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Alfred Grant Goodman

(b Berlin, Jan 20, 1859; d Halle, April 27, 1935). German musicologist. He studied philosophy and then musicology with Spitta in Berlin (1882–7), taking the doctorate in Leipzig in 1887 with a dissertation on the influence of Italian madrigalists on H.L. Hassler. He was conductor of the Greifswald University Choir (1887–97), music critic of the Signale für die musikalische Welt in Leipzig (from 1897) and succeeded Emil Vogel as director of the Musikbibliothek Peters (appointed 1901), where he edited the Jahrbuch and compiled a new bibliographic edition of the catalogue. In 1907 he was appointed professor; he retired in 1909. His major research was on Renaissance secular music and included a valuable edition and study of 15th-century frottolas, as well as editions of Hassler's Canzonette (1590) and Neue teutsche Gesang (1596).

R. Schwartz‘Die Frottole im 15. Jahrhundert’, ...


Erwin R. Jacobi

(b Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace, Jan 14, 1875; d Lambarené, Gabon, Sept 4, 1965). Alsatian organist and musicologist. After receiving piano lessons at the age of five from his father, he studied the organ and, while still at school, had private music lessons from Eugen Münch, who gave him an early introduction to Bach’s work. At Strasbourg University (1893–9) he studied theology and philosophy, continuing his musical education privately. He perfected his organ technique under Widor in Paris, and played the organ under Ernst Münch in Strasbourg in the performances of Bach cantatas and Passions with the choir of St Wilhelm. He studied music theory with Jacobsthal in Strasbourg, took piano lessons with Philipp and Marie Jaëll in Paris and participated in Stumpf’s studies of the psychology of sound in Berlin. In 1896 he paid his first visit to Bayreuth, where he established friendly relations with Cosima and Siegfried Wagner. His aversion to the modern organ as an instrument for the interpretation of Bach’s polyphonic music dates from the same year and as a result he devoted himself to a careful study of organs and organ building....


Eric Blom

revised by Peter Platt

(b London, July 16, 1877; d London, Dec 24, 1953). English musicologist. From 1896 to 1904 she studied at the RCM, where she was taught the violin by Arbos; she remained for many years closely associated with the college. She was a founder of the Society of Women Musicians in 1911 and its president from 1915 to 1916.

Marion Scott had a wide-ranging and creative mind and personality. She published a book of poems in 1905, wrote much music, and was a sensitive and discerning music critic (e.g. for the Musical Times). An associate of Joachim and later of Tovey, she led her own string quartet, organized concerts of British chamber music (between 1900 and 1920), and was for a time leader of the Morley College orchestra under Gustav Holst’s direction. At the age of 50 she turned to musical scholarship. Her book on Beethoven is a masterly biographical and critical study, and her articles on Haydn are of great documentary importance. The studies and original research that they required were intended to go towards a book on Haydn, but only three chapters of this were completed at the time of her death. Her collection of Haydn scores and Haydn pictures was bequeathed to the Cambridge University Library. Her writings are remarkable for their grace and distinction of style, qualities which also appeared in her occasional programme notes....


Janna Saslaw

(b Friedberg [now Frimburk], Bohemia, Oct 11, 1788; d Vienna, Sept 10, 1867). Austrian theorist, composer, conductor and organist. Sechter went to Vienna in 1804 and soon became known as a harmony and counterpoint teacher. In 1810 he began teaching the piano and singing at the Educational Institute for the Blind. He was appointed assistant court organist in 1824, and principal court organist in 1825. Schubert, shortly before his death (1828), took one counterpoint lesson with Sechter. In 1851, Sechter was appointed professor of thoroughbass and counterpoint at the Vienna Conservatory. Bruckner studied with Sechter, 1855–61, eventually succeeding him at the conservatory and passing on his methods. Other pupils were Marxsen (Brahms's teacher), Nottebohm, C.F. Pohl, Thalberg, Carl Umlauf and Henry Vieuxtemps.

A prolific composer, Sechter was said to have written a fugue every day. He apparently wrote more than 8000 pieces, of which the masses and oratorios written after ...


