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(b Lwów, June 6, 1929). Polish composer, theorist and teacher. In Kraków he read musicology with Jachimecki at the university (1949–53) and concurrently studied composition with Malawski at the State Higher School of Music. He was a music critic between 1953 and 1959, but since then has devoted his time primarily to composition and teaching; he taught at the Kraków academy from 1963, and in 1986 he joined the staff of the Salzburg Mozarteum. With the political thaw in Poland in 1956, Schaeffer took the lead in disseminating information on contemporary music from the West in a number of analytical and polemical books and articles on style and technique. Later he published Wstęp do Kompozycji/Introduction to Composition, a comprehensive compendium of procedures, variational techniques and sample scores, often drawn from his own music. As a composer, he rapidly became the most adventurous, not to say fearless Polish proponent of new technical and aesthetic boundaries, particularly with regard to notation and performance practice. After the mid-1970s, following a crisis in his creativity, he combined several careers: as a composer, visual artist and as a writer of wry, surreal plays which have popularized his name in Poland and abroad. He is the recipient of numerous national and international awards....


Francis Dhomont

(b Nancy, Aug 14, 1910; d Les Milles, Aug 19, 1995). French composer, theorist, writer and teacher. His tape compositions of 1948 originated musique concrète. Although his parents were musicians he embarked on a scientific career, entering the Ecole Polytechnique in 1929. In 1934 he began to work as a telecommunications engineer in Strasbourg and from 1936 he was a technician with Radiodiffusion Française. Soon he discovered that he was more attracted to literature and philosophy than to technology, and he wrote a number of essays and novels. At this time he developed a taste for communal life, first in scouting, later at Georges Gurdjieff's group meetings. In 1940 he founded Jeune France, an interdisciplinary association interested in music, theatre and the visual arts; the following year he joined Copeau and his pupils in the establishment of the Studio d'Essai, which was to become the centre of the Resistance movement in French radio and later the cradle of ...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Rochester, NY, Nov 20, 1950). American music educator and scholar. He received music education degrees from Florida State University (BME 1972), the Eastman School of Music (MM 1976), and Indiana University (PhD 1983). He taught instrumental music in the public schools of New York State (1972–81) and served as professor of music education and coordinator of graduate studies in music education in the Jacobs School of Music at Indiana University (1983–2009). Schmidt’s research interests focus on the psychology of music, instrumental music, and individual music instruction. He has authored or co-authored more than 35 refereed research articles, served as research director for over 25 dissertations, and made presentations at numerous universities and national and international conferences. In 2006 he participated in a research project sponsored by the European Union and Greek Ministry of Education. He has also been a reviewer for ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Rüdinghausen, Kreis Hörde, Westphalia, March 19, 1897; d Bonn, April 3, 1981). German musicologist. He studied musicology at Bonn University with Schiedermair and Anton Schmitz with physics and education as subsidiary subjects, took the doctorate at Bonn in 1926 with a dissertation on the masses of Clemens non Papa and in 1927 became an assistant at the newly established Beethoven Archive in Bonn. He completed the Habilitation in 1930 in musical acoustics at Bonn with a dissertation on mean-tone temperament. He then became a lecturer in acoustics at Bonn University. In 1938 he became a reader, and his lecturing privileges were extended to the entire faculty of musicology; from 1948 until his retirement in 1966 he held a full professorship. He was director of the Beethoven Archive in Bonn (1945–72), and founded and edited the new series of Veröffentlichungen des Beethovenhauses in Bonn (1951...


John Warrack

(b Neumünster, Holstein, Oct 4, 1893; d Bielefeld, Jan 15, 1976). German musicologist and critic. After studies in Geneva and Leipzig, he took the doctorate in 1919 with Riemann (whose last assistant he became) and Schering with a dissertation on the Buxheimer Orgelbuch. From 1922 to 1925 he was music critic for newspapers in Dresden and Leipzig, becoming in 1926 music editor of the Dresdner Anzeiger; he also lectured at the Dresden Conservatory. During this period began his lifelong interest in Weber. He lost his library and musicological materials in the bombing of Dresden, and after the war lived briefly in Berlin. Renewing his contacts with Weber’s descendants, he resumed his Weber research, giving special attention to the diaries and letters. Schnoor moved in 1949 to Bielefeld, where he worked as a music critic and writer until his death.

Though he published many articles and books on general musical subjects, and made a special study of oratorio, it is his work on Weber that has been Schnoor’s most important contribution to musicology. The first major product of these studies, ...


William R. Lee

(b Austria-Hungary, Feb 11, 1888; d Pittsburgh, May 27, 1959). American music educator, psychologist, and scholar. Schoen earned a BA from the City College of New York (1911) and taught modern languages at City High School in Chattanooga, Tennessee (1912–14). He became director of the Department of Music at East Tennessee State Normal School (1914–20), where he was intensely involved in the Southern rural reform movement. He earned a PhD in psychology at the University of Iowa with Carl E. Seashore (1920–21) and became an instructor at Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1921, serving as head of the Department of Psychology and Education (1925–47). A prolific author, his publications encompassed music and music education, psychology, philosophy, religion, and art. His psychology, largely introspective, characteristically examined the affective side of music and was often related to his work in aesthetics and philosophy. Schoen was strongly influenced by music educator Charles H. Farnsworth of Teachers College, Columbia University. He was editor of the pioneering ...


[Volupius Decorus]

(b Munich, Oct 21, 1570; d Hall, Austria, Dec 17, 1651).German composer, teacher and music theorist. He became a student at the university in Ingolstadt on 16 October 1587, and he entered the Jesuit order on 14 May 1590. In 1593 he sang under the direction of Lassus in the Kantorei of the court at Munich. From 1596 to 1597 he taught at the University of Dillingen and at the same time became an instructor in rhetoric and ancient languages at the Jesuit college in Munich. The only musical composition he is known to have written is a Missa super ‘Laudate’ (now lost) for the festival of St Ignatius of Loyola held at Dillingen in 1619. After 1628 he went to Wildenau, Upper Pfalz, to join in the establishing of a Jesuit mission. He spent his final years, after 1648, as an instructor in Greek at the Jesuit college at Hall....


F.E. Kirby

(b Echteld or Tiel, nr Utrecht, 1533; d Bad Schwalbach, 1596). German theorist, teacher and physician of Netherlandish birth. He studied at Kraków and Basle Universities from 1566 to 1569 and went to Cologne in 1570 where in 1575 he received the degree of bachelor of medicine. After several years spent elsewhere he returned to Cologne and in 1583 became professor of medicine at the university, a post he held for the rest of his life. There are indications that he visited France and Italy.

In addition to treatises on logic and astronomy, Schornburg produced a highly unconventional booklet on music, the Elementa musica… qualia nunquam antehac ordine, brevitate, perspicuitate, et firmitate visa, cum vera monochordi descriptione, hactenus desiderata, instrumenta musica fabricare volentibus ante omnia cognitu necessaria, published in Cologne in 1582 (ed. A. Friedrich, Beiträge zur rheinischen Musikgeschichte, lxvii, Cologne, 1966). Although this didactic manual is essentially of the ...


Regine Allgayer-Kaufmann

(Hubertus )

(b Beuel am Rhein, June 23, 1953). German ethnomusicologist. He studied musicology with Josef Kuckertz at Cologne University, with German language, Malaysian studies and dramaturgy as secondary subjects (MA 1979). He took the doctorate in comparative musicology in 1988 at the Freie Universität Berlin, where he taught comparative musicology (1980–86), he also lectured at the Musikhochschule in Hanover (1987–9) and at Kiel University (1985). He was appointed professor at Berlin in 1990, and later professor and head of the ethnomusicology department at Cologne University in 1994. He is president of the Maria Laach Institute for Hymnology and Ethnomusicology in Cologne and general secretary of the European Ethnomusicological Seminar (from 1997). In 1995 he was awarded the Jaap-Kunst prize for his musicological research in Java and Bali. Schumacher has carried out fieldwork in Java (1977 and 1990) and Bali (...


John W. Richmond

(b Brooklyn, NY, Dec 25, 1925; d Los Angeles, CA, Sept 23, 1987). American music educator, scholar, performer, and composer. He served as a Marine Corps infantryman in the South Pacific and then as a clarinetist (1943–6). He obtained degrees in music education from Rhode Island College (EdB 1953), the University of Connecticut (MA 1956), and Boston University (DMA 1962), and taught music in the Connecticut public schools (1953–9). He taught music education at the University of Connecticut (part-time 1959–61), Rhode Island College (1959–68, music department chair 1963–8), the University of Hawaii (1968–9), and the UCLA (1969–83, music department chair 1980–3). Schwadron’s 39 published compositions include chamber music, choral music, and transcriptions. He performed as a clarinetist with Sammy Davis, Jr., Florence Henderson, and Dionne Warwick, among others. He is best remembered as a leading philosopher of music education, especially his book entitled ...


Zdravko Blažeković

revised by Vilena Vrbanić

(b Zagreb, Croatia, July 17, 1938). Croatian musicologist . She graduated in musicology from the Zagreb Academy of Music (BA, 1963; MA, 1982), and took the PhD at Zagreb University in 1986 with a dissertation on Josip Slavenski. She joined Radio Zagreb (later Hrvatski radio) in 1961 as a journalist and was producer of its Treći Program (Programme III, 1963–90) and chief producer of its music programme (1990–92). From 1965 she was associated with the Zagreb Music Biennale. She was assistant professor (from 1981) and professor (1993–2008) at the Zagreb Music Academy. She was director of Institute of Systematic Musicology of the Zagreb Music Academy (1994–2008). She also taught at the Faculty of Education in Pula (1996–2001). She founded the musicological section of the Croatian Music Institute in 1988 and in the same year founded a project to document Croatian music, which she led until ...


John Tyrrell

(b Radslavice, nr Přerov, Feb 15, 1931). Czech musicologist. He studied musicology with Robert Smetana and Josef Schreiber, and aesthetics with Bohumil Markalous at Olomouc University (1950–55). He obtained the doctorate in 1967 at Brno University with a study of counterpoint in early Czech instrumental music and the CSc degree (1970) with a study of the orchestra of Karl Liechtenstein-Castelcorn. After working as a librarian in Olomouc (1955–64), he was appointed research fellow (1964) and then head (1978) at the music history division of the Moravian Museum, Brno, retiring in 1994. Since 1990 he has lectured at the universities of Olomouc and Brno, receiving the titles of lecturer (1992) and professor (1996) at Brno.

Although Sehnal’s primary area of research has been in Moravian music of the 17th and 18th centuries, his ability to build up a broader picture from his many detailed studies has led to his recognition, both at home and abroad, as the leading Czech Baroque specialist of his generation. He wrote the 1620–1740 section of the standard Czech music history (...


Paula Morgan

(b New Orleans, June 29, 1940). American musicologist . She took undergraduate training in music and history with Dika Newlin at Drew University, New Jersey (BA 1962). After taking the MSc in journalism at Columbia University (1963), she studied at Oxford with Westrup and Sternfeld, earning the doctorate in 1969 with a dissertation on 17th-century Venetian instrumental ensemble music. She began her teaching career at Drew University (1962–5) and later joined the faculty of the University of Pittsburgh (1968–9). She was a consultant in musicology at San Francisco State University (1978–84) and since then has been a research associate at the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities at Menlo Park, California. She joined the Center for Research in Music and Acoustics at Stanford University in 1995; she became a consulting professor there later in the same year.

Selfridge-Field’s work has centred on two distinct areas: musical and cultural history, and computer applications in music history and theory. Her historical writings have concentrated on the instrumental and vocal music of the Venetian Baroque and the cultural setting of this music. Her interest in the computer as a tool for musicological research and musical analysis has resulted in numerous articles, papers and demonstrations, and she has co-edited, with Walter B. Hewlett, a series of directories of computer-aided research in musicology....


Irina Fedotovna Bezuglova

(b Novokuznetsk, June 1, 1943). Russian musicologist. She studied with D.V. Zhitomirsky in the faculty of theory and composition at the M.I. Glinka State Conservatory of Nizhniy Novgorod (1965–70) and undertook postgraduate studies with M.V. Brazhnikov at the Leningrad State Conservatory (1970–3), after which she became a researcher at the Russian Institute for the History of the Arts. In 1975 she defended her kandidat dissertation on early Russian chant and, in 1995, her dissertation on the manuscript book Stikhirar′ mesyachny (‘Menological stikhiras’) for a doctorate in arts history. Her research has focussed on early Russian culture, the aesthetics of hymnography, choral art, the hymns of the Stikhirar′, the penitential texts, and problems of links between modern Russian and early Russian culture. She has also written articles on contemporary and film music. In addition to academic work, she has been actively involved in the dissemination of knowledge of early Russian choral music, contributing to concert programming, films and television, and radio programmes. She has performed canticles which she has transcribed with a choir and written scripts for television and feature films....


