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Article

Bertil H. van Boer

[ Aeneas i Cartago, eller Dido och Aeneas (‘Aeneas in Carthage, or Dido and Aeneas’)]

Lyric tragedy in a prologue and five acts by Joseph Martin Kraus to a libretto by Johan Henrik Kellgren after an outline by Gustavus based on Jean-Jacques Le Franc de Pompignan’s play Didon; Stockholm, Royal Opera, 18 November 1799.

The opera begins with a prologue depicting winds chained to a rock in the sea. Eol [Aeolus] (bass) refuses to release them until asked by Juno (soprano) to allow them to sink the escaping Trojan fleet. After a storm, Neptun [Neptune] (bass) calms the waves and Aeneas (tenor) is cast ashore on the coast of Carthage. His mother Venus (soprano) directs him to seek aid from Queen Dido (soprano). In Act 1, she welcomes the strangers and asks that they help dedicate a new temple in homage to Juno, who refuses to accept it. In Act 2 a hunt is interrupted by a storm that drives Dido and Aeneas to a cave for shelter; they pledge their love, only to be interrupted by the ghost of Dido’s first husband, Siché [Sychaeus] (bass), who warns of their impending doom. In Act 3, the Numidian King Jarbas (tenor or baritone) arrives disguised as his own ambassador to ask for Dido’s hand; he is rejected and vows revenge. Aeneas and Dido then appear before the temple of Juno to be married, but an earthquake occurs, followed by the appearance of Ära (soprano), who orders Aeneas to leave Carthage. As the Trojans prepare to set sail, Dido unsuccessfully asks Aeneas to stay. Her servant Clelié [Cloelia] (soprano) then arrives with news of the approaching Numidian army. In Act 5 a battle takes place in which Aeneas slays Jarbas and defeats the Numidians before leaving Carthage. Dido, at first encouraged by his victory, sees his ships departing and immolates herself. The goddess Iris (soprano) arrives and tells the Carthaginians that Dido has been apotheosized. Finally Jupiter (baritone) receives Dido in Olympus....

Article

Dale E. Monson

Libretto subject used chiefly in the 17th and 18th centuries. Its principal source is Virgil’s Aeneid. Operas on the subject appear under various titles including Enea nel Lazio, Enea in Italia and Enea e Lavinia, and in French as Enée et Lavinie.

In opera Aeneas is most widely known for his desertion of Dido (particularly in Nahum Tate’s poetry for Purcell in 1689, in Metastasio’s Didone abbandonata, found in numerous 18th-century settings, and in Berlioz’s Les Troyens) in order to appease the gods and fulfil his destiny, the founding of the Roman empire. Homer, and later Cato and Virgil, recounted the many trials and disasters to which Aeneas was subjected after the fall of his native Troy. In Virgil’s version of the episode in Latium, which follows Cato’s account, Aeneas arrives in Italy (having left Carthage and Dido) and is offered, by oracular decree, both the kingdom and the hand of King Latinus’s only daughter, Lavinia. Turnus, a foreign prince to whom these favours have previously been promised, wages a jealous war with his Rutolian forces against the king. Aeneas leads the king’s army to victory, however, and Turnus is slain. This account was the basis for numerous librettos of the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 17th century Bussani’s libretto, ...

Article

Aeolian  

Cynthia Adams Hoover

revised by Edwin M. Good and Barbara Owen

Name associated with a series of American piano, organ, and player piano manufacturers.

Founded by William B(urton) Tremaine (1840–1907), who had begun as a piano maker with Tremaine Brothers in New York City. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (1887; from 1895 the Aeolian Co.) to manufacture automatic organs that used perforated music rolls (see Player organ). Votey, Edwin Scott, inventor of the Pianola, the first practical piano player and the most famous name among automatic piano brands, joined the Aeolian Co. in 1897. Henry B. Tremaine (1866–1932), the founder’s son, tapped a larger market with an extensive advertising campaign for player pianos in the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1913 Aeolian introduced the Duo-Art reproducing piano, a mechanism (fitted in high-quality pianos) that made it possible to record on paper rolls the slightest nuances of dynamics, tempo and phrasing. Many leading pianists were recorded on Duo-Art machines....

Article

Harold S. Powers

The name assigned by Glarean in the Dodecachordon (1547) to the authentic mode on A, which uses the diatonic octave species a–a′, divided at e′ and composed of a first species of 5th (tone–tone–semitone–tone) plus a second species of 4th (semitone–tone–tone), thus a–b–c′–d′–e′ + e′–f′–g′–a′. With this octave species identical to that of the natural minor scale on A, the Aeolian mode, together with its plagal counterpart, the Hypoaeolian, closely resembles the descending melodic minor scale.

In the minor mode of tonal music (see Tonality) the dominant lies a 5th above the tonic, or principal scale degree, and the sixth degree is characteristically a semitone above the dominant; for this reason scholars in the last three centuries have tended to think of the minor mode of tonal music as a lineal descendant of Glarean's Aeolian scale. In fact the minor tonalities of tonal music are of heterogeneous origins. Even the key of A minor is indirectly but closely related historically to the old transposed modes 1 and 2 with finals on ...

Article

Laurence Libin

Article

Karen Monson

revised by Michael Baumgartner

Ensemble. Formed in New York in 1961 by the violinist Lewis Kaplan, the Aeolian Chamber Players were the first American ensemble of mixed instruments to perform together on a permanent basis. The group, which first played at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, in October 1961 and made its New York debut shortly thereafter (Town Hall, January 1962), originally consisted of Kaplan, flutist Harold Jones, clarinetist Robert Listokin, and pianist Gilbert Kalish. A cello was added in 1966, with the flute rarely used since 1977. The group has been the resident ensemble at Bowdoin College in Brunswick, Maine, since 1964, where the Bowdoin Summer Music Festival, co-founded and directed by Kaplan, takes place. Former members of the ensemble include Jennifer Langbaum and Ronald Thomas (cello), and Charles Neidrich and Thomas Hill (clarinet). The present group includes Kaplan (violin), André Emelianoff (cello), and Peter Basquin (piano). The group, which is recognized for its commitment to both traditional and contemporary repertoire, has toured throughout the United States and Europe. At the Salzburg Festival of ...

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American firm of player piano manufacturers. It was founded by William B. Tremaine, who had begun as a piano builder with Tremaine Brothers. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. in New York (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (by 1888) to manufacture automatic organs and perforated music rolls. His son Harry B. Tremaine sensed the possibility of a larger market and directed the company in an extensive advertising campaign that resulted in the sale of millions of player pianos during the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1913 the company introduced the Duo-Art Reproducing Piano, a sophisticated mechanism (fitted in high-quality pianos) that made it possible to record and reproduce through paper rolls the slightest nuances of dynamics, tempo, and phrasing; a number of leading pianists of that time were recorded in this way.

In 1903 (with a capital of 10 million dollars) Tremaine formed the Aeolian, Weber Piano & Pianola Co., of which the Aeolian Co. formed a significant part; the first successful American piano trust, the parent company eventually controlled such other firms as the Chilton Piano Co., Choralian Co. of Germany and Austria, Mason & Hamlin, Orchestrelle Co. of Great Britain, Pianola Company Proprietary Ltd of Australia, George Steck & Co., Stroud Piano Co., Stuyvesant Piano Co., Technola, Universal Music Co., Vocalian Organ Co., Votey Organ Co., Weber Piano Co., and Wheelock Piano Co. Noted for its development and aggressive marketing of various mechanical instruments, the Aeolian Co. manufactured the Aeriole, Aeolian Orchestrelle Pianola, Metrostyle Pianola, and Aeolian pipe organs. The firm’s offices were in New York where it maintained the Aeolian Concert Hall. In 1931 the company’s organ department merged with the Ernest M. Skinner Co. to form the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Co. In 1932 the company merged with the American Piano Corporation (successor of the American Piano Co.) to form the Aeolian American Corporation....