Anton Würz

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Beeskow an der Spree, Feb 9, 1868; d Schleswig, April 13, 1948). German musicologist. He lived in Berlin from 1881, studying classical philology and musicology under Spitta at the university. In 1891 he took the doctorate with a dissertation on J.P. Sweelinck and his German pupils. He then worked as a private teacher and became permanent secretary to the Prussian Commission for the publication of Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst; he also wrote numerous scholarly essays for various periodicals as well as for the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Between 1894 and 1901 he edited the works of Sweelinck and in 1899 published his Geschichte der Klaviermusik, a completely revised and expanded version of C.F. Weitzmann’s Geschichte des Klavierspiels und der Klavier-Literatur. In 1892 he launched the series Denkmäler deutscher Tonkunst with Scheidt’s Tabalatura nova (1892), contributing editions of numerous further volumes until 1927. From 1903 to 1914 he worked as editor-in-chief of ...


Israel J. Katz


(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...


Márta Szekeres-Farkas

revised by Ferenc László

(b Kibéd [now Chibed, Romania], Aug 15, 1874; d Cluj [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania], March 6, 1923). Hungarian musicologist and folklorist. He took a teacher’s diploma in Hungarian and Latin at the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, 1899); as a musician he was entirely self-taught. From 1898 to his death he taught at the Kolozsvár Calvinist College. He was a member of the Transylvanian Museum Society (1903) and secretary of its philosophical section (1909), and a member of the Kolozsvár Music Society (1907). He published several studies of particular problems in Hungarian music history and on important aspects of Hungarian folk music; he collected more than 300 vocal and instrumental folktunes (1901–11). As a teacher he was influential in preparing the reform of vocal training in schools. He worked for the revival of the Calvinist hymnbook, and throughout his life took an active part in the musical life of Kolozsvár; he was a critic, and organized and performed in series of concerts illustrating the history of music....


Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

(b Halle, April 20, 1903; d Halle, Aug 20, 1959). German musicologist. He studied musicology at Halle and Leipzig under Schering (1922–8) and in 1929 he took the doctorate with a study of the aesthetics of imitation in music between 1700 and 1850. As Max Schneider's assistant he completed his Habilitation at Halle in 1932 with a study of Halle; he became professor there in 1940. After the war he undertook the task of rebuilding the destroyed Handel house at Halle. In 1949 he became director of the musicology institute of the University of Leipzig (from 1956 with Besseler as co-director). He was responsible for rehousing what is left of the institute's great instrumental collection.

Serauky preferred research to teaching and was an industrious scholar: his principal work, the five-volume Musikgeschichte der Stadt Halle, is the most exhaustive study ever written on a German town's musical history; the book's largest and most important sections are devoted to Scheidt, Türk, Reichardt, Loewe and Franz. His three-volume Handel monograph, planned as the continuation of Chrysander's unfinished work, often suffers from a surfeit of detail and was never completed. Although Serauky's writings reveal a positivist approach, he was also interested in music sociology....


Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...


(b Fréjus, Oct 13, 1858; d Paris, July 25, 1937). French musicologist. He was one of the earliest chroniclers of the Wagnerian movement in France and in 1887 published a detailed analysis of Wagner’s French career divided into three ‘periods’, beginning with his sojourn in Paris (1839–42) and ending, at the inception of the ‘third period’, with the publication of the Revue wagnérienne in 1885. Servières’ method was to build up a comprehensive picture of an event by painstakingly recording a large amount of documentation: this was also his procedure in his classic study of the production of Tannhäuser at the Opéra in 1861 and in a work on Massenet’s early operatic career. Servières’ other interests were the development of French music in the latter half of the 19th century and (in common with many of his generation) French music of the 17th and 18th centuries, on which he wrote several articles of a more specialized nature....


Zygmunt M. Szweykowski


(b Warsaw, Nov 13, 1879; d Łódź, May 23, 1957). Polish musicologist. She studied music in Warsaw, Berlin and Zürich, and musicology with Kretzschmar in Berlin (1904–9), where she also studied philosophy, psychology and history of art. In 1914 she took the doctorate at Zürich with a dissertation on Polish elements in German Classical music. After working in Berlin (1920–23) and Geneva (1923–4), she became head of the music division of the National Library in Washington (1924–8). From 1929 to 1939 she was the curator of the music department of the State Art Collection in Warsaw, and during World War II she was engaged in clandestine teaching. From 1945 until her death she was reader and, from 1954, full professor of musicology at the University of Łódź. She actively promoted Polish music abroad and, especially between 1924 and 1939, gave many lectures of a popular nature. As a musicologist, she dealt mainly with the relations between western (mainly German) music and Polish music....


