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Martin Bernheimer

(b Vienna, April 2, 1905; d Ross, CA, Feb 9, 1988). American conductor and opera director of Austrian birth. He was educated at the Musikakademie and university in Vienna, and made his début in 1925 as a conductor for the Max Reinhardt theatre, then conducted at the Volksoper and opera houses in Germany, Italy and Czechoslovakia. He assisted Toscanini in Salzburg (1936) and went to the USA in 1938 for an engagement with the Chicago Opera. He worked for the San Francisco Opera from 1943 to 1981, initially as chorus master, then as artistic director in 1953 and general director from 1956. Although he occasionally conducted, most of his time was devoted to administrative duties. During his regime the San Francisco Opera grew increasingly adventurous in repertory, and became noted for the engagement of unproven talent and the implementation of modern staging techniques. By 1972 Adler had lengthened the season from five weeks to ten and he also formed subsidiary organizations in San Francisco to stage experimental works, to perform in schools and other unconventional locales, and to train young singers. He retired in ...

Article

Ivor Beynon

[Lawrence]

(b Baltimore, Feb 10, 1914; d London, Aug 6, 2001). American harmonica player. He was acknowledged as the first harmonica player to achieve recognition and acceptance in classical musical circles and to have elevated the instrument to concert status. He started playing the harmonica at the age of ten, and as a teenager earned his living in vaudeville theatres in New York. Spotted by the British impresario Sir Charles Cochran in 1934, he moved to London, initially to play in Cochran’s revue Streamline. During World War II he began a long stage collaboration with the dancer Paul Draper, which led to a season at the London Palladium. He also emerged as a classical musician, appearing as a soloist in Sydney and later with the New York PO and other leading orchestras. His ability was recognized by such composers as Vaughan Williams, Milhaud, Gordon Jacob and Malcolm Arnold, all of whom wrote orchestral works with Adler as soloist. He toured extensively and broadcast frequently on radio and television in many countries, and took a keen interest in all aspects of teaching the instrument. Adler wrote scores for a number of films, including ...

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Paul D. Fischer

(b Chicago, IL, Dec 13, 1933). American record producer, songwriter, artist manager, label owner, and entrepreneur. He was most active in the popular-music industry from the 1950s to the 1970s. He held jobs in publishing and became co-manager of Jan and Dean with Herb Alpert. Under the pseudonym Barbara Campbell, the pair co-wrote “Only Sixteen” for Sam Cooke. Adler also co-wrote “Wonderful World” with Alpert and Cooke. In 1964 he founded Dunhill Records, which was sold to ABC in 1966. He later brought the songwriter P.F. Sloan and the singer Barry McGuire together for “Eve of Destruction.” While the manager and producer of the Mamas and Papas, he co-produced the Monterey international pop festival in 1967, insisting that the event be filmed and retaining those rights. The following year he founded Ode Records, which is noted for releasing Carole King’s album Tapestry. He also produced records and directed a series of “stoner” films for Cheech and Chong. He also served as an executive producer for and bought the US rights to the film ...

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Janet Dickey Lein

(b Hermesgrün, Germany, Nov 9, 1862; d Markneukirchen, Germany, Dec 27, 1922). German maker of woodwind instruments. Franz Oscar Adler and his brother Robert Oswald (1865–1946) learned woodwind instrument making from their father, Johann Gottlob (1825–1900). Robert worked for Hermann Sauerhering (1841–1909) in Magdeburg before starting a company in his own name in 1891, producing woodwind instruments under the label ROA. In 1924 Robert’s son Johannes Adler (1863–1946) founded his own workshop in Markneukirchen, earning an excellent reputation for recorders.

Oscar began building a woodwind instrument factory in 1883 and founded Oscar Adler & Co. in 1885. His factory was soon enlarged and the lathes and other machinery were powered by a gasoline motor via belt drives. By 1900 it was considered the largest clarinet and flute factory in Germany. In 1901 the firm produced 21 bassoons, one contrabassoon, 54 oboes, and 10 English horns, as well as several thousand clarinets, flutes, piccolos, and the first German-made saxophones. By ...

Article

Elliott W. Galkin

(b Jablonec, Dec 2, 1899; d Ridgefield, CT, Oct 2, 1990). American conductor. After studying composition and conducting with Zemlinsky at the Prague Conservatory, he became music director of the Bremen Staatsoper (1929–32) and the Ukrainian State Philharmonia, Kiev (1932–7), and also appeared as a guest conductor throughout Europe. He left for the USA in 1939 and made his début with the New York PO in 1940, after which he toured in the USA. From 1949 to 1959 he was music and artistic director of the NBC-TV Opera Company, sharing artistic responsibility with Toscanini. Adler was musical director of the Baltimore SO from 1959 to 1968, and in 1969 became music and artistic director of WNET (National Educational Television). His Metropolitan Opera début was in 1972. He was director of the American Opera Center at the Juilliard School from 1973 to 1981. Adler was a pioneer director of television opera in the USA and commissioned many works for the medium; among them Menotti’s ...

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Geoffrey Block

(b New York, August 3, 1921; d Southampton, NY, June 21, 2012). American composer and lyricist. Although the son of the distinguished pianist and pedagogue Charles Adler, he received no musical training and instead studied playwriting with Paul Green at the University of North Carolina, graduating in 1943. In 1950, after completing service in the navy (1943–6), he began to compose radio programmes and special material with co-composer and lyricist, Jerry Ross (Jerrold Ross; b Bronx, NY, 9 March 1926; d New York, 11 Nov 1955). By 1953 Adler and Ross had written a popular song hit, Rags to Riches, and contributed songs for the Broadway revue John Murray Anderson’s Almanac. Over the next two years they composed two critically acclaimed and long-running musicals for Broadway: The Pajama Game(1954), a musicalization of labour relations in a pajama factory, and Damn Yankees (...

Article

Marie Rolf

(Hans)

(b Mannheim, March 4, 1928). American composer and conductor of German birth. Both of his parents were musical, his father being a cantor and composer of Jewish liturgical music. The family came to the USA in 1939 and Adler attended Boston University (BM 1948) and Harvard University (MA 1950). He studied composition with Aaron Copland, Paul Fromm, Paul Hindemith, Hugo Norden, Walter Piston and Randall Thompson; musicology with Karl Geiringer, A.T. Davison and Paul A. Pisk; and conducting with Sergey Koussevitzky at the Berkshire Music Center. In 1950 he joined the US Army and organized the Seventh Army SO, which he conducted in more than 75 concerts in Germany and Austria; he was awarded the Army Medal of Honor for his musical services. Subsequently he conducted concerts and operas, and lectured extensively throughout Europe and the USA. In 1957 he was appointed professor of composition at North Texas State University, and in ...

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Christine de Catanzaro

(b Niederachen, nr Inzell, Upper Bavaria, Oct 1, 1729; d Salzburg, Dec 22, 1777). German composer and organist. His father, Ulrich Adlgasser (1704–56), was a teacher and organist. On 4 December 1744 he registered in the ‘Grammatistae’ class at Salzburg University, and in the same year he became a chorister at the Salzburg court chapel. His brothers Joseph (b 1732), later organist at Laufen, and Georg (b 1736) were also choirboys in Salzburg. While a student he sang and acted in several Schuldramen, including seven by J.E. Eberlin. He studied the organ and violin, and probably also received instruction in composition from Eberlin.

Adlgasser became court and cathedral organist in 1750, shortly after Eberlin’s promotion to the post of Hofkapellmeister. According to Leopold Mozart’s account of the Salzburg musical establishment (in Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge, iii, 1757) Adlgasser’s duties also included the accompaniment of court chamber music on the harpsichord and composing for both the court and the cathedral. After ...

Article

George J. Buelow

revised by Quentin Faulkner

(b Bindersleben, nr Erfurt, Jan 14, 1699; d Erfurt, July 5, 1762). German organist and scholar. His father, David, was a teacher and organist, and his mother was Dorothea Elisabetha, born Meuerin, from Tondorf. Adlung’s vivid record of his own life is found in the ‘Vorrede’, part ii of Musica mechanica organoedi (1768). His earliest musical training came from his father who, in 1711, sent his son to Erfurt to the St Andreas lower school. In 1713 he matriculated at the Erfurt Gymnasium, while living in the home of Christian Reichardt who taught him the organ and expanded his general musical knowledge. In 1723 he went to the university at Jena, where he pursued a wide range of subjects including philosophy, philology and theology. At the same time he studied the organ with Johann Nikolaus Bach. A friendship developed with Johann Gottfried Walther in Weimar, which enabled Adlung to borrow theoretical works on music. This enthusiasm for music theory led him to write several books on the subject while in Jena, most of which were later lost in a fire that destroyed his home in ...

Article

Admeto  

Anthony Hicks

[Admeto, rè di Tessaglia (‘Admetus, King of Thessaly’)]

Opera in three acts by George Frideric Handel to a libretto anonymously adapted from Ortensio Mauro ’s L’Alceste (1679, Hanover) after Antonio Aureli’s L’Antigona delusa da Alceste (1660, Venice); London, King’s Theatre, 31 January 1727.

Admeto was Handel’s tenth full-length opera for the Royal Academy of Music, and the second of the group of five operas in which the leading roles were designed for the rival sopranos Francesca Cuzzoni and Faustina Bordoni; they sang Antigona and Alcestis. The other singers were the alto castratos Senesino and Antonio Baldi (Admetus and Thrasymede), the contralto Anna Vincenza Dotti (Orindo), and the basses Giuseppe Boschi and Giovanni Palmerini (Hercules and Meraspes). The opera achieved an excellent opening run of 19 performances to 18 April (during which period the act giving Handel British nationality was passed); two new arias seem to have been provided for Faustina during the run.

The opera was revived for six performances at the King’s Theatre from ...

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Article

John Rosselli

The circumstances governing admission to opera houses before the 19th century are ill documented; full understanding awaits more research. Conditions varied; no theatre, however, met those looked for today – common access for all operagoers by means of tickets entitling them to specific seats, priced according to seating area.

Theatres were rarely full, save on special occasions; some court theatres were extensions of the ruler’s palace; in France, before the Revolution, nobles came attended by retinues of servants: hence a vast, sometimes amorphous list of persons entitled to free admission, and much giving out of free tickets to singers and staff, in part as a means of eking out wages. Even those who paid to get in did not all pay the same price for the same seats: nobles might pay more than ordinary citizens, army officers and civil servants less.

In opera houses of the Italian type the audience was physically divided into the owners or renters of boxes, the stalls audience, and the gallery (if there was one): each area had separate access (an arrangement that survives for the gallery of older theatres), but only the boxes had numbered seats; this meant a rush to get into the stalls on special occasions, and into the gallery on most nights. In Italy, each section of the audience might buy its tickets from a different source: boxholders were often entitled to re-let their boxes in competition with the management, and the gallery was generally sub-let to a separate impresario. A separate charge was made for admission to the building (...

Article

Natan Shahar

(b Yekatrinoslav [now Dnepropetrovsk], Dec 5, 1894; d Tel-Aviv, April 2, 1982). Israeli composer and singer. He emigrated to Palestine from the Ukraine in 1906. He studied at the Teacher's Seminary in Jerusalem where his teachers included Abraham Zvi Idelsohn. During World War I he moved to Egypt and enlisted in the British Army. After the war he returned to Palestine and, while earning his living as an accountant, took singing lessons with Jehuda Har-Melaḥ. A countertenor with a phenomenal ability to improvise, he travelled to the USA in 1923 to further his singing studies; there he specialized in improvisation and distinctive vibrato singing, similar in style to Arab-Bedouin singing or ululation. Commissioned to write an orchestral accompaniment for songs improvised in a Bedouin style, he enlisted the compositional assistance of Lazar Seminski, who encouraged him to continue to compose. His first songs, Ya leil (‘Oh night’) and ...

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Andrew Hughes

(b c1250; d 1331). Austrian theorist. A Benedictine monk of Admont, he studied at Prague (1271–4) and then at Padua (at the university and the Dominican school of theology). After 1285 he probably became Abbot of St Peter’s, Salzburg, and from 1297 to 1327 he was Abbot of Admont. His De musica (ed. in Enrstbrunner: Der Musiktraktat) was obviously written to improve the musical knowledge of liturgical singers and their teachers. It draws on a collection of well-known treatises (including works by Guido of Arezzo, Boethius and Isidor), surveying traditional music theory and terminology and explaining it in terms influenced by Aristotelian thought; yet, despite its didactic purpose, there is a strange discrepancy between the simple explanations of basics and the high level of presupposed philosophical knowledge.

Englebert divided De musica into a theoretical part (parts I and II) and a part concerned ‘more with the practice’ of music (parts III and IV). Part I presents definitions of music and sound, and the various nomenclatures used by earlier authors; part II explains the proportions of intervals and their species in relation to the diatonic context. Part III is concerned with ‘ars solfandi’, describing the solmization system in detail and prepairing, in its explanation of the tetrachord system of the Reichenau theorists, the doctrine of the eight ‘toni musici’. Part IV, the main subject of which is plainchant, contains chapters conveying general concepts and the musical thinking of Englebert, for example the application of the Aristotelian terms ‘motus naturalis’ and ‘motus violentus’ to music. The work culminates with the last six chapters, his teaching on the ‘distinctiones’ in plainchant, in which he explains the necessity of structure in music and of singing with the natural requirements of perception....

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Adok  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Frame drum of the Saningbakar area of West Sumatra. The steeply tapering frame, up to 20 cm deep, is made of wood or coconut shell. The head, made of tiger skin laced with rattan cord, can be up to 40 cm in diameter and is struck by hand or with a stick to produce a deeply resonant sound. The ...

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M.C. Carr

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Hans Klotz

revised by Daniel Chorzempa

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Sven Hansell

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Venice, 1721 or 1722; d Padua, Oct 28, 1760). Italian composer. After studying with Galuppi, he became maestro di cappella of S Maria della Salute in Venice. In 1745 he left this post to serve the Modenese court as maestro di cappella to the archduchess, where his La pace fra la virtù e la bellezza was performed the following year. Adolfati provided recitatives, choruses and six arias for Hasse’s Lo starnuto d’Ercole (P.G. Martelli). A printed libretto indicates that it was performed with puppets (bambocci) at the Teatro S Girolamo, a very small theatre within the Venetian palace of Angelo Labia, in 1745 and during the carnival of 1746. From 1748 until early 1760 Adolfati was director of music at SS Annunziata del Vastato in Genoa; then he moved to Padua, where he succeeded Rampini as maestro di cappella on 30 May.

Adolfati's music did not please Metastasio, who heard his setting for Vienna of ...

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Francesco Bussi

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Georg Karstädt

In