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[Gilg]

(b Glarus, Feb 5, 1505; d Glarus, Feb 28, 1572). Swiss statesman, historian and collector of music. From his studies with Zwingli and with Glarean in Basle (1516–17) he developed a special enthusiasm for music. With Glarean’s help he studied the theorist's system of 12 modes and analysed a large repertory of the period 1460–1520, which included the work of Glarean and others. (He may not, however, have seen a completed draft of Glarean's Dodekachordon, as has sometimes been suggested.) After Tschudi had classified the repertory, grouping compositions together by genre, number of voice parts and the mode of their tenors, he began (probably after 1540) to assemble his own songbook ( CH-SGs 463). The extant discantus and altus partbooks include 87 Latin pieces, 49 lieder, 30 chansons, 16 canzonas, four pieces without title and one pavan. Tschudi attributed 94 of the works to 37 composers, citing in an index the national and sometimes regional origins of 25 contributors. Concordances identifying 19 other composers raise the number of attributable compositions to 122. Tschudi's attributions to composers attached to the French court during the second decade of the 16th century probably came from Glarean, who lived in Paris from ...

Article

Melinda Berlász

(b Poroszló, Apr 5, 1927; d Budapest, Nov 6, 1992). Hungarian choirmaster, composer and folksong collector. After Lajos Bárdos, Vass was the last figure of great consequence in the history of the Hungarian choral movement linked with the name of Kodály. He completed his secondary education at a teacher-training college in Debrecen (1941–6), after which he studied composition and singing at the Liszt Academy of Music; he graduated in 1951. His composition teachers were Veress and Ferenc Farkas. He held appointments as conductor (from 1949) and artistic director (1953–7) of the Hungarian Army Art Ensemble, conductor of the Hungarian State Male-Voice (1957–8) and Steel Sound (1960–64) choirs and as chief conductor of the Art Ensemble of the Ironworkers' Union (1964–92).

As choirmaster he was a faithful interpreter of the works of Kodály and Bartók and a disseminator of more recent Hungarian choral works. With his choirs he raised the standard of Hungarian singing to an international level, as attested by the many prizes he won at international competitions. His dynamic personality was well suited to the dissemination of musical knowledge. (He was, among other things, a well-known personality on Hungarian television and radio.) Additionally, he played an important role in the Hungarian folk music revival of the 1970s. Understandably, vocal music lies at the centre of his output. His musical language developed gradually from the early folksong adaptations to a style involving discernible use of dodecaphonic technique. He was awarded the Erkel Prize (...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Cañuelas, nr Buenos Aires, April 14, 1898; d Buenos Aires, Feb 10, 1966). Argentine musicologist and folklorist . He first studied harmony and composition with Gilardi, but soon turned exclusively to musicology. As head of musicology at the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences (1926) and folklore expert at Buenos Aires University (1933), he dedicated himself to the systematic study of South American traditional music, dances and musical instruments. He founded and directed the Institute of Musicology (1931) under the auspices of the Ministry of Education and undertook a series of field trips throughout Argentina and other South American countries, collecting several thousand items of folk music and dance. He received several grants, including the research grant from the National Commission for Culture (1937) and a UNESCO grant for studies in Europe. In 1947 he was awarded the First National History and Folklore Prize for his publications....

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Brno, June 30, 1898; d Brno, Nov 30, 1979). Czech musicologist and folklorist . He studied with Helfert at Brno University (1921–6), taking the doctorate with a dissertation on Rieger. Until 1928 he worked under Helfert in the music section of the Moravian Museum; he then became head of the music division of Brno Radio (1928–45), which he helped to develop to a high standard, particularly increasing its educational role in the promotion of folk and art music. After the war he was director of the Brno University library (1945–53) and then head of the Brno Institute for Ethnography and Folklore at the Czech Academy of Sciences (1953–70); he also lectured on folk studies at the university (1954–9). Although Vetterl's writings reflect his work in libraries and the radio, where he undertook valuable cataloguing projects, his chief interest was folksong. In ...

Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Mânerău, Arad district, Dec 17, 1863; d Lugoj, Feb 7, 1931). Romanian composer, choral conductor, and folklorist. He began his musical studies at the Conservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Arad (Austro-Hungarian Empire) (1880–81), and continued them in Caransebeş (1885) and at the Conservatory of Music and Declamation, Iaşi (1890–91). In Iaşi he studied harmony, composition, and choral conducting with Gavriil Musicescu, a well-trained musician who had studied in Saint Petersburg. He was a music teacher and choir conductor (with the Reuniunea română de muzică şi cântări (‘Romanian Convention for Music and Song’) in Lugoj), and he managed the most important local institution dedicated to the promotion of national culture – the Asociaţia corurilor şi fanfarelor române din Banat (‘The Choral and Brass Band Society of Banat’, 1888–1927). He was a passionate folklore collector active in Western Transylvania and the Banat (he had connections with Bartók, Musicescu, and Kiriac-Georgescu). His exclusively choral compositions are representative of both lay works (folklore adaptations, patriotic songs, etc.) and religious ones, inspired by the Orthodox chanting music from the Banat. His first collection of choruses, ...

Article

Maria Domokos

(b Hetes, nr Kaposvár, April 1, 1859; d Dunavecse, nr Dunaújváros, Sept 22, 1945). Hungarian folklorist . After graduating in literature and linguistics from Budapest University (1877–84), he worked as employee and subsequently director of the stenography department of the Hungarian parliament, 1889–1921. He was a founding member and the first secretary of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society (1896). In the course of his extensive fieldwork he used his shorthand skills to transcribe and fit the folksong texts to the melodies which at that time were recorded on an Edison phonograph. His new method, which he demonstrated at the international music congress held at the Paris World Exposition in 1900 (Congrès international de musique: Paris 1900), gained him wider recognition. Most of the melodies from his phonograph cylinders were transcribed by Bartók who, along with Kodály, greatly appreciated his work.

‘Élő nyelvemlékek’ [Living linguistic monuments], ...

Article

John Tyrrell

(Ignác František)[Voyachek, Ignaty Kasparovich ]

(b Zlín, Moravia, Dec 4, 1825; d Tsarskoye Selo [now Pushkin], 27 Jan/Feb 9, 1916). Czech musician, active in Russia . He was brought up in Vsetín, where his father obtained a teaching post in 1830, and in Brno, as a chorister of the Augustinian monastery (from 1838). He studied for a year at the University of Vienna (1845–6) and founded a Slavonic student choral society, for which he wrote a large number of male-voice choruses. After working as a music tutor (1846–8) to the family of Count Bethlen in Hermannstadt, Transylvania (now Sibiu, Romania), he returned to Brno, conducting Czech concerts of the Brno Männergesangsverein. He returned to Vienna and in 1852 helped compile a collection of Valachian and Slovak folksongs (he had begun collecting folksongs himself in 1838). In Vienna he got to know the Russian composer Aleksey Fyodorovich L′vov, who obtained a post for him (...

Article

Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...

Article

(b c1730; d London, 1794). English collector and editor. He was secretary of the Noblemen’s and Gentlemen’s Catch Club from its foundation in 1761 until his death. On inheriting the estate of Edmund Horne, a Captain of Marines, he changed his name to Warren-Horne.

He spent much of his life acquiring, copying and publishing music, both for the Catch Club and for his own benefit. He was responsible for the most complete collection of glees, canons, catches and madrigals published in the 18th century, which became known as ‘Warren’s Collection’ and was a standard source of such music for many years. In addition to hundreds of contemporary pieces it contained a number of older works. The Apollonian Harmony, probably also compiled by Warren, contained many 16th-century madrigals. His most ambitious effort, however, was a large anthology of Renaissance choral music in six volumes. 100 copies were projected in ...

Article

Elisabeth Lebeau

revised by Fiona Clampin

(Théodore)

(b Guebwiller, Nov 9, 1821; d Trottberg, nr Guebwiller, May 20, 1910). French folklorist, bibliographer and composer. Destined by his father for a career in industry he studied chemistry, but in 1843 ran away to Paris to study music. He was accepted at the Conservatoire shortly thereafter despite his lack of musical training and studied composition (with Halévy), harmony and singing. After leaving the Conservatoire he earned his living by teaching music, and from 1850 to 1855 he was the choir conductor of the Société Ste Cécile, founded and directed by F.-J.-B. Seghers; there Weckerlin gained familiarity with major choral works and was able to have his own compositions performed. Several operas and orchestral works also helped to make his name in the 1850s. In 1863 he became librarian and archivist of the Société des Compositeurs de Musique. He was appointed clerk to the librarian of the Conservatoire in ...