Wolfgang Maria Hoffmann

(Alcantara) [Josef Anton]

(b Häselgehr, July 18, 1810; d Salzburg, Jan 25, 1882). Austrian composer, music theorist, organist, choirmaster and instrument maker. He was musically mainly self-taught; at the age or 9 he learnt to play the piano and organ, as well as the violin, harp, flute, clarinet and horn. When he was 11 he took lessons in harmony and basso continuo from P. Mauritius Gasteiger in Reutte. He attended the Gymnasium in Hall (1824–30), and took some organ and piano lessons from the organist Ignaz Heinz. He entered the Franciscan monastery of Salzburg in 1830 under the name of Peter von Alcantara, and was ordained in 1834. From 1837 to 1840 he was organist and choirmaster in Bolzano and Innsbruck, and he spent the rest of his life in the Franciscan monastery in Salzburg.

Singer became famous for the building of his ‘Pansymphonikon’ in 1845; this was a keyboard instrument with sets of reeds, two manuals and 42 registers which imitated an entire orchestra. He wrote contemplative works, a treatise on choral singing entitled ...


Jiří Fukač

revised by Geoffrey Chew

(Xavier Alois)

(b Opočno, July 31, 1830; d Budweis [now České Budějovice], Aug 19, 1892). Czech composer, theorist, and teacher. Born into an educated family of physicians, he attended grammar school in Königgrätz (now Hradec Králové) and Prague, and medical school in Prague and Vienna for four terms before giving up medicine in favour of music. He had been a keen amateur musician and composer since he was 12 and had graduated from the Prague Organ School, where he was a pupil of Karel Pitsch (1846–7). After two years as a music teacher to Count Hardegg of Seefeld he studied with J.B. Kittl in Prague for a short time. From 1854 to 1866 he worked in Innsbruck, first as a theatre conductor, then as the director of the musical society and as choirmaster at the university church. There he performed symphonic and choral music, taught at the school attached to the musical society and wrote operas (which were unsuccessful). He failed to win the position of director of the Prague Conservatory (...


Ellinor Bijvoet

(b Raamsdonksveer, July 19, 1888; d Huis ter Heide, Utrecht, May 15, 1957). Dutch musicologist. He studied philosophy and theology at the Haaren Seminary and was ordained priest in 1912. He then taught at the Beekvliet Seminary (St Michielsgestel). He went to Vienna in 1915 and spent a year at the academy’s church music section at Klosterneuburg; at the same time he studied at Vienna University with Adler. In 1917 Smijers received the doctorate with a dissertation on Karl Luython. On his return to the Netherlands he again became a teacher at Beekvliet Seminary and held this post until 1929. At the same time he was director of the church music department of the Tilburg Conservatory and from 1929 to 1933 taught music history at Amsterdam Conservatory.

In 1928 the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst founded a chair in music history and theory at Utrecht University, and the post was offered to Smijers who became the first reader in musicology at any Dutch university. The music history department opened officially on ...


Anthony Hicks

(b London, July 22, 1881; d Bromley, Kent, Nov 20, 1972). English musical librarian and bibliographer. His early education at Woolwich High School was supplemented with private violin and piano lessons. In 1898 he entered the Civil Service, serving first in the Inland Revenue and later in the Scottish Education Office. On 3 September 1900 he was transferred to the Department of Printed Books at the British Museum. After brief training in cataloguing he was selected to work in the Music Room as assistant to W. Barclay Squire. When the latter retired in 1920 Smith succeeded him as Assistant Keeper and held this office until his retirement at the end of 1944.

Smith was chiefly interested in the study of Handel and other aspects of 18th-century music in England. From 1924 onwards he contributed articles on these subjects to various musical journals. His work at the museum stimulated a particular interest in the printed music of the period, on which he became a leading authority. During these years he acquired the detailed and extensive knowledge that formed the foundation for the major bibliographical publications which he prepared during his retirement with the assistance of his colleague Charles Humphries. Smith began to assemble a personal collection of Handelian material in ...