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American piano manufacturer. It was formed as the result of two mergers, the first of which, on 1 Sept 1932, between the Aeolian Co. and the American Piano Corporation (formerly the American Piano Co.), created the Aeolian American Corporation. In May 1959 the assets of the corporation were purchased by Winter & Co. The parent company changed its name to the Aeolian Corporation on 12 June 1964; it retained the name Aeolian American Corporation for the East Rochester division until April 1971 when it was changed to the Aeolian American Division of the Aeolian Corporation.

The corporation acquired the assets (including trademarks, plans, and factories) of many formerly independent American piano companies. Its instruments were made in three cities under the following trade names: Mason & Risch (Toronto); Mason & Hamlin; Chickering; Wm. Knabe & Co. (East Rochester, New York); Cable; Winter; Hardman, Peck; Kranich & Bach; J. & C. Fischer; George Steck; Vose & Sons; Henry F. Miller; Ivers & Pond; Melodigrand; Duo-Art; Musette; and Pianola Player Piano (Memphis, Tennessee). In ...

Article

Article

Stephen Bonner

(Fr. harpe d’Eole, harpe éolienne; Ger. Äolsharfe, Windharfe; It. arpa eolia, arpa d’Eolo)

A string instrument (chordophone) sounded by natural wind, interesting as much for its symbolic significance as for its musical importance.

Normally four to 12 (but sometimes 24 or 48) strings ‘of catgut or brass wire, equal in length, unequal in thickness’ (Magasin pittoresque, 1845) are stretched over one or two hardwood bridges of triangular cross-section, mounted on a thin pine, maple or mahogany box of variable shape – measuring 75–200 cm (normally 85–110 cm) long, 11–35 cm (normally 12–26 cm) wide and 5–17 cm (normally 5–9 cm) deep. The ends of this soundbox may be of beech, for insertion of iron hitch-pins or wooden tuning-pegs. Most instruments have some device such as a slit draught for concentrating the wind on the strings.

Six variants of this structure exist: (1) A rectangular soundbox with a single horizontal row of strings, the most popular model in England, and, until 1803, in Germany; also the simplest type....

Article

Tully Potter

English string quartet. It was founded in 1926 as the Stratton Quartet by George Stratton, William Manuel, Lawrence Leonard and John Moore, and developed from the Wood Smith Quartet, in which Stratton and Moore played. It found fame after Carl Taylor and Watson Forbes took over the inner parts in 1932 and it was chosen to record Elgar's Quartet and Piano Quintet (with Harriet Cohen). The records were a great solace to the composer in his last illness. Moore remained with the ensemble until 1956 and Forbes until 1962; but Taylor was killed in the war and in all the quartet had 11 second violinists. The leadership also changed hands a few times after Stratton withdrew in 1944 and the title Aeolian Quartet was adopted. The later incumbents, all highly distinguished, were Max Salpeter (1944–6), Alfred Cave (1946–52), Sydney Humphreys (1952–70) and Emanuel Hurwitz. Many of the various formations were perpetuated on records. In particular the line-up of Humphreys, Trevor Williams, Forbes and Derek Simpson made beautiful recordings of Mozart's ‘Dissonance’ and Beethoven's last quartet in ...

Article

Charles Garrett

Article

Barbara Owen

American organ building firm. It was formed in 1931 when the firm of Ernest M(artin) Skinner & Co. acquired the organ department of the Aeolian Co., which had made its reputation building organs with self-playing mechanisms for private houses, changing its name to Aeolian-Skinner. In 1933 there was a reorganization in which G(eorge) Donald Harrison, who had joined Skinner in 1927, became technical director and Skinner’s activities were curtailed. In the same year Skinner, after increasing disagreement with Harrison over tonal matters, began a new company in Methuen, Massachusetts, with his son, Richmond, who had purchased the former Methuen Organ Co. factory and Serlo Hall the previous year.

