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Horst Leuchtmann

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Cecil Hill

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Adolphe Adam: engraving by Eugène-André Champollion from Arthur Pougin’s; ‘Adolphe Adam: sa vie, sa carrière, ses mémoires artistiques’ (Paris, 1876)

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David Charlton

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Gustave Chouquet and Katharine Ellis

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James P. Cassaro

(b New York, May 31, 1955). American composer. A graduate of the Juilliard School (1976), he has taught at the New York University Tisch School of the Arts (1983–1993), at Yale University (1984–5) and in the pre-college division of the Juilliard School (1974–93). In 1992 he was appointed education director and music administrator of the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center. He was composer-in-residence at the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival (1989), Music from Angel Fire (1988) and the 92nd Street Y School Concert Series (1988–90). A prolific composer of chamber music, Adolphe has been the recipient of numerous commissions, including those from the Metropolitan Opera Guild (The Amazing Adventure of Alvin Allegretto), the Concert Artists Guild (Whispers of Mortality) and the Dorian Wind Quintet (Night Journey). His brass quintet, ...

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Laurence Libin

Term for an anthropo- or zoomorphic ceramic rattle of the pre-Contact Americas. In American archaeology ‘adorno’ (from Sp. adornar, ‘to decorate’) generally refers to a decoration attached to the rim (not the side) of a ceramic vessel. Many adornos have been broken off, perhaps intentionally, and are found separately. A significant number of these attached or detached effigies, typically about 6 cm tall or larger, are hollow and contain well-formed, loose pellets, also made of ceramic and fired together with the effigy and its vessel. In the USA adorno rattles have been found in pre-Mississippian and Mississippian-era sites, most examples dating from about 1200 to 1400 ce. Five examples (preserved by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History), recovered in the late 19th century from the Lake George mound site in the Yazoo-Mississippi River delta, have been studied; their quiet sound has been associated speculatively with the heartbeat of the clan entities represented by the effigies....

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(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in 1938. In 1937–8 he also wrote briefly under the pseudonym Hektor ‘Rottweiler’.

Strongly influenced by Ernst Bloch's Vom Geist der Utopie and Georg Lukács's Theorie des Romans while still at school, and having had a musical upbringing, with piano, violin and composition lessons from an early age, in 1921 he went on to study philosophy (with Hans Cornelius) at the University of Frankfurt with musicology, sociology and psychology as subsidiary subjects, continuing composition studies with Bernhard Sekles and piano with Eduard Jung. During his student years he became friendly with the philosopher Max Horkheimer and the literary critic Walter Benjamin, who both had considerable influence on his development. Three years after starting university he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Husserl (...

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[Emmanuel]

(b Antwerp, c1554; d Antwerp, bur. Feb 27, 1604). Flemish lutenist, teacher and composer. He went to Rome to study in 1574, a visit that probably accounts for the Italian elements in his publications. He was a Protestant, but after the fall of Antwerp in 1585 he was compelled for political reasons to embrace the Catholic faith. With his brother Gysbrecht he opened a school for lutenists at Antwerp, but in 1587 they came into conflict with the musicians’ guild because neither of them was a member; later, however, Emanuel must have qualified as a freeman of the guild, for he occasionally assumed the title of master. He was appointed captain of the citizens’ watch, which brought him a regular income, and in 1595 he took part in the relief of the nearby town of Lier, which had been occupied by the Dutch. He moved in the highest circles in Antwerp, and the principal families doubtless admired his virtuosity as a lutenist and engaged him to perform. His publications brought him wider fame, and they were to be found in the libraries of many prominent people, among them Constantijn Huygens, King João IV of Portugal and Cardinal Mazarin. He was mentioned by Adrian Denss (...

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Albert Mell

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Julian Budden

Opera in four acts by Francesco Cilea to a libretto by Arturo Colautti after Eugène Scribe and Ernest Legouvé’s play Adrienne Lecouvreur; Milan, Teatro Lirico, 6 November 1902.

Adriana Lecouvreur was commissioned by the publisher Edoardo Sonzogno following the success of Cilea’s L’arlesiana. Cilea chose the subject for its mixture of comedy and tragedy, its 18th-century ambience, the loving intensity of its protagonist and the moving final act; three other operas use the story of Adrienne Lecouvreur (by Edoardo Vera, Tommaso Benvenuti and Ettore Perosio). Colautti reduced the intricate mechanism of Scribe’s plot to a serviceable operatic framework, occasionally at the expense of clarity. The première, however, was outstandingly successful, with a cast that included Enrico Caruso (Maurizio), Angelica Pandolfini (Adriana) and Giuseppe De Luca (Michonnet). The conductor was Cleofonte Campanini. The first London performance took place at Covent Garden in 1904 in the presence of the composer with Rina Giachetti (Adriana), Giuseppe Anselmi (Maurizio) and Mario Sammarco (Michonnet), again under Campanini. Three years later the opera arrived at the Metropolitan Opera, New York, with Caruso (Maurizio), Lina Cavalieri (Adriana) and Antonio Scotti (Michonnet). Since then ...

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Patricia Ann Myers

(b S Severino, nr Ancona, 1539; d Rome, Aug 16, 1575). Italian composer. It is uncertain when he went to Rome, but he is listed among the members of the Cappella Sistina from 17 July 1572 until 1573, when he succeeded François Roussel as maestro di cappella at S Giovanni in Laterano, a post he retained until his death (E. Celani: ‘I cantori della Cappella Pontificia nei secoli XVI–XVIII’, ...

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Stephen C. Fisher

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Dramma per musica in three acts by Pasquale Anfossi to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio ( see Adriano in Siria above); Padua, Teatro Nuovo, June 1777.

The libretto is much altered from the 1752 version, incorporating some elements from the 1732 original but giving the three Parthian characters – Osroa [Osroes], Emirena and Farnaspe [Pharnaspes] – greater prominence. Anfossi used a substantial amount of accompanied recitative and he wrote a trio for Emirena, Pharnaspes and Osroes to conclude Act 2. Act 3, greatly shortened in accordance with the conventions of the period, ends with simple recitative. Osroes and Aquilio [Aquilius] (whose role is cut substantially) are written for tenors, while the four lovers are soprano roles. Apart from a few cavatinas, the arias retain the textual structure of da capo arias but are through-composed. Many are in a sonata-form design in which the A sections constitute the exposition and recapitulation and the ...

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Don Neville

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Libretto by Pietro Metastasio, first set by Antonio Caldara (1732, Vienna). The title Farnaspe was used for a later version of this libretto

In Antioch, the Emperor Hadrian has conquered the Parthian king Osroa [Osroes] and, in spite of being betrothed to Sabina, a Roman noblewoman, has fallen in love with Emirena, Osroes’ daughter. He has invited several Asian princes to Antioch, but his invitation to Osroes is refused. Osroes, however, has come in disguise, as a follower of Farnaspe [Pharnaspes], the Parthian prince to whom Emirena is betrothed.

Hadrian consents to Emirena’s departure with Pharnaspes if she so chooses. But Aquilio [Aquilius], Hadrian’s confidant, because he himself loves Sabina, desires a marriage between Emirena and Hadrian; he warns Emirena of Hadrian’s supposed anger, cautioning her to conceal her true feelings for Pharnaspes, who is astounded by Emirena’s subsequent coldness. Hadrian’s hopes for Emirena are thus revived, and he is confused when Sabina arrives unexpectedly. Meanwhile, Osroes sets fire to the palace, and Pharnaspes is blamed. He and Emirena reaffirm their love....

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Brian W. Pritchard

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Dramma per musica in three acts by Antonio Caldara to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio ( see Adriano in Siria above), with ballet music by Nicola Matteis; Vienna, Hoftheater (Teatro Grande), 9 November 1732.

Caldara’s 13th opera for the name-day celebrations of the Habsburg emperor Charles VI has the Roman emperor Adriano [Hadrian] (tenor) as its nominal hero. The plot deals with his amorous dalliance with Emirena (soprano), a captive Parthian princess, his arrogant dismissal of Farnaspe [Pharnaspes] (alto), Emirena’s lover, and his deception of his wife Sabina (soprano). In the lieto fine Metastasio’s allusion to the incorruptible position of the Holy Roman Emperor is obvious, as Hadrian rises above temptation to impart further dignity to his imperial role.

Caldara’s setting, however, emphasizes the three characters most affected by Hadrian’s illicit desires. Hadrian himself is drawn rather shallowly in arias that (apart from the tender ‘Dal labbro che t’accende’, 1.i) are mostly stereotyped but superficially impressive gestures of rage and revenge, such as ‘Tutti nemici’ (2.ix). The two minor characters, Osroa [Osroes] (tenor), Emirena’s father, and Aquilio [Aquilius] (bass), Hadrian’s treacherous confidant, likewise react conventionally to their situations, although the former’s ‘Sprezzo il furor del vento’ (1.iii) and the latter’s ‘Saggio guerriero antico’ (2.v) include clever pictorialisms. In contrast, Caldara acords Emirena, Sabina and Pharnaspes a series of intimate arias that capture moods of estrangement, abandonment and desolation, as well as reconciliation and optimism, and maintain a level of lyricism rarely surpassed in his other operas. Sensitive scorings, with relatively few contrapuntal devices in the accompaniments, enhance the emotional tension, especially in Pharnaspes’ ‘Doppo un tuo sguardo’ (1.v) and Sabina’s ‘Numi sì giuste siete’ (1.xi)....