he was concerned with Baroque performing practice, particularly of harpsichord music, and the continuo. Jacobi wrote extensively on Albert Schweitzer, a family friend, and edited his writings on music. In years of collecting he built up an important music library, which included original sources of music theory from the Middle Ages to the present, French Baroque harpsichord music and more than 300 Schweitzer autographs. For his work on Rameau the French government appointed him a Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in ...

Article

Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....

Article

Don Harrán

(Messer Leon )

(b Mantua, 1470; d Salonika [now Thessaloniki], 1526). Rabbi, philosopher. He was the son of the scholar Judah Messer Leon. David refers to music, briefly, in his treatise Sheva ḥ ha-nashim (‘Praise of women’), a commentary on Proverbs xxxi. Acknowledging the wonders of music in ancient Israel, he praises the skills of the Levites and the power of music to awaken prophecy. It is not enough to sing, rather the singer must be well trained and have a sweet voice. Song is intrinsic to life’s activities: King David is said to have sung to God at all times, in sickness and in health. The author explains the origins of the term selah as a combination of the syllables sol and la. In the course of his exposition, he mentions an earlier work, Abir Ya‘aqov (‘The Cavalier Jacob’), now lost, where he claims to have treated ‘the science of music’ in chapter 7....

Article

Octavian Cosma

(b Timişoara, May 28, 1931). Romanian composer and musicologist. After attending the Arts Lyceum in Cluj, in 1948 he began to study conducting and the piano at the Hungarian Arts Institute then at the Academy in Cluj. Junger became a teacher (1954), lecturer (1957) and reader (1970–79) at the Cluj Academy, also working as a researcher at the Institute of Art History in Cluj (1955–7). In 1969 he attended classes in Darmstadt; he studied for the doctorate in musicology with Toduţa. In 1976 he settled in Israel and became a teacher at the Rubin Academy in Tel-Aviv. He has published many articles and in 1960 co-designed a harmony course for students. Well-versed in tradition, Junger writes music that is rich in chromaticism, thematically diverse and robustly expressive.

(selective list)

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, July 21, 1930). American ethnomusicologist. He attended UCLA (BA 1956) and then spent two years on a fellowship (1959–61) in Jerusalem, where he studied privately with Gerson-Kiwi while undertaking field research among the Sephardi Jewish communites of Israel. He returned to UCLA and took the doctorate in 1967 with a dissertation on Judeo-Spanish ballads; his mentors at university included Ki Mantle Hood, Boris Kremenliev, Klaus P. Wachsmann and Walter Rubsamen. After teaching at McGill University, Montreal (1968–9), he was assistant professor (1969–74) and then associate professor at Columbia University (1974–5). He conducted research in Spain on a Guggenheim Fellowship (1975–6), and joined the faculty of the Graduate School, CUNY in 1976. In 1982 he became associated with the University of California at Santa Cruz (1982–9) and at Davis (1989–97), collaborating as an associate researcher with Samuel G. Armistead and Joseph H. Silverman on the series Folkliterature of the Sephardi Jews. He has also been a visiting lecturer at Brooklyn College, Hunter College, SUNY (Stony Brook) and the Hebrew Union College. He served as editor of ...

Article

Lada Brashovanova

(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...

Article

Werner Grünzweig

(b Feldbach, Oct 1, 1927; d Graz, July 9, 1970). Austrian musicologist. He studied philosophy and jurisprudence, taking doctorates in both, and musicology with Hellmut Federhofer in Graz. He was a member of the circle of the philosopher Ferdinand Weinhandl, and was subsequently influenced by Ernst Bloch and Adorno. He worked as a music critic for the Graz newspaper Neue Zeit (1947–67) and for the Austrian radio; he was also a frequent lecturer and became an influential figure in the re-evaluation of cultural movements, such as the Second Viennese School, suppressed during the Nazi regime. His major study of Jewish culture under the Habsburg monarchy, Geist aus dem Ghetto, dates from this time. Through his active support of new music he helped establish Austria's first festival dedicated to avant-garde music, ‘Musikprotokoll’, as part of the Festival Steirischer Herbst in Graz. In 1967 he founded the Institut für Wertungsforschung which sought to combine music analysis, sociology and philosophy in studies on aesthetics. As director of the institute Kaufmann had many exchanges with eminent composers, including Ligeti, Dallapiccola and Krenek, many of whom were personal friends. A Harald Kaufmann Archive was founded at the Akademie der Künste in Berlin in ...

Article

(b Moscow, July 20, 1947). Russian musicologist, resident in Israel. She completed the MA in music theory with Kholopov at the Moscow Conservatory in 1971 and took the doctorate in 1976 at the All-Union Art Research Institute of Moscow with a disseration on Reger; during this period she also taught music theory at the Gnesin Music College (1970–80). She was a senior research fellow at the All-Union Research Institute (1979–94) and was appointed researcher and lecturer at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1995. Her principal areas of research are 20th-century European composers, whose works she analyses in detail against the historical background of their lives. She was the first Russian musicologist to publish a monograph on Reger and her comprehensive study examines the role of J.S. Bach's works in Reger's music, Reger's relationship to Romanticism and Reger's influence on later composers such as Schoenberg and Hindemith. She has also investigated the biography and stylistic evolution of Ligeti in a collection of articles (...

Article

André Balog

(b Nagytétény, May 23, 1893; d Budapest, July 28, 1981). Hungarian musicologist. He studied literature at the University of Leipzig (1913–14), continuing at the University of Vienna, and took the doctorate in 1917 at the Pétér Pázmány Universíty of Sciences, Budapest. Since its founding in 1919, László was a member of the Budapest Choral and Orchestral Society, eventually becoming its administrative director. In 1943 he founded the Goldmark Music School and served as its principal (1945–8). In 1939, in response to new and more restrictive anti-Semitic legislation in Hungary that banned Jewish performers from the legitimate stage, he initiated the Arts Programmes of the National Hungarian Jewish Cultural Society, which became the only performing venue for such musicians as Annie Fischer and Janos Starker. The performances were noted in Budapest for their artistic excellence; they continued until the Nazi invasion of Hungary in March 1944...

Article

Don Harrán

[Solomon Vivas ]

(fl southern France, 1424). French philosopher and commentator . He referred to music in three short passages in his Ḥesheq Shelomoh (‘Solomon's Desire’, 1424; GB-Ob Opp.Add.Qu.114), a commentary on Judah Halevi's Kuzari (12th century). Music attained great heights in ancient Israel, where it was practised by an élite (the Levites) and recognized as a therapeutic aid (David playing before melancholy Saul). Solomon relays various commentaries on a statement by Halevi about the measurement and relationship of text and music; the statement has particularly telling musical terminology: ‘...

Article

[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

(b Berlin, June 13, 1887; d New York, April 22, 1967). American musicologist, conductor and critic, of German birth . He studied musicology with Friedlaender at the University of Berlin and law at the University of Heidelberg, where he received the doctorate in 1911. From 1913 to 1921 he worked as an operetta conductor in Osnabrück, Essen, Strasbourg, Bremen and elsewhere; later (1921–3) he was music director of the Berlin Kammeroper. In the 1920s and 30s he was a critic for the Lokalanzeiger and other newspapers (including a few Jewish ones) and a writer of programme notes for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. He taught music theory and history at the Stern Conservatory and conducted several madrigal choirs. The Nazis identified him as an important Jewish music critic, but on account of his non-Jewish wife Anni he was spared the concentration camps. He did, however, have to endure forced labour as a porter in the Jüdische Bibliothek des Sicherheitshauptamtes. After the war he was able to resume teaching and was even invited to form an orchestra by the mayor of Schöneberg, but he was abruptly arrested by a Soviet patrol for obscure reasons. After his release he emigrated to the USA in ...