(b Mânerău, Arad district, Dec 17, 1863; d Lugoj, Feb 7, 1931). Romanian composer, choral conductor, and folklorist. He began his musical studies at the Conservatorium der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Arad (Austro-Hungarian Empire) (1880–81), and continued them in Caransebeş (1885) and at the Conservatory of Music and Declamation, Iaşi (1890–91). In Iaşi he studied harmony, composition, and choral conducting with Gavriil Musicescu, a well-trained musician who had studied in Saint Petersburg. He was a music teacher and choir conductor (with the Reuniunea română de muzică şi cântări (‘Romanian Convention for Music and Song’) in Lugoj), and he managed the most important local institution dedicated to the promotion of national culture – the Asociaţia corurilor şi fanfarelor române din Banat (‘The Choral and Brass Band Society of Banat’, 1888–1927). He was a passionate folklore collector active in Western Transylvania and the Banat (he had connections with Bartók, Musicescu, and Kiriac-Georgescu). His exclusively choral compositions are representative of both lay works (folklore adaptations, patriotic songs, etc.) and religious ones, inspired by the Orthodox chanting music from the Banat. His first collection of choruses, ...
revised by Laura Otilia Vasiliu
(b Hetes, nr Kaposvár, April 1, 1859; d Dunavecse, nr Dunaújváros, Sept 22, 1945). Hungarian folklorist . After graduating in literature and linguistics from Budapest University (1877–84), he worked as employee and subsequently director of the stenography department of the Hungarian parliament, 1889–1921. He was a founding member and the first secretary of the Hungarian Ethnographic Society (1896). In the course of his extensive fieldwork he used his shorthand skills to transcribe and fit the folksong texts to the melodies which at that time were recorded on an Edison phonograph. His new method, which he demonstrated at the international music congress held at the Paris World Exposition in 1900 (Congrès international de musique: Paris 1900), gained him wider recognition. Most of the melodies from his phonograph cylinders were transcribed by Bartók who, along with Kodály, greatly appreciated his work.‘Élő nyelvemlékek’ [Living linguistic monuments], ...
(b Jerez de la Frontera, June 27, 1770; d Madrid, May 13, 1840). Spanish music theorist . A career officer in the Spanish army, he rose to field marshal and director of the Toledo Colegio de Infantería. He was also a man of letters, poet and translator of Voltaire. In 1824 he published in Madrid his Cartilla harmónica, ó El contrapunto explicado en seis lecciones, and in 1831 a much-expanded version of his theory, La geneuphonía ó Generación de la bien-sonancia música, which also appeared in English (London, 1850), translated and substantially revised by F.T.A. Chaluz de Vernevil. The presentation in both these works is coloured by an irritation against the obfuscation of professional music theorists, their unintelligible jargon and multiplication of rules. Virués sought ‘one basic principle, unique and simple’ from which all musical practice could be deduced, and he claimed to have found it in what he called ‘polytonaganism’, the application of which would allow the study of harmony to be completed within a month, thus rendering all previous theories obsolete. In this Virués appears to have been something of an autodidactic crank, especially since his system in its fully developed form was hardly less complicated and had a terminology of its own hardly less arcane than any it was designed to replace. However, his work was given some importance by its adoption as the official method of the Madrid Conservatory in its early years....
(Eduard Bernhard )
(b Wriezen an der Oder, Jan 21, 1859; d Nikolassee, nr Berlin, June 18, 1908). German musicologist . After studying music privately in Dresden and Berlin he was a music history pupil of Spitta and took a degree in philology at the universities of Berlin and Greifswald (1880–83). Subsequently he travelled in Italy on a Prussian government grant as an assistant to F.X. Haberl in his work on an edition of Palestrina; after his return he took the doctorate at the University of Berlin with a dissertation on Monteverdi (1887). From 1893 he was in charge of setting up the Peters music library (Leipzig), of which he became the first librarian (1895), building it into one of the biggest private libraries in Europe, concurrently serving as founder and first editor of the Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters until ill-health obliged him to retire (...
Francisco J. Albo
(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...
(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...
(b Weimar, Jan 23, 1762; d Weimar, June 26, 1827). German writer . A copyist’s son from a large family, he was mostly self-educated as a youth. Later he studied law at Jena and Erlangen, then supported himself and his siblings by his pen. Goethe, who lived with and subsequently married Vulpius’s sister Christiane, tried to help him secure various positions. Vulpius translated and adapted Italian and German opera texts for the Bellomo company at Weimar during the 1780s, and supplied over two dozen new versions of previously composed operas to the Weimar court theatre, under Goethe’s direction from 1791 to 1817. On obtaining a position in the Weimar library in 1797, Vulpius turned to cultural-historical studies. The University of Jena conferred the PhD on him in 1809, and in 1816 he was knighted by the Weimar court. Vulpius’s original librettos, like his popular novels, show a decided taste for the sentimental, picaresque and supernatural. During the 1790s his revisions of several of Schikaneder’s librettos – by no means improvements – sparked a war of words between the two....
John A. Emerson
(b Kürenz, nr Trier, Aug 19, 1865; d Fribourg, Oct 17, 1931). German musicologist and medievalist . He studied under Michael Hermesdorff at the Cathedral music school in Trier (1876–86), and at the University of Strasbourg he studied classics and then musicology (under Jacobsthal), taking the doctorate in 1890 with a dissertation on Palestrina as a secular composer. He continued his studies in Berlin with Bellermann and Spitta. In 1893 he was appointed lecturer in music history and church music at the University of Fribourg, where he remained for 38 years, becoming professor (1902) and rector (1920–21). Under the patronage of Pope Leo XIII Wagner founded the Académie Grégorienne at the university in 1901; under its auspices a series of more than 20 monographs on medieval chant was published. In 1904 Wagner was appointed to the Pontifical Commission for the preparation of the Editio Vaticana chant books. During the ensuing controversy surrounding their publication, Wagner staunchly defended the principles of restoration used by the board of editors. He was a member of many scholarly societies, and in ...
J.A. Fuller Maitland
revised by David Charlton and Suzanne M. Lodato
(b Brno, Nov 16, 1860; d Vienna, April 24, 1917). Austrian writer on music . He studied law and philosophