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Article

Dale E. Monson

(‘Hadrian in Syria’)

Opera seria in three acts by Giovanni Battista Pergolesi to a libretto by Pietro Metastasio ( see Adriano in Siria above); Naples, Teatro S Bartolomeo, 25 October 1734.

In May 1734 the Kingdom of Naples was recaptured from the Austrian Habsburgs by Charles Bourbon (later Charles III) of Spain. To celebrate the birthday of the queen mother, Elisabeth Farnese, the Teatro S Bartolomeo staged a new work by Pergolesi, Adriano in Siria. This was the third of the four opere serie written by Pergolesi, and his first to a libretto by Metastasio. For Pergolesi the libretto was much altered. Of Metastasio’s 27 original aria texts, only ten were retained: ten substitute arias and a new duet were inserted, and several alterations to the recitatives were made to accommodate those changes. Most of these alterations can be attributed to the magnificent cast hired by the new king, with his typically Spanish emphasis on theatrical splendour. Caffarelli was the primo uomo; he received all new texts, and the position of some of them was shifted to give him a more prominent role: his character sings at the end of the first two acts. Caffarelli’s music is the most careful, extensive and lyrical in the opera, and includes the particularly exquisite ‘Lieto così tal volta’, with obbligato oboe, and ‘Torbido in volto e nero’, for double orchestra (this aria must have been particularly effective since it was later borrowed, without change, for ...

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Adrien Boieldieu: portrait by Louis-Léopold Boilly, c1800–03 (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen)

Photograph: J. E. Bulloz

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Article

Marie Louise Pereyra

revised by George Biddlecombe

(b Liège, May 26, 1767; d Paris, Nov 19, 1822). Flemish bass, teacher and composer. He learnt music as a chorister at St Lambert’s Cathedral, Liège, and later at the Ecole Royal de Chant in Paris. He appeared as a singer at the Concert Spirituel in 1781, and in 1783 sang the role of Calchas in Gluck’s Iphigénie en Aulide at the Opéra. His last known appearance at the Opéra was as Rosmor in Le Sueur’s Ossian in 1804. In 1806 he was appointed chef de chant, a post he held until his death. In March 1822 he succeeded Laîné as professor of lyric declamation at the Ecole Royale de Musique, but died eight months later. An advocate of the old French system of declamation, he was said to have had a harsh voice and a bad vocal method, but some ability as an actor.

Adrien composed choral settings of Revolutionary texts, including ...

Article

Peter Holman

(bap. ?Watford, Northants., ?Jan 24, 1587; d London, June 29, 1640). English wind player and composer. He was perhaps the Johannes Adson baptized at Watford, Northamptonshire, on 24 Jan 1587, though nothing is known of him for certain before 1604, when he is recorded as a cornett player at the court of Charles III of Lorraine in Nancy. Charles died in 1608, and Adson was back in England by the end of 1613, when he joined the Waits of London. He married Jane Lanerie in about February 1614 and settled in the parish of St Giles Cripplegate. At least two of his sons, Islay (or Islip; bap. 30 May 1615) and Roger (bap. 24 June 1621), became musicians. In November 1633 he became a royal wind musician, and on 18 January 1636 he was paid £4 15s. for a treble cornett and a treble recorder, which presumably were the instruments he played at court. In ...

Article

Adufe  

John M. Schecter

[pandeiro, quadrado]

Hand-beaten frame drum, of Muslim origin, played in Iberia, Latin America, and North Africa. Typically, a wooden frame about 30 to 45 cm square and 6 to 9 cm deep is covered with sheep or goat skin on one or both sides. Triangular and hexagonal shapes are occasionally found nowadays. The heads are normally tacked on and the tacks covered by ribbon, or in Morocco a single skin can be stitched over the frame. Rattling elements are sometimes enclosed. In Spain and Portugal it is played primarily by women (see illustration) often to accompany their singing. In Portugal it is prominently used with other instruments to accompany the charamba, a circle-dance performed by couples, and various Christian processions. In Guatemala string ensembles (zarabandas) incorporate adufe that have an interior rattle or bell. In Brazil it is called pandero or quadrado and is played (often in pairs) for the May ...

Article

Jonas Westover

A term used to describe popular music that appeals to listeners between the ages of 25 and 55. Because it is based primarily on marketing demographics rather than being strictly defined by musical elements, it embraces a wide range of genres. In the 1950s the moniker “middle of the road” (or “MOR”) was given to radio stations that played music intended for older audiences, including swing- and big band-influenced tunes. These stations arranged their playlists to be separate from youth-oriented rock and roll. When Billboard began to echo this format in 1961, their adult-oriented chart was entitled Easy listening. After changing names several times, the chart officially became known as Adult Contemporary in 1979. The distinction between youth-oriented and adult-oriented music has remained important into the 21st century, notably with the television stations MTV (youth-oriented) and VH-1 (adult-oriented).

As musical genres, radio formats, and industry charts have split and morphed, so too have the categories of adult contemporary music. In the 2010s the largest subgenre was hot adult contemporary, which typically featured a mix of hits from previous decades alongside contemporary light rock and softer R&B. Rap music, heavy metal, and dance club music are types of youth-oriented music typically excluded from this admittedly ambiguous format. Mainstream adult contemporary concentrated on somewhat lighter fare. Soft adult contemporary featured more acoustic numbers and ballads by such artists as Mariah Carey and Josh Grobin. While soft adult contemporary has been often geared towards white middle-class audiences, urban adult contemporary has been targeted to reach African American audiences with soft R&B music from such artists as Anita Baker, Whitney Houston, and Luther Vandross....

Article

Rainer E. Lotz

[Rama IX Bhumibol; Phoemipol Aduldej]

(b Cambridge, MA, Dec 5, 1927). Thai clarinetist and reed player. He was brought up in the USA and in Switzerland, where he learned to play clarinet; he later mastered the whole family of reed instruments, favoring soprano saxophone. Although he is interested in early jazz he was influenced predominantly by Benny Goodman, and participated in jam sessions with Goodman and other jazz musicians who visited Thailand, notably Jack Teagarden and Lionel Hampton. He occasionally plays with his court orchestra in a swing style of the 1940s that is modified by the strong influence of traditional Thai music, but, on account of his official status as the king of Thailand, no recordings by him have been authorized for distribution. (H. Esman and V. Bronsgeest: “Een jazz king: Koning Phoemipol,” ...

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Advance Australia Fair

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Advertisement for the Columbia Disc graphophone, c. 1900.

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Advertisement for the gramophone from ‘The Graphic’ (1902, supplement)

Hulton Getty Picture Collection, London

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Advertisement from ‘The Times’ (16 May 1791) concerning Haydn’s benefit concert, to be given on that day

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Advertisement in ‘The Times’ (26 January 1791) for Salomon’s concert series at the Hanover Square Rooms, commencing 11 February; after various delays the series, in which Haydn made his first London appearances, opened 11 March

Article

Robynn J. Stilwell

Though advertisements probably provide the most commonly heard kind of music in contemporary urban society, such music is the least noticed and least studied. Music has been part of advertising since the first Street cries . With the advent of cheap, widespread print media in the 19th century, and of radio and television in the 20th, the possibilities of advertising, and of its associated music, grew enormously.

Most of the history of advertisement music survives in art composition. A 13th-century three-voice motet in the Montpellier Codex (no.319) records street cries, as do the madrigals of Janequin, Orlando Gibbons and Berio, and operas ranging from Cherubini's Les deux journées to Gershwin's Porgy and Bess. Engravings and written documents show that instruments (particularly noisy, attention-grabbing instruments like drums and trumpets) were used in conjunction with the voice, but how they were used is not known. The recorded history of advertisement music begins only when music printing became inexpensive....

Article

Ae-be  

Raymond Ammann

[Drehu: itra pë; Iaaï: bwinj-bet]

Idiophone of the Loyalty Islands (off New Caledonia). It joins most of the choral singing that accompanies dances. The names of the instrument reflect ideas associated with unity or being struck. It is a disc-shaped parcel, 20 to 30 cm in diameter and 10 to 15 cm thick, typically of coconut fibres covered by leaves of the tree Macaranga vedeliana. Other plant materials can be used as well. A string is affixed firstly on top of the bundle to hold the parcel together. As more leaves are added, the string will be passed enough times around the parcel to hold all the leaves tightly. Lastly a separate string goes around the parcel’s sides. In the centre of the upper side a sling is formed of the string, so that the musician can pass a finger through it to hold the instrument while it is struck with the palm of the other hand. Sometimes it is also struck against the thigh. The instrument is played by men and women....

Article

Gary W. Kennedy and Barry Kernfeld

[Wilton Jameson ]

(b New Albany, IN, July 21, 1939). American educator, publisher, record producer, and saxophonist. He performed locally from the age of 15 and while studying at Indiana University (BM 1961; MM 1962) led groups that worked in southern Indiana and Kentucky. Having taught music education at Indiana University Southeast (1967–9) and classical saxophone at the University of Louisville (1970–72), in the early 1970s he established a week-long jazz workshop (or “jazz camp”) held during the summer; by the late 1990s the workshop took place twice annually. Aebersold also presented workshops in other countries, including Australia, Germany, England, Scotland, Denmark, and Canada. In 1992 he received an honorary doctorate in music from Indiana University and began teaching jazz improvisation at the the University of Louisville.

In addition to his principal instrument, Aebersold plays piano and double bass, but he is far better known as an educator than as a performer. In ...

Article

André Clergeat

(b Zurich, July 27, 1939). Swiss cellist, violinist, and singer. She studied piano and violin from a very young age and played in the orchestra at the conservatory in Geneva. An encounter with Steve Lacy in Italy in the late 1960s led her to abandon classical music; the couple were married, and in 1970 they settled in Paris. Under Lacy’s counsel, as well as that of Dave Holland and Jean-François Jenny-Clark, Aebi taught herself to play cello, which became her preferred instrument in the group constituted by Lacy. She often makes use of her deep voice in the group, reciting as well as singing literary and political texts (from such authors as Lao Tzu, Guillaume Apollinaire, Herman Melville, and Brion Gysin) set to music by the saxophonist. Aebi has also performed with Kent Carter, notably in the string group Pinch with Jean-Jacques Avenel, with Takashi Kako, and with Oliver Johnson. She may be seen in the video ...

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Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

[Ailred, Ethelred]

(b ? Hexham, c1110; d York, 1167). English saint, theologian and historian. He was brought up in the household of David I of Scotland, and later became an officer (dapifer) there. He was professed a monk of the Cistercian house at Rievaulx in Yorkshire (1134); he became abbot of Revesby (1143), but later returned to Rievaulx as abbot (c1147). Early in his career he gained the respect and support of Bernard of Clairvaux. Music forms only a small part of his writings: the De abusu musice attributed to him by Vander Straeten (Grove3; GerbertS, i, 26) cannot be identified as his, but chapter xxiii of the second book of the Speculum caritatis, a work inspired by St Bernard, deals with the same topic. He questioned the use of organs and bells in church, unfavourably comparing the noise of the former to the human voice. His chief complaint, however, was against the use of a virtuoso, and indeed histrionic, performance style: ‘Why that contraction and effeminacy of the voice? … Now the voice is reduced, then it is broken, at one time it is forced, at another it is enlarged with a more expansive sound. … At times the entire body is agitated with gestures worthy of actors; the lips twist, the eyes roll, the shoulders play, the fingers move in response to every note’. He was a proponent of stylistic moderation in the performance of chant. Some of his words have been understood as descriptions of part-singing and hocket: ‘One voice joins us, another drops out, another voice enters higher, and yet another divides and cuts short certain intervening notes …. At times you might see a man with an open mouth, as if expiring with suffocated breath, not singing, and with a certain laughable hindering of the voice as if menacing silence’. Some of Aelred's statements resemble those of his contemporary John of Salisbury, and may provide some evidence of the cultivation and performance of complex polyphony in 12th-century England or on the Continent; yet his complaint may have been exaggerated....

Article

Aelyau  

Laurence Libin

Frame drum of Alaska, reported at the end of the 19th century. One from Point Barrow (in US.W.si) had a shallow hoop shaped as an oval, 56 by 48 cm, with a handle attached at the side, and a seal peritonium as the head. Apparently the name denoted the typical frame drum encountered from Alaska to Greenland and Siberia....