(b London, July 21, 1892; d Weeley, Essex, Aug 17, 1974). English educationist and musicologist. He studied at Battersea Training College and King’s College, London (BMus 1928), where A.W. Reed encouraged his research into medieval music drama (PhD 1940). From 1934 to 1947 he taught at Stratford Grammar School (where he had himself been a pupil) and from 1948 to 1962 at Cheshire County Training College as senior lecturer in music and lecturer in English. In 1967–8 he lectured at SUNY. Where previous scholars had largely concentrated on the literary texts of medieval music dramas Smoldon was chiefly concerned with their musical presentation in practical performing editions. He published acting editions of eight dramas, notably the plays of Daniel and Herod (both London, 1960) and the Visitatio sepulchri (London, 1964). He also published a number of songs, partsongs, piano pieces and suites.

The Plainsong Music-Drama of the Mediaeval Church...


Miloš Velimirović

(b Kazan, 8/Oct 20, 1848; d Vasilsursk, nr Kazan, 21 July/Aug 2, 1909). Russian musicologist. Although he studied law and philology, Smolensky's interest in church music asserted itself early in his student days when he conducted choral groups. He himself had a deep bass voice, and took part in the singing. After three years as a clerk at court (1872–5) he started teaching at the Kazan Seminary (1875–89) and studying the music of the Old Believers as well as the musical manuscripts in the library of the Kazan Theological Academy, which he catalogued. From 1889 to 1901 he was professor of the history of church music at the Moscow Conservatory (succeeding the founder of scholarly studies in Russian chant, D.V. Razumovsky), and at the same time he became the director of the Synodal School of Church Music in Moscow (...


Leonardo Pinzauti

(b Savona, Sept 20, 1865; d Massa Carrara, Feb 10, 1907). Italian philologist and musicologist. After attending the Istituto di Studi Superiori in Florence, he graduated in arts from the University of Turin in 1887 and spent his career mainly in education. Through his philological studies he made important contributions to the documentation of the origins of opera. Le origini del melodramma: testimonianze dei contemporanei (Turin, 1903/R) is largely an edition of prefaces and other accounts of early opera, including a list of operas performed before 1640. Gli albori del melodramma (Milan, 1904–5/R), a history of the opera in the first half of the 17th century, contains critical editions of many early librettos and the complete works for music of Rinuccini and Chiabrera. Musica, ballo e drammatica alla corte medicea dal 1600 al 1637: notizie tratte d’un diario … con appendice di testi inediti e rari...


Alfred Grant Goodman

(b Mainz, Feb 6, 1881; d Hanover, Dec 7, 1956). German musicologist. He studied at Cologne Conservatory and at the universities of Bonn and Basle, and was a composition pupil of Humperdinck in Berlin. He took the doctorate at Basle in 1919 with a dissertation on Franz Ignaz Beck and received a prize from the university with his book Die Theorie der Sinfonie. He served as lecturer at the Berlin Volkshochschule and as music critic for the Börsenkurier, and was director of Bernoulli (Berlin, 1922–33; Basle branch, from 1933; London branch, from 1939). His collection of 18th-century music (whose 57 volumes include works by J.C. Bach, Beck, Georg Benda, Boccherini, Christian Cannabich, Corelli, Anton Fils, Gossec, Leo, Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Franz Xaver Richter, Henri-Joseph Rigel, Sammartini, Tessarini and Wagenseil), has been superseded by modern scholarship but it did much to revive interest in figures such as Sammartini (for list of volumes, see ...


Jon Newsom

revised by H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Lafayette [now part of Jersey City], NJ, Oct 6, 1873; d New York, Oct 30, 1928). American musicologist, librarian, editor and composer. As a boy he was sent to Germany to study; he was a piano pupil of James Kwast (1883–93) and later attended courses at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich, developing his interests in philosophy and, especially, musicology. He studied composition in Munich with Melchior Ernst Sachs, composition and orchestration with Iwan Knorr in Frankfurt, and conducting with Carl Schröder at the Sondershausen Conservatory.

In 1899 Sonneck returned to the USA and for three years travelled from New England to South Carolina, collecting references to American musical life before 1800, primarily from newspapers. He also did much work in the new Library of Congress building, and in 1902 the librarian Herbert Putnam made him head of the newly formed music division, where he organized and developed what was to become one of the most comprehensive collections of music, manuscripts and books on music in the world. He established its unrivalled archive of opera scores and librettos, and in ...