(b Ober-Thomaswaldau, Silesia, Feb 19, 1830; d Berlin, Oct 27, 1907). German music scholar and critic . Initially trained as a schoolteacher, he turned to musical studies at the age of 26. Among his teachers in Berlin were the music theorist Siegfried Dehn and the critic and historian Adolph Kullak. Between 1858 and 1866 he worked as a music critic in Glogau (now Głogów), in Silesia. He then settled in Berlin where he developed a career as a music journalist, teacher, scholar and collector. His interests were divided between historical research and contemporary music. As one of the earliest modern scholars of lute tablature he acquired a notable collection of early manuscript and printed sources which he left to the Prussian Royal Library. This research led to a wider study of the history of notation, culminating in an unpublished monograph of 1901–3 and a variety of journal articles, some of them in the ...
Thomas S. Grey
(b Lindau, Bavaria, Aug 6, 1890; d Geneva, Feb 24, 1981). Swiss musicologist . After studying literature, psychology and musicology he took the doctorate at Zürich University in 1917 with a dissertation on Heinrich Weber. In 1938, after teaching in Geneva, he completed his Habilitation in musicology at Geneva University with a study of musical notation and its practical influence. He was appointed reader at Geneva University in 1955 and, following his retirement, honorary professor in 1960. His writings were mainly concerned with new music, notably French music, whose cause in the German-speaking world he took up with success. In this connection his Honegger biography occupies a particularly important place and remains a standard work on the composer.Heinrich Weber (diss., U. of Zürich, 1917; Zürich, 1918) Arthur Honegger (Zürich, 1933, 2/1954; Fr. trans., 1938, 2/1957) La notation musicale et son influence sur la pratique de la musique au moyen-âge à nos jours...
(b New York, April 2, 1945). American musicologist and critic . He studied at Columbia University, taking the doctorate in 1975 with a dissertation on Russian opera in the 1860s. He taught at Columbia from 1973 until 1987, when he became professor at the University of California, Berkeley; he was named Class of 1955 Professor of Music in 1997. A wide-ranging scholar, Taruskin has written on the 15th-century chanson, the Early Music movement (of which he is a trenchant critic, seeing it more as an outcome of 20th-century taste than as truly re-creative), on theoretical aspects of Stravinsky and, above all, on Russian music, from the 18th century to the present. His writings, original, highly perceptive and frequently controversial, include articles dealing with views of Russian musical history and textual, technical and interpretative questions in the operas of Musorgsky and Prokofiev. Taruskin is also a vigorous, forthright critic, and is a regular contributor to the ...
(b Brescia, Sept 7, 1864; d S Benedetto del Tronto, Ascoli Piceno, May 11, 1952). Italian scholar, composer and conductor. He studied at the Milan Conservatory with Panzini and Ponchielli (1883–5) and with Haller and Haberl at the Kirchenmusikschule, Regensburg (1888). He was maestro of the Schola Cantorum of S Marco, Venice (1889–93), maestro di cappella of the basilica of S Antonio, Padua (from 1894), director of the Parma Conservatory (1897–1902) and music director at the Santa Casa of Loreto (1902–24). In 1925 he took charge of the courses in Palestrina interpretation at the Naples Conservatory and in 1931 became director of the Ateneo Musicale, Genoa.
Although Tebaldini was active as a historian, conductor and composer (most notably of sacred works, but also of much orchestral and chamber music), he was most important for his long and devoted scholarly research and his promotion of the Cecilian movement for the reform of church music. (He was probably among those who inspired the ...
(b Newport Pagnell, Oct 24, 1864; d Westerton of Pitfodels, nr Aberdeen, Nov 5, 1936). English historian and Bach scholar. Descended from a line of doctors, he was educated at St Paul’s Cathedral Choir School, where he was a solo boy under Stainer, and later at Lancing. He read history at Cambridge, devoting his spare time to music. In 1890 he went to Newcastle upon Tyne as lecturer in history at what was then the Durham College of Science and founded the College Choral Society. In 1898 he took a similar post at the University of Aberdeen, where he set up a choral society of 150 with an orchestra of 70, which he conducted himself, and in 1903 he was appointed professor, retiring in 1930. In that year he lectured on Bach in America and Canada, and in 1935 he became an honorary PhD of Leipzig. He received several other honorary degrees and distinctions, and in ...
