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Article

Andrew Flory

[William Harrison, Jr. ]

(b Slab Fork, WV, July 4, 1938). American rhythm-and-blues and pop singer, songwriter, and instrumentalist. An African American performer, he entered the music business while in his 30s, after nearly a decade of service in the United States Navy. Signing with the Los Angeles independent label Sussex, he released his first album, Just As I Am, in 1971. His single “Ain’t No Sunshine” received national attention and won a Grammy award for Best R&B Song. His album Still Bill (1972) included the singles “Lean on Me” and “Use Me,” both of which rose to the top of the Billboard “Hot 100” and Soul Singles charts. He performed these deceptively simple songs in a direct vocal style accompanied by a funky backing group. As the most prominent artist to release records on the Sussex label, Withers’s career suffered following its demise in mid-1975. He recorded for Columbia beginning in the late 1970s, including the uplifting single “Lovely Day” (...

Article

Ralph Leavis

(b Niederstetten, Württemberg, Nov 8, 1770; d Würzburg, Jan 3, 1836). German cellist and composer. From 1789 to about 1796 he was a member of the orchestra of the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein. During this period and afterwards he travelled widely. In 1802 he wrote for Würzburg his oratorio Der leidende Heiland, which was so successful that the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg appointed him his Kapellmeister. From 1814 (when he resigned that post) to his death he was Kapellmeister at the Würzburg theatre.

Witt is now remembered for the ‘Jena’ Symphony. In 1909 Fritz Stein found at Jena a copy of a symphony in C, with Beethoven's name on two of the parts, and published it as a probable early work by Beethoven. This attribution remained doubtful, however, until Robbins Landon discovered a better copy of the symphony at Göttweig under Witt's name (a second copy has since been found at Rudolstadt). The work is in fact a piece of plagiarism, put together almost with scissors and paste from reminiscences of Haydn. Two other symphonies by Witt reprinted ...

Article

Ellwood Derr

(b Neustadt, nr Coburg, Aug 21, 1751; d Lübeck, March 7, 1802). German composer and keyboard player. He received his first training in music from Jakob Adlung in Erfurt and continued his studies with G.S. Löhlein in Leipzig. For a short time he was tutor in the ducal house in Mitau (now Jelgava), then spent some time in Hamburg under the tutelage of C.P.E. Bach. In the early 1790s he was in Berlin before settling permanently in Lübeck (1797) as organist of the Jakobikirche. He published only simple keyboard and vocal pieces, which enjoyed considerable popularity and the praise of knowledgeable critics. In 1791 he edited a revised and enlarged fifth edition of Löhlein’s Clavier-Schule that Gerber said was ‘much improved in terms of practicality’.

Article

Camillo Schoenbaum

revised by Robert Münster

[Wenzl] [Vodička, Václav]

(b Bohemia, 1715–20; d Munich, bur. July 1, 1774). Violinist and composer, of Bohemian descent. He was a bondsman in Bohemia of Count Franz Xaver Wieznik, to whom he is said to have presented a fine team of horses in return for his freedom. In 1732 he entered the service of Elector Karl Albrecht of Bavaria, later Emperor Karl VII (1742–5), as a violinist at a salary of 380 gulden; his salary had risen to 500 gulden in 1738. In 1739 a privilege was granted in Paris for the publication of his Sei sonate, op.1. Wodiczka enjoyed great favour at the electoral court. In 1745 he was given the title of groom of the chamber to Karl Albrecht's sister Princess Maria Anna Carolina, and in 1747, under Elector Maximilian III Joseph, he was appointed Konzertmeister and electoral councillor. He taught the violinists of the Munich Seminarium Gregorianum and was one of the founders of the Cecilian Fraternity of court musicians in ...

Article

Michelle Garnier-Panafieu

(bap. Orléans, Sept 21, 1750; d Clermont-Ferrand, Dec 19, 1815). French violinist and composer. He was born into a wealthy family and took his name from his godfather Woldemar, Count of Lowendal, Marshal of France. According to Lottin, in his youth he was held prisoner at the Sabot d’Angers, where he developed his talent for the violin. In Paris he took lessons with Lolli and became a well-known violinist. He said that he performed his ‘Fandango, air favori des Espagnols’ (published in 6 rêves d’un violon seul) in Madrid about 1770, and he took part in the concerts of the Baron de Bagge in Paris. A change of fortune obliged him to earn his living by playing, and he left Orléans and followed a troupe of travelling actors. By June 1801, however, he was the owner of a vineyard in Orléans, and in January 1806 he was giving lessons and accompanying voice, piano, and harp. In ...