(b São Paulo, Jan 26, 1932). Brazilian ethnomusicologist, composer and pianist. She graduated as a pianist in 1953 from the Conservatório Dramático e Musical, São Paulo, where she also studied composition with Camargo Guarnieri. She undertook private studies in ethnomusicology and anthropology, and in 1970 a Gulbenkian Foundation grant enabled her to continue her ethnomusicological research in Portugal, with the cooperation of Michel Giacometti and Fernando Lopes Graça. She subsequently obtained her doctorate in social anthropology from São Paulo University after submitting a dissertation (published in 1985) on the music and culture of the Brazilian Caiçara fishermen; she has also conducted research into the music of the Mbyá-Guarani and Krahô Indians of Brazil. She taught folklore and ethnomusicology at the Santa Marcellina music faculty, Perdizes, 1975–7, and postgraduate courses in musical anthropology at São Paulo University in 1985 and ethnomusicology at Bahia University, Salvador, in 1991. As a researcher, she has given conferences and published articles in Brazil and abroad. She is a member of the International Council for Traditional Music and of the Sociedade Brasileira de Musicologia. Setti’s compositional output reflects a preference for choral music, songs and chamber works, some of which were published by Novas Metas and Ricordi Brasileira (both in São Paulo). She has developed a free and individual musical style, having presented works at the Brazilian Contemporary Music Biennial (Rio de Janerio). She has won several composition prizes, among them the Rádio MEC awards in ...


David Scott

(b Bradford, April 3, 1911; d Worcester, Oct 8, 1996). English teacher of music and musicologist. After private music study with Charles Stott he read history at Wadham College, Oxford (1929–32; BA 1932), and then spent a year at the RCM (1932–3) studying with Alcock, Colles and R.O. Morris. In 1936 he was awarded the Oxford University Osgood Memorial prize for his dissertation on John Blow. He taught in London before becoming music organizer to Hertfordshire County Council in 1946. In 1949 he was appointed a lecturer at Worcester College of Education, a position he held until retirement, and while at Worcester was honorary librarian of St Michael’s College, Tenbury (appointed 1948), retaining this position after his appointment as keeper of the Parry Room library at the RCM in 1971, from which post he retired in 1980.

Shaw’s work as a musicologist was for many years carried out against the background of his work as a teacher. He published books on the teaching of music in schools at primary and secondary levels. Work for his edition of ...


Ioannis Fulias

(b Edessa, April 9, 1963). Greek musicologist. She studied piano and music theory at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki, as well as architecture at the Faculty of Engineering at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Afterwards, she completed her postgraduate studies at the University of East Anglia (Norwich, UK), defending her dissertation (Richard Wagner’s Der Ring des Nibelungen: The Reforging of the Sword or, Towards a Reconstruction of the People’s Consciousness) in 1996. From that year onwards, she has been a staff member in the music department of the Ionian University in Corfu, where, since 2013, she has been a professor of the aesthetics of music; she is also active as a tutor in the Greek Open University. Her research interests include aesthetic, philosophical, and ideological aspects of both German romantic and Greek art music, with special emphasis on Wagner’s music dramas, on Manolis Kalomiris and the Greek National School of Music (...


Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell and Judith Crispin


Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...


Jurij Snoj

(b Ljubljana, Slovenia, Jan 19, 1930). Slovenian musicologist . He studied musicology at the Academy of Music in Ljubljana (the department of music history and folklore), and German philology at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. From 1958 to 1963 he lectured on music history at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina). In 1963 he returned to Ljubljana, where he took up the post of an assistant at the then newly established department of musicology at the Faculty of Arts, where in 1967 he also obtained his doctorate. He remained in the department, becoming a docent in 1970, an assistant professor in 1973, and a full professor in 1981. At his retirement in 1995 he was granted the title of professor emeritus, and in 2008 the Slovenian musicological society honoured him with the Josip Mantuani award.

Sivec’s primary research area has been the history of opera. In his dissertation he reconstructed and evaluated the opera repertory at the Ljubljana Provincial Estates Theatre from ...


Igor′ Bėlza

revised by Tat′yana Dubravskaya

(b Moscow, 25 March/April 3, 1905; d Moscow, Feb 6, 1967). Russian musicologist. At the Gnesin State Institute for Musical Education he studied the piano with Yelena Gnesina until 1927 and composition with Glière until 1928. He then attended the Moscow Conservatory, where he studied music history with Ivanov-Boretsky and theory and acoustics with N.A. Garbuzov; he also studied in the faculty of physics and mathematics at Moscow University, graduating in 1930. In that year he joined the staff of the State Insititute for Music Research and undertook work on acoustics with Garbuzov in the department of physiology and psychology. He taught harmony and counterpoint at the Moscow Conservatory (1932–67), becoming professor (1946) and head of the music theory department (1948). He was also head of the music theory department at the Gnesin State Institute (1944–9), and a research fellow at the Institute for the History of the Arts (...