J.A. Fuller Maitland
revised by H.C. Colles and Peter Platt
(b Ellington, Northumberland, Jan 3, 1865; d London, April 18, 1938). English organist and musical scholar. He became organist and choirmaster of St John’s Cathedral, Antigua, in 1892, and in 1896 was appointed to a similar post at Downside Abbey, Somerset, where he began reviving the music written for the Latin ritual by early English composers. He was the first to perform liturgically the three- and five-part masses by Byrd and works by Tye, Mundy, Morley, Parsons, White and others. When Westminster Cathedral was built he was appointed organist and director of music, a post which he held with great distinction from 1901 until 1924, when he resigned after increasing criticism of his bold choice of works. Terry established there a tradition of musical treatment for the whole of the Roman liturgy in England based on the principles in the Motu proprio, so that the Use of Westminster offered an example to Roman Catholic church musicians unequalled anywhere outside Rome itself. He set a high standard of performance and demonstrated the great wealth of English liturgical music of the finest period. He revived Peter Philips’s ...
(b Paris, March 8, 1886; d Paris, July 2, 1931). French musicologist. He studied law and literature at the Ecole de Droit and the Ecole de Langues Orientales but later became interested in art history, studying at the Ecole du Louvre, where he took a diploma in 1921 with a dissertation on the painter and stage designer Jean Berain; on the basis of this he was appointed archivist of the Ministry of Fine Arts in the same year. However he had also attended Romain Rolland’s lectures on musicology at the Sorbonne (1919) and this discipline began to take precedence, although his special interest remained the history of music and painting in Italy and France during the 17th and 18th centuries. As secretary of the Société Française de Musicologie (1927–31) Tessier was closely associated with the preparation of the third French edition of Riemann’s Lexikon...
(b South Natick, MA, Oct 22, 1817; d Trieste, July 15, 1897). American musicologist. He was awarded the BA, MA and LLB degrees at Harvard in 1843, 1846 and 1848. In 1845–7, while an assistant in the Harvard College library, he gathered materials for a history of American psalmody from 1620 to 1800; published in World of Music (1846–7), it includes numerous bio-bibliographical data now nowhere else accessible. During the years 1848–52, he also contributed to the Philharmonic Journal, Boston Musical Gazette and Musical Times. In May 1849 he went abroad to study German and to prepare a corrected translation of Anton Schindler’s Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven (1840, 2/1845); immediately upon reaching Germany, however, Thayer expanded his project and began to prepare a full-scale Beethoven biography of his own. His first European sojourn lasted 30 months; a second trip, also devoted to Beethoven research, took place from late ...
Richard D. Green
(b Hameln, Jan 4, 1772; d Heidelberg, March 28, 1840). German legal scholar and amateur musician. After leaving the Gymnasium in Hanover, he began to study law in 1792 at the University of Göttingen, where he may have heard Forkel lecture. In the next year he moved to Königsberg to hear Kant, and in 1794 went to Kiel where he took the doctorate in law (1796) and formed a lasting friendship with Niebuhr. He was appointed professor in 1798 and four years later was called to Jena, where he met Schiller and wrote his principal legal work, System des Pandektenrechts. He moved to Heidelberg in 1805 to assume a chair of law and remained there for the rest of his life. The War of Liberation inspired him to write a collection of essays in 1814 urging codification of German laws: he was challenged by Savigny in a treatise which formulated the leading ideas of the historical school of law....
(b St Etienne, Oct 5, 1872; d Lorques, nr Varennes, April 7, 1938). French writer on Byzantine music. In 1891 he joined the Assumptionists and began to study Byzantine music, an interest developed during his long residence in the East. In 1900 he was ordained priest in Constantinople; thereafter he lived in Jerusalem, several Turkish and Bulgarian cities, Odessa (1907–11) and St Petersburg (1911–14). During World War I he worked as an army chaplain, returning to Turkey in 1920. He retired to France in 1922.
Thibaut was the first scholar to make a systematic investigation of Byzantine musical notation and to try to deduce the origin of Latin neumes from Constantinople. He divided Byzantine notation from the 11th to the 18th centuries into three phases: the first originated in Constantinople, the second in Jerusalem and the third was invented by Koukouzeles. His studies were based on manuscripts from all periods of which he edited an important collection. Together with J.B. Rebours he also edited several treatises on Byzantine musical theory, but he was unable to decipher the notation....
(b Aachen, May 23, 1806; d Cologne, Nov 6, 1878). German music theorist . He studied law in Bonn and Heidelberg, became a judge in Cologne and represented the centre party as a member of the Reichstag. In Heidelberg, A.F.J. Thibaut and G.F. Creuzer stimulated his interest in symbological studies, and together with music theory and mathematics he took up Chinese, Arabic, cuneiform writing and hieroglyphics, thus embracing philological disciplines. Convinced that the fundamentals of music, above all intervallic proportions, were the basis of teaching in the ancient Chinese, Hebrew, Egyptian and Greek civilizations, he sought to establish a symbolic expression of these fundamentals as a formulating principle of the ancient cosmogonic theories. His results were set down in a three-volume work, Die harmonikale Symbolik des Altherthums, the first two volumes of which were published (Cologne, 1868–76/R) but found little acceptance until they were taken up again by Hans Kayser in ...
[Roquet, Antoine Ernest ]
(b Nantes, Jan 23, 1827; d Paris, May 26, 1894). French writer on music . A merchant by trade, he took the opportunities offered by business journeys to England, Italy and Russia to accumulate an extensive music library which included early printed books and manuscripts. He became a contributor to the periodicals La France musicale and L’Art musical, later publishing his articles (and others) as pamphlets. He worked exclusively on the history of French music, basing his research firmly on primary sources and using an unusually transparent methodology which involved the critical evaluation of items of secondary material in annotated bibliographies. His work built upon that of Fétis in particular, correcting many of the inaccuracies in the Belgian scholar’s writings. Much of the strength of Thoinan’s work lies in his ability, amply demonstrated in his essay on Maugars, to see isolated historical events in a larger perspective.
La musique à Paris...
Kirsteen C. McCue
(b Sprouston, 28 Oct 1805; d Edinburgh, 6 May 1841). Scottish composer and musical scholar. The eldest son of Andrew Mitchell Thomson, minister of Sprouston, Perthshire, and later St George’s, Edinburgh, he trained first as a solicitor before deciding on a musical career. He met Mendelssohn on the latter’s visit to Edinburgh in 1829 and thereafter spent time with the Mendelssohns in Berlin, also travelling to Leipzig and Paris; Mendelssohn praised a trio and some of Thomson’s other compositions in a letter of introduction to his family. Thomson was keen to experiment with European forms and styles and studied in Germany during the 1830s, becoming well acquainted with Schumann and Moscheles, among others, and taking lessons from Schnyder von Wartensee. In October 1839 he was appointed first Reid Professor of the Theory of Music at the University of Edinburgh, a position he held for only 18 months due to his early death. In ...
revised by Gorm Busk
(b Fredericia, Sept 2, 1837; d Copenhagen, June 19, 1916). Danish music historian . From his youth he was interested in music and was taught the piano by Johan Christian Gebauer and Edvard Helsted. He took a law degree in 1863, and from 1878 he was a secretary at the Danish supreme court of justice. For many years he was active as a music critic for the journal Illustreret tidende, and from his research into the sources of Danish music, he produced a number of excellent books and treatises, the most important being Danske komponister and especially Fra hofviolonernes tid, a history of the Danish Royal Orchestra from 1648 to 1848. (DBL, S. Lunn)Danske komponister (Copenhagen, 1875) [studies of C.E.F. Weyse, D.F.R. Kuhlau, J.P.E. Hartmann, N.W. Gade] Rossini og operaen (Copenhagen, 1885) Friedrich Kuhlau (Leipzig, 1886/R) [Ger. trans. of part of Danske komponister] Caeciliaforeningen og dens stifter...
(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1873; d Copenhagen, Jan 13, 1912). Danish folklorist. After taking the state examination in theology (1898) he worked as a schoolteacher until 1905. His main area of research was the folk music of the Faeroe Islands, particularly their dance-song; in 1902 he collected material for over 200 recordings there. He also analysed Inuit song from recordings made by William Thalbitzer in east Greenland. Illness prevented him from completing his work on medieval Danish ballads, which remains unpublished. His writings are notable for their originality and thoroughness, and include the following (all published in Copenhagen): Dans og kvaddigtning paa Faer øerne (1901); Folkesangen paa Faer øerne (1908); Vore sanglege: danske studier (1908); The Eskimo Music (with W. Thalbitzer, 1911); Melodies from East Greenland (1914); and Faerøske melodier til danske kaempeviser (1923, ed. H. Grüner Nielsen)....
(b Bourg-en-Bresse, July 5, 1857; d Paris, Aug 10, 1936). French musicologist and folklorist . In 1876 he entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he became a pupil of Savard for harmony and Massenet for composition, and also studied the organ with Franck and music history with Bourgault-Ducoudray. He was appointed assistant to the Conservatoire librarian in 1883. Two years later he competed for the Bodin Prize of the Académie des Beaux-Arts with his Histoire de la chanson populaire en France; this work, which was published in 1889, brought him a commission from the government to collect folksongs in Savoy and the Dauphiné. The result was published in 1903 as Chansons populaires recueillies dans les Alpes françaises. With Charles Bordes, he supported the efforts of the Schola Cantorum to bring old music before a wider public, and he founded the Concerts Historiques du Cercle St Simon. He also contributed to the revival of interest in Berlioz and to the promotion of contemporary Scandinavian, Russian and Czech music in France. In ...
(b Cambridge, Nov 18, 1881; d Saffron Walden, Jan 2, 1968). English scholar of Byzantine music . After studying at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (1900–04), he went to Athens in 1904 and stayed for three years at the British School of Archaeology, studying the modern phase (Chrysantine system) of Greek Church music under J.T. Sakellarides. His interest in the earlier phases of Byzantine music was aroused when he met Hugo Gaisser, and in 1907 he went to Mt Athos to study chant and the old manuscripts in its monasteries. He taught Greek at Edinburgh (1908–17), and held posts successively as professor of classics in Johannesburg (1919–21), professor of Russian in Birmingham (1921–6), professor of Greek in Cardiff (1926–44) and lecturer in classics in Grahamstown, South Africa (1946–9). In the periods 1909–12 and 1922–50 he travelled extensively (to Athens, Moscow, Mt Athos, Mt Sinai, Patmos, Constantinople, Grottaferrata and Leningrad) to study Byzantine mansucripts. In ...
(b Yasnaya Polyana, Sept 9, 1828; d Astapovo, Nov 20, 1910). Russian novelist, dramatist, philosopher and social critic. He was a fair amateur pianist, and, though he had no serious musical training, music played an important part in his emotional and intellectual life and figures prominently in many of his novels. Some music moved Tolstoy profoundly and even had a powerful physical effect on him. Partly, no doubt, for these subjective reasons, he believed music to be a ‘terrible power’ for good or, more often, evil, making men act against their wills and destroying their moral judgment. This idea finds its most extreme expression in his novel Kraytserova sonata (‘The Kreutzer Sonata’, 1889). His attempts to formulate a philosophy of art, including music, reached their most finished form in Chto takoye iskusstvo? (‘What is Art?’, 1898), a polemical work in which ethics and aesthetics are mingled and which was designed to challenge accepted ideas. It was partly censored in Russia but appeared unabridged in Aylmer Maude’s English translation, which Tolstoy wished to be considered the only authorized text....
(b Mondano, nr Bologna, Nov 7, 1858; d Bologna, Sept 18, 1920). Italian musicologist. He studied composition at the Accademia Filarmonica in Bologna, with Paolo Serrao at the Naples Conservatory, then in Germany and France, benefiting particularly from the teaching of Jadassohn and Reinecke in Leipzig. At the same time he studied literature in Italy and abroad. In 1884 he returned to Italy, where from 1885 to 1891 he taught music history and was librarian at the Liceo Musicale Rossini at Pesaro. He then moved to the Liceo Musicale at Bologna, where he performed the same duties and also taught composition. From 1894 to 1904 he was editor of the Rivista musicale italiana, to which he contributed many scholarly and critical articles.
Many Italian musicologists accorded Torchi a position of pre-eminence beside Chilesotti, particularly for his essays on Italian instrumental music. Yet his methods were unsophisticated, especially in aesthetic criticism, which he also applied to contemporary Italian and German composers. If his attitude to Schumann's ...
[Fausto Acanfora Sansone dei duchi di Porta e Torrefranca]
(b Monteleone Calabro [now Vibo Valentia], Feb 1, 1883; d Rome, Nov 26, 1955). Italian musicologist. He took a degree in engineering at Turin (1905) while studying music on his own and with Ettore Lena. He campaigned for the creation of professorships in music history and musical aesthetics at Italian universities, and succeeded in having teaching faculties founded in these subjects. He taught at Rome University (1913) and became a lecturer in music history at the Naples Conservatory (1914), where he was also chief librarian (1915–23), before becoming chief librarian at the Milan Conservatory (1924–38) and lecturer at the Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan (1930–35). In 1941 he was appointed professor at the University of Florence. He was vice-president of the UNESCO International Council of Music; he won the Feltrinelli Prize of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in ...