During the 1930s the Aeolian-Skinner Co. continued to rise in popularity, and in 1940 Harrison became president, succeeding Arthur Hudson Marks (1874–1939), a wealthy businessman who had become its owner and president in 1919. Under Harrison the firm became a leader in the trend away from orchestral tonal practices and towards a more classical sound. It was Harrison who coined the term ‘American Classic’ to refer to this more eclectic type of tonal design. On his death, Joseph S. Whiteford (...

Article

Article

Term applied generically to instruments activated by the wind. Examples include several types of instrument with the prefix Aeolian, notably the Aeolian harp. The term may also denote an instrument whose sound imitates that of the wind, for example the Wind machine.

See also Aeolian ; Aeolian harp ; Wind chime ; Wind machine ...

Article

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Frances Palmer

General term for musical instruments that produce their sound by setting up vibrations in a body of air. Aerophones form one of the original four classes of instruments (along with idiophones, membranophones and chordophones) in the hierarchical classification devised by E.M. von Hornbostel and C. Sachs and published by them in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914 (Eng. trans. in GSJ, xiv, 1961, pp.3–29, repro. in Ethnomusicology: an Introduction, ed. H. Myers, London, 1992, pp.444–61). Their system, which draws on that devised by Victor-Charles Mahillon for the Royal Conservatory in Brussels and is widely used today, divides instruments into groups which employ air, strings, membranes or sonorous materials to produce sounds. Various scholars, including Galpin (Textbook of European Instruments, London, 1937) and Sachs (History of Musical Instruments, New York, 1940), have suggested adding electrophones to the system, but it has not yet been formally extended.

Aerophones are subdivided into ‘free aerophones’ (e.g. the bullroarer), in which vibrations are set up in a body of air unconfined by the structure of the instrument, and wind instruments where the air is enclosed inside a tube or vessel. The latter group includes those instruments where sound is produced by directing a stream of air against an edge (flutes and duct flutes), by the vibration of a reed, or by the vibration of the player’s lips. Each category is further subdivided according to the more detailed characteristics of an instrument. A numeric code, similar to the class marks of the Dewey decimal library classification system, indicates the structure and physical function of the instrument. The Hornbostel-Sachs classification (from the ...

Article

[Aerophon]

A device invented by the German flautist Bernhard Samuels in 1911. By means of a tube with a mouthpiece, it provides players of wind instruments with air from bellows operated by the foot and thus enables them to sustain notes indefinitely as on the organ. Although Richard Strauss called for it in his ...

Article

Robert Walser

American hard rock band. Formed in 1970, the band's best-known line-up was Steven Tyler (Steven Tallerico; b New York, 26 March 1948; vocals), Joe Perry (b Boston, 10 Sept 1950; guitar), Brad Whitford (bReading, MA, 23 Feb 1952; guitar), Tom Hamilton (b Colorado Springs, CO, 31 Dec 1951; bass) and Joey Kramer (b New York, 21 June 1950; drums). The band was initially dismissed by critics, who saw them as imitators of the Rolling Stones, in part because of Tyler's physical resemblance to Mick Jagger. However, by 1976 they were major stars and ended up being very influential on subsequent bands in their own right. Although sometimes considered a heavy metal band, their loose rhythmic feel, Perry's blue-style guitar solos and Tyler's diverse lyrical topics separate them from that genre. They have succeeded with riff-oriented rock songs but also power ballads such as Dream on...

Article

Robert Pernet

[Josse]

(bAntwerp, Belgium, Nov 11, 1903; dKeerbergen, Belgium, Sept 9, 1973). Belgiandrummer. He first performed as a teenager in revues and minstrel acts, and in the 1920s he worked with local bands in Antwerp and Ostend. He then became a member of the big band led by Chas Remue (1929) and played with Gus Deloof (1931) and in an orchestra led by the Dutch bandleader Jack de Vries (1932). In 1936 he joined a newly formed big band led by Stan Brenders, and he worked with this group, which was the official jazz orchestra of Belgian radio, until the end of World War II. Later he played for various bandleaders, including Fud Candrix, Deloof, and Jean Omer, and worked as a freelance throughout Belgium. Among the musicians with whom he recorded were Remue (1929), Jack and Louis de Vries (...