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Article

Michael Tilmouth

(Francis)

(b Eton, July 17, 1875; d Edinburgh, July 10, 1940). English music scholar, composer and pianist. Son of an Eton master, the Rev. Duncan Crooks Tovey, he was educated, both musically and generally, by Sophie Weisse, who trained him for the career of a pianist. (Later he had advice and help from Deppe, but was never his pupil.) As a schoolboy Tovey already had a vast knowledge of the classical repertory and he had begun to compose at the age of eight. He received instruction in counterpoint from Walter Parratt and subsequently studied with James Higgs and Parry. In June 1894 he was elected Lewis Nettleship scholar at Balliol College, Oxford, where he graduated in classical honours in 1898, more than satisfying the examiners in philosophy and ethics but making no impression at all in ancient history.

In 1894 began his association on the concert platform with Joachim, with whose quartet he appeared as pianist until ...

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Prague, June 3, 1871; d Jičín, Bohemia, Nov 28, 1949). Czech musicologist. His law studies at Prague University led to a professional career in public administration; it was only after he had held several provincial posts that he was transferred to Prague, where he was able to continue his part-time music studies at the conservatory and the university. He obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on Černohorský in 1926. Through his tireless examination of countless city and country archives Trolda built up his formidable knowledge of Czech music from the 16th to the end of the 18th century. His catalogues and newly unearthed biographical data, and above all his reconstruction of many scores, were decisive in the revival of the Czech Baroque. Notable was his championing of Michna, whose Česká loutna (‘The Czech Lute’) he edited in 1943. He left his valuable collections to the National Museum in Prague....

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Grand Gulf, MS, Nov 8, 1842; d Hyde Park, Boston, Feb 26, 1892). American music historian. He was the son of a slave owner, Richard S. Trotter, and a black slave named Leticia. He studied music with William F. Colburn in a school for Negroes in Cincinnati run by the Methodist minister Hiram S. Gilmore, working between terms as a cabin boy on a steamer plying the Cincinnati–New Orleans run. About 1856 he moved to Hamilton, Ohio. Between 1857 and 1861 he attended Albany Manual Labor University near Athens, Ohio, and then taught in Muskingum and Pike Counties, Ohio. After service in the Civil War he worked in the Boston post office (1866–83), and on 3 March 1887 President Cleveland appointed him Recorder of Deeds in Washington, this being the highest office in the nation reserved by custom for Negroes. At the end of 1889...

Article

John Warrack and James Deaville

(b Wurzen, nr Leipzig, Feb 15, 1822; d Dresden, Jan 3, 1853). German theorist, critic and composer. The illegitimate son of King Friedrich August II of Saxony, he studied with Friedrich Schneider in Dessau (1837–40) and joined the Dresden orchestra as a violinist in 1841. Although he was initially hostile to Wagner, study of Tannhäuser and of the essay on Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (1846) turned him into one of the earliest, most loyal and most articulate of Wagner's defenders. His ‘great seriousness and his quiet but unusually firm character’ attracted the attention of Wagner, who also wrote in his autobiography that Uhlig ‘had grasped with clear understanding and perfect agreement those very tendencies of mine which many musicians of apparently wider culture than his own regarded with almost despairing horror, as being dangerous to the orthodox practice of their art’. He remained a close friend of Wagner, whose correspondence with him is filled with enlightening personal and professional details (Uhlig's letters to Wagner have not survived). With Uhlig's untimely death to consumption in ...

Article

Rudolf Klein

(b Mödling, nr Vienna, Aug 15, 1888; d Vienna, Oct 27, 1982). Austrian music historian and critic. While he was a law student in Vienna he also studied musicology with Adler. He graduated in law in 1911, and completed his musical education in Salzburg after World War I, with Felix Petyrek (piano) and Bernhard Paumgartner (conducting and instrumentation). He began his work as a music critic in Salzburg (1922) and wrote for the Vienna Neue Freie Presse (1926–38). After a break in exile in London (1939–46), he was music critic of the newspaper Neues Österreich (1946–67) while working as a judge. He was also a regular contributor to the Österreichische Musikzeitschrift. As a music historian he studied the Austrian composer Julius Bittner, the writings of Viennese music critics before the 1848 revolution, and Maria Theresia von Paradis, the blind pianist of Mozart's time (for his articles ...

Article

Karl Geiringer

(b Taura, Saxony, May 28, 1883; d Zürich, Dec 1, 1959). German musicologist and conductor. He went to the Leipzig Conservatory in 1904, studying piano with A. Ruthardt, composition with H. Zöllner, musical aesthetics with A. Seidl, at the same time attending Riemann's lectures on music history at the university. In 1906 he became conductor at the Vereinigte Leipziger Schauspielhäuser and a year later a teacher at the Bromberg Conservatory. He spent a year in London carrying out research on Clementi. After his return to Leipzig in 1908 he continued his studies with Riemann and took the doctorate in 1911 with a dissertation on Clementi. He was conductor of the Leipzig Madrigal Society (1912–14) and editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (1919–20). From 1932 to 1939 he lived in Zürich, where he made a catalogue of H.L. Bodmer's collection of Beethoven manuscripts. He lived in Volterra between ...

Article

Rodney H. Mill

(b Tallmadge, OH, Dec 17, 1870; d Adelphi, MD, Jan 19, 1961). American organist, pianist, teacher and musicologist. He studied music at Oberlin College and Conservatory (BA 1896, MusB 1904, MA 1924) and the piano with Leschetizky in Vienna (1896–8) and Josef Lhévinne in Berlin (1913–14). He taught the piano at Oberlin Conservatory (1894–1936) and served as organist at the Calvary Presbyterian Church, Oberlin (1903–18). His interest in contemporary American art song led to his major and probably most enduring work, the revision and expansion of O.G.T. Sonneck's Bibliography of Early Secular American Music, first published in 1905 and still central to American scholarship. His biographies of A.P. Heinrich and W.H. Fry have not been superseded. In 1945 Oberlin College awarded him an honorary doctorate in music.

‘The Songs of Charles T. Griffes’, MQ, 9 (1923), 314–28‘Some Recent Representative American Song-Composers’, ...

Article

John A. Emerson

(b Durango, Vizcaya, Nov 2, 1863; d Motrico, Guipúzcoa, Sept 17, 1900). Spanish musicologist and music journalist. In 1878 he entered the Augustinian order at Valladolid, where he received his early musical training, and in 1888 he went to the monastery of Silos, near Burgos, devoting himself to the study of Gregorian chant reform as advocated by the Benedictine monks of Solesmes in France. In 1889 he participated in the music section of the first Congresso Católico of Madrid. Uriarte's major work, the Tratado teórico-práctico de canto gregoriano, is not only a treatise on the elements of Gregorian chant, but a panegyric on the need for modern restoration based on the methods of Joseph Pothier of the Solesmes school and the resolutions calling for reform adopted at the Madrid Congress of 1890. Essentially, these reforms included the gradual abolition of the 19th-century Medicean liturgical books then used in Spain, the use of Pothier's newly revised chant books which were based upon the original medieval sources, and the performance of these corrected melodies in a free, non-mensural rhythmic style. Uriarte was a prolific music journalist and contributed many articles on chant reform, music aesthetics and criticism, and opera, particularly to the ...

Article

Karl Geiringer

(b Gunzlhofen, Upper Bavaria, Jan 16, 1879; d Schondorf, nr Munich, Sept 14, 1960). German musicologist. He studied philosophy and theology at the Freising Hochschule and Munich University from 1899 to 1904, when he was ordained priest; after four years of pastoral work he began to study music, first privately with Gottfried Rüdinger and then with Sandberger and Kroyer at Munich University, where he took the doctorate in 1911 with a dissertation on Jacobus de Kerle. He was attached to St Cajetan's, Munich (1912–26), serving as an army chaplain during World War I, and then as honorary canon to the court church, All Saints, until its closure by the Nazis in 1940; he was honorary professor of music history at Munich University (1932–49).

Ursprung's dissertation on Kerle's part in the reforms of the Council of Trent led to his major work, a comprehensive and fundamental survey of Catholic church music, in which he combined his knowledge as a theologian and music historian. His other writings, developing from this primary concern, dealt with the aesthetic bases of church music, the relationship between Gregorian and ancient music, the growth of liturgical music drama, and early Spanish music. He wrote an important book on Munich's musical history and produced editions of works by Kerle and Senfl....

Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

(Aapo)

(b Savonranta, April 9, 1890; d Helsinki, July 18, 1969). Finnish ethnomusicologist. He studied at Helsinki University under Ilmari Krohn (MA 1919), taking the doctorate there in 1939 with a dissertation on Ob-Ugrian folk music; this was one result of his extensive fieldwork, which included travels in Estonia (six visits, 1912–23), Karelia (1915, 1918, 1919), Vepsä (1916), Inkeri and Mordva (1914), Finnish Lapland (1926), Swedish Lapland (1946) and central Europe (1925, 1927). Between 1929 and 1957 he was director of the Helsinki Conservatory and from 1940 lectured at Helsinki University, where he was also professor of musicology (1956–9). As an active promoter of early Finnish (especially Karelian) and national culture he worked at the Kalevala Society as manager (from 1919), secretary (from 1930) and chairman (from 1942); he organized the Kalevala centenary celebrations (...

Article

Christiane Spieth-Weissenbacher

(b Roanne, May 17, 1879; d Lyons, May 9, 1956). French musicologist. After studying medicine (from 1897) he devoted himself entirely to music, taking the doctorate at Lyons in 1908 with a dissertation on music at the Académie de Lyon in the 18th century, and the doctorat d’Etat there in 1919 with dissertations on music and theatre at Lyons between 1688 and 1789 and on the theatre and town from 1694 to 1712. In 1900 he met d’Indy, and following his example founded a schola cantorum at Lyons with Georges Witkowski (1902); subsequently he gave courses in music history at the university (1908–11) and conservatory there (1912), and also at the Sorbonne (1928–30). In 1904 he organized lecture-recitals at Lyons (called Les Petits Concerts de Lyon from 1919) and in 1925, with Gabriel Bender, he founded the Paris Musique Vivante lectures, which dealt with contemporary music; he also gave series of lectures in the USA (...

Article

(b Hoogstraten, Nov 2, 1890; d Leuven, Dec 23, 1966). Belgian musicologist and art historian. He studied at the Lemmens Institute, Mechelen, with Paul Gilson, and at Leuven University (doctorate in art history and archaeology, 1931). He was first a lecturer (1923–36) and then professor of music history (from 1936) at Ghent University. From 1939 he was a member of the Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie voor Wetenschappen, Letteren en Schone Kunsten van België and held office in the Société Belge de Musicologie and the Société Flamande de Musicologie. His writings on music include studies of Belgian composers, all periods of music history and the parallels to be drawn between music and fine arts.

Beethoven, 1770–1827 (Antwerp, 1927) ‘Rond het vocaal-instrumentaal vraagstuk in de kerkelijke polyphonie der XVe eeuw’, TVNM, 12/2 (1927), 104–14; xii/3 (1928), 186–204; xii/4 (1928), 251–60; xiii/1 (1929), 20–28 Het orgel in de Nederlanden...

Article

Godelieve Spiessens

( b Mechelen, Sept 27, 1864; d Mechelen, Jan 16, 1940). Belgian musicologist . A doctor of medicine by profession, he devoted his spare time to the history of art and music, in particular that of his native Mechelen. He spent the years 1914–18 in England, collecting material for his standard reference work on Philippe de Monte, whose provenance from Mechelen he was able to prove; later, with Jules van Nuffel and Charles van den Borren, he undertook the publication of the complete works of Monte (1927–39). Another of his interests was campanology: the founding of the world-famous school at Mechelen in 1922 owed much to his efforts. He published numerous articles in the Bulletin of the archaeological circle of Mechelen, of which he was a member and president (1919–26).

Van Doorslaer’s work on Monte and his contemporaries owed its scholarly soundness to critical archival research, as did his work in other fields such as bell-casting and the copper industry, choir schools and court music, organists and organ building, gold- and silversmiths, tapestry, the plastic arts and their exponents, and medical history....

Article

(Victor Fidèle)

(b Ixelles, nr Brussels, April 24, 1825; d Tienen, April 28, 1888). Belgian conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied the piano, the violin, harmony and composition but obtained a degree in administrative and political sciences. At the age of 19 he published some light piano music. In 1860 he helped found a Cecilia Society in Leuven and represented Belgium at the Congress of Religious Music in Paris. He became the kapelmeester at St Pieterskerk in Leuven (1868), where he performed his own music as well as that of other little-known composers. In 1883 he was publicly honoured at Leuven and elected to the Royal Belgian Academy. Three years later he invented a machine which, when attached to any keyboard instrument, instantly produced a printed version of whatever was played on the keyboard. Elewyck's compositions include numerous motets, songs and piano works. His collection of Flemish keyboard music stimulated interest in Belgian music of the 17th and 18th centuries. He contributed historical and critical articles to Belgian, Italian, French and English periodicals....

Article

Patrick Peire

( b Dentergem, nr Ghent, Oct 9, 1810; d Ixelles, nr Brussels, Nov 13, 1893). Belgian musicologist and composer . He studied with Fétis at the Brussels Conservatory where he won the first prize in composition in 1838. Shortly afterwards he became the organist at St Jacques-sur-Coudenberg in Brussels, and in 1847 he founded the Belgian Caecilia, a periodical for religious music. He is remembered particularly for his monumental series, Trésor Musical: Collection Authentique de Musique Sacrée et Profane des Anciens Maîtres Belges (Brussels, 1865–93/R), of which two volumes (one sacred and one secular), were published each year. For this series, numerous compositions by 15th- and 16th-century Netherlandish musicians were collected from Brussels, Cambrai, Bologna, Rome, Paris, Munich and Aachen, and thus appeared for the first time in modern print. Despite erroneous attributions and other shortcomings it remains a useful collection. Maldeghem also wrote a number of religious works, songs, an organ method and (with his brother) a singing method; most of these were never published....

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

[Vanderstraeten, Edmond ]

(b Oudenaarde, Dec 3, 1826; d Oudenaarde, Nov 25, 1895). Belgian musicologist, critic and librarian . After studying classics in Aalst and philosophy at the University of Ghent, he returned to Oudenaarde, where he directed several opera performances and began his research into local archives. In 1857 he went to Brussels, where he studied harmony with Bosselet and counterpoint and palaeography with Fétis, becoming his private secretary. On Fétis's recommendation he was appointed music critic for Le nord and in 1859 joined the catalogue department of the Bibliothèque Royale. He also wrote reviews for L'écho du parlement, L'étoile belge and other publications. Subsequently he did research at the Algemeen Rijksarchief in Brussels (1862–75) and in Italy, France and Spain. He represented the Belgian government on several missions; at Weimar in 1870 he attended performances of Wagner's operas and supported them enthusiastically in his report, Muzikale feesten van Weimar...

Article

Paul Raspé

(b Lille, May 25, 1888; d Ixelles, nr Brussels, Nov 19, 1956). Belgian musicologist. After attending the Liège Conservatory, he studied the history of music with Victor Dwelshauwers. As a member of a light music orchestra he toured Europe and South America for about 20 years and during this time collected a great deal of hitherto unpublished information in local archives, mainly concerning instrument makers. He was subsequently librarian at the Brussels Conservatory (...

Article

Carolyn Gianturco

(b Pesaro, Dec 31, 1876; d Portogruaro, Venice, Dec 12, 1946). Italian musicologist . He took an arts degree at the University of Bologna (1895) and a diploma in composition from the Liceo Musicale, Bologna, having studied with Mascagni and Antonio Cicognani. Under the guidance of Riccardo Gandolfi he developed an interest in music history, which he taught in 1905–6 at the Bologna Liceo. His publication Canoni musicali di Ludovico Zacconi, on a manuscript found in the Biblioteca Oliveriana in Pesaro, appeared in the same year; he presented further biographical information for the subject in 1912. In 1906 he succeeded Torchi as director of the Liceo library, a post he held until 1945. In 1908 he published his research on the Lyra Barberini of G.B. Doni and took the chair of music history at the University of Bologna.

Vatielli’s access to the rich Bologna Liceo library led to the publication of research on Corelli, Torelli and the musical heritage of Bologna in general. He was one of the first Italian musicologists to write on the history of 17th- and 18th-century Italian instrumental music, the 16th-century ...

Article

Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Berlin, May 10, 1891; d Berlin, April 1, 1967). German musicologist . Vetter studied at the Leipzig Conservatory, and from 1914 to 1920 (with interruptions caused by the war) he studied musicology under Abert in Halle, with philosophy, psychology and art history as secondary subjects. In 1920 he received the doctorate in Halle with a dissertation on Gluck’s arias. He was a music editor in Danzig from 1921 until 1927, when he completed his Habilitation at the University of Breslau with Das frühdeutsche Lied. He was active first as an instructor and from 1934 as a reader at the University of Hamburg, moving on to Breslau (1934) and Greifswald (1936), where he became director of the musicology institute in 1939. In 1941 he accepted a chair at the University of Posen (Poznań) and from 1946 until his retirement as professor emeritus in 1958 he directed the Institute of Musicology at Humboldt University in Berlin. He was editor of the journal ...

Article

Bruce Carr

(b Rouen, July 10, 1820; d Paris, Jan 7, 1891). French music historian . He was an excellent amateur musician (he studied the cello with Franchomme), an accomplished linguist, and a friend of the violin maker J.-B. Vuillaume. His great work was the sumptuous three-volume Les instruments à archet, published in 1876–8 with illustrations by Frédéric Hillemacher, dealing with the history of the violin, its makers, and musical typography, and including biographies of composers and an exhaustive bibliography of chamber music. The sections concerning history and manufacture, and the Corporation of St Julien des Ménétriers and the French Minstrels, were also published separately. Although it is now outdated, the work is still valued for its mass of information and its elegant style of writing.

Vidal was a member of the Société de l’Histoire de Paris et de l’Ile-de-France. He was compiling a history of the piano when he died....