Article

Gerhard Conrad

(b Nuremberg, Germany, Sept 8, 1967). German pianist, drummer, arranger, and bandleader. He studied accordion for eight years, then took up piano, double bass, and saxophone before studying drums with Charly Antolini. He began working professionally at the age of 15, and wrote his first arrangement the following year. After winning a prize at the Forum junger Deutscher Komponisten für Orchestermusik in 1984, he founded his own big band, which accompanied such guest soloists as Max Greger, the singer Etta Cameron, and Toots Thielemanns. He also led a trio. In 1990 he began working in a television series, “Swing It!.” Influenced by Count Basie, Wolf has written many compositions for films and television and arrangements for other bands. His recordings include Thilo Wolf Big Band Live: Swing It! (1993, MDL 1915) and Mr. Grooverix (1995, MDL 1925). (G. Conrad: “Thilo Wolf,” Der Jazzfreund, no. 159 (...

Article

Deane L. Root

(Leon )

(b Botoşani, Romania, April 29, 1896; d Bradenton, FL, June 22, 1973). American composer and pianist. He went to the USA with his family in 1898. He studied composition with Goetschius and piano with Friskin at the Institute of Musical Art, and then after World War I taught music in New York public schools, was a concert pianist and accompanist, and served as president of the Composers and Authors Guild. He moved to Miami in 1947, where he became chairman of Grass Roots Opera and a noted photographer.

Wolfe is best known for his songs and arrangements in the style of negro spirituals, such as Shortnin’ Bread, Gwine to Hebb’n, and De Glory Road (to words by Clement Wood), which achieved international familiarity. He also wrote descriptive chamber music, including Maine Holiday for piano and Prayer in the Swamp for violin and piano, a serenade for string quartet and three operas, of which ...

Article

Czesław R. Halski

(b Warsaw, Sept 15, 1816; d Paris, Oct 16, 1880). Polish pianist and composer . He studied under Zawadzki (piano) and Elsner (composition) at the Warsaw Conservatory. He then moved to Vienna and continued his studies under Würfel. After his début there he went in 1835 to Paris, where he remained until his death, making his living as a pianist and composer. He wrote well over 300 compositions, chiefly for piano, including a concerto, five sets of studies, nocturnes, romances, fantasies, many transcriptions from operas, and a great number of duets for violin and piano: 32 jointly with Bériot, eight with Vieuxtemps, one with Panofka and three duets for cello and piano with Alexandre Batta. His music was excessively influenced by Chopin....

Article

(b Salzburg, Dec 24, 1773; d London, May 21, 1812). Austrian pianist and composer. His earliest musical instruction was as a chorister at Salzburg Cathedral from 1783 to 1786, where he studied with Leopold Mozart and Michael Haydn. In 1790, on his father’s advice, he went to Vienna, apparently to study with the younger Mozart, though it is unclear whether he ever became his pupil and how close their relationship actually was. Some authorities claim, however, that it was through Mozart’s intervention that Wölfl was appointed composer to Count Ogiński in Warsaw, where in 1792 he made his first public appearance as a pianist.

Having established a reputation both as a performer and a teacher, Wölfl returned to Vienna in 1795, where his talents propelled him to the forefront of public attention. He was soon regarded as the only serious rival to Beethoven; indeed, the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....

Article

Jewel A. Smith

(b Schkeuditz, nr Leipzig, Sept 27, 1827; d New York, Sept 18, 1863). German pianist, composer, and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium with Julius Knoor (piano) and Moritz Hauptmann (composition). Following his arrival in the United States in 1845, he appeared as pianist on various occasions with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and in other concerts, and attained a distinguished career as a pianist, teacher, and composer. In 1855 he undertook a successful concert tour of Europe. He wrote nearly 100 compositions, chiefly for the piano, including five Morceaux caractéristiques en forme d’Etude, op. 22; Nocturne, op. 29, no. 10; A Bord de l’Arago, valse brilliant, op. 33; Fantasia, “Il Trovatore,” op. 43; Stories of Nocomis, for four hands, op. 48; Star Spangled Banner, paraphrase brilliant, op. 60; and many transcriptions and arrangements. His compositions have been successfully used as teaching pieces, and many of them were also published in Europe....

Article

Philip L. Scowcroft

(Henry)

(b Heckmondwike, Jan 24, 1875; d London, Jan 18, 1953). English composer, conductor and flautist. He gained early experience playing the flute in orchestras in Harrogate, then at Bournemouth under Dan Godfrey. He subsequently conducted at various London theatres (among them the Adelphi, Terry's, Daly's and Drury Lane), for over 30 years. He toured the USA with Messager's Véronique and recorded excerpts from the Savoy operas. He also composed musicals of his own, but these have survived less well than the splendidly scored orchestral works produced for Boosey & Hawkes, both original pieces and arrangements, for whom he was a staff composer.

His compositions include suites and separate movements, many betraying his northern origins and evoking the outdoors, also a concertino for his one-time instrument, the flute. His most durable piece is ‘Barwick Green’ from the suite My Native Heath, inspired by his home county of Yorkshire and used as the signature tune to the long-running BBC radio programme ‘The Archers’. This apart, only ...

Article

John Warnaby

(Peter)

(b Barton-on-Sea, May 27, 1953). English composer, choral conductor and percussionist. He studied composition with Boulanger in Paris before becoming organ scholar at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. The New London Chamber Choir was founded by him in 1981 to perform medieval and Renaissance music alongside contemporary repertory. He was professor of percussion at the Darmstadt summer courses between 1982 and 1994, becoming increasingly involved in building percussion instruments, and established the London Centre for Microtonal Music, and its associated ensemble, Critical Band, in 1991. His awards number the Gemini Fellowship (1993), the Arts Foundation Fellowship for electro-acoustic composition (1994–6) and the Holst Foundation Award (1995).

Wood's major compositions reflect diverse interests. His song cycles for soprano and percussion are among several works stemming from oriental ideas, while Phaedrus, for voice and ensemble, belongs to a group of works inspired by ancient Greek subjects. In addition he has explored African traditions, and all his output has been influenced by rituals and ceremonies of various kinds. In the later 1980s, Wood moved away from a predominantly vocal output for two of his most ambitious scores: ...

Article

Pamela Fox

(b Easthampton, MA, April 7, 1857; d Florence, Italy, Dec 20, 1944). American composer, pianist and teacher. She studied the piano with B(enjamin) J(ohnson) Lang in Boston, performed locally in solo and chamber music recitals, and was active in many of Boston's leading musical organizations. Lang encouraged her to compose, and she continued to study the piano and composition in Boston with Arthur Foote, then in New York, with Henry Huss, Albert Parsons and J. H. Cornell. Her songs, chamber works and sacred vocal music display solid craftsmanship and a conservative, refined style. She married A. B. Mason and lived in Florence for many years.

(selective list)

Article

David Lasocki

(bap. Chelsea, London, Oct 9, 1690; d Chelsea, April 10, 1728). English composer and woodwind player . His parents ran a school for girls in Chelsea. The engraver George Vertue, who knew him, wrote that Woodcock had ‘a place or clerkship in the Government’ until about 1725, leaving to devote himself to marine painting, and that he was ‘very skillful in music, had judgement and performed on the hautboy in a masterly manner’. Hawkins called Woodcock ‘a famous performer on the flute [i.e. recorder]’, but he was more likely an enthusiastic amateur on the oboe, recorder and flute. He died of gout, leaving his family in penury.

In 1720 Woodcock set Newburgh Hamilton’s St Cecilia’s day ode, The Power of Musick (London, music lost). His only surviving compositions are a set of XII Concertos in Eight Parts (London, 1727), three for sixth flute (descant recorder in d″), three for two sixth flutes, three for flute and three for oboe; nine have no violas among the strings. They are of historical importance as the first flute concertos ever published and the first oboe concertos published by an English composer. Nos.1–4 and 6–8 are essentially Venetian in conception, with the fast–slow–fast sequence of movements; the main influences are Vivaldi and Albinoni. The first-movement ritornellos generally include attractive, well-contrasted and balanced phrases, but the passage-work in the episodes is routine and largely scalar. The slow movements are dances (sicilianas and sarabands) or Handelian adagios, and the finales are simple dances or binary movements with regular phrases echoed as variations. Nos.5 and 9–12 are melodically more Handelian and more varied in construction, variously avoiding or obscuring the ritornello principle, having four movements (slow–fast–slow–fast), or incorporating viola parts; three manuscript sources (...

Article

John R. Gardner

(b 1831; d Hampstead, Nov 20, 1893). English pianist and composer . She was thrice elected King’s Scholar at the RAM, where she was the favourite pupil of Potter family §(4) . She married John Isaacson (d 1889). She published about 20 songs, some of which were incorporated into theatrical productions; several of her 20 piano pieces were arranged for orchestra as theatrical entr’actes. Her two-act comic opera ...

Article

Kevin O’Brien

(b Hartford, CT, Jan 7, 1923; d Charlottesville, VA, March 16, 1994). American composer, keyboard player, conductor, and teacher. He studied piano with Charles King, organ with Ernest White at the Pius X School of Liturgical Music in Manhattanville, New York, composition with Franz Wasner, and chant at Solesmes Abbey in France. In 1944 he enrolled at Catholic University of America as a seminarian; he was ordained a priest in 1947 and received a master’s degree in Romance languages in 1948. He continued composition studies with nicolas Nabokov at the Peabody Conservatory and Nadia Boulanger. Woollen was the youngest charter faculty member of Catholic University’s music department in 1950. Originally in charge of choruses and chant studies, he later taught composition, paleography, history, organ, art song literature, and diction. He attended Harvard University (MA 1954), where he studied composition with walter Piston and musicology with Tillman Merritt. In ...

Article

Camillo Schoenbaum

revised by Robert Münster

(b Vienna, 1728; d Munich, Dec 5, 1796). Austrian cellist and composer . His father Tobias Woschitka (b c1683; d 24 March 1752) was a bassoonist in the imperial Hofkapelle in Vienna. Franz Xaver Woschitka was chamber virtuoso from 1750 to 1765 at the ducal court of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, where C.A.F. Westenholz was among his pupils. From 1765 he was in Munich as a chamber virtuoso, receiving the title of ‘Kammerdiener’ (he was not a member of the court orchestra). There he composed many works for the viol, Elector Maximilian III Joseph's favourite instrument; this secured him an influential position at the court. He arranged W.A. Mozart's conversation with Elector Maximilian on 30 September 1777. After the elector's death in December 1777, Woschitka's services were at first regarded as superfluous, but from 1779 he was listed among the cellists of the court orchestra. He retained his connection with the Schwerin court, and in ...

Article

Adrian Thomas

(b Dunajowce, Podolia, Dec 5, 1899; d Katowice, July 11, 1980). Polish composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with Michałowski at the Chopin High School of Music in Warsaw (1920–4) and immediately embarked on a performing career that took him throughout Europe and to North America. At the same time he studied composition with Szopski and Maliszewski, followed by three years in Boulanger’s class in Paris (1929–32). During World War II the ‘Woytowicz Café’, which he organized in Warsaw, was a vital public focus for Polish music-making as well as being a centre for underground activities of the resistance. After the war, he was appointed to positions at the conservatories in Katowice (from 1945) and in Kraków (from 1963); his pupils included the composers Baird, Kilar and Szalonek.

Woytowicz is at his most inventive in the surviving orchestral works. Poemat żałobny...

Article

Milan Poštolka

revised by Roger Hickman

[Antonín]

(b Nová Říše, Moravia, June 13, 1761; d Vienna, Aug 6, 1820). Czech composer, violinist and music teacher active in Vienna, brother of Paul Wranitzky. He attended the grammar school at the Premonstratensian monastery in Nová Říše and later studied philosophy and law at a Jesuit seminary in Brno. His earliest musical training included violin lessons from his brother; he was also known for his beautiful voice. Before December 1783 he became choirmaster to the chapel of the Theresianisch-Savoyische Akademie in Vienna (until the abolition of church music there with the reforms of Joseph II). In Vienna he studied composition with Mozart, Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger, and became renowned as a violin teacher and virtuoso. By 1790 he had entered the services of Prince J.F. Maximilian Lobkowitz as a composer, music teacher, Konzertmeister and (from 1797) Kapellmeister of the prince’s private orchestra; in these duties he was active at Vienna, Prague and the prince’s country seats in Bohemia (at Roudnice, Jezeří and Bílina). After the prince took charge of the Vienna court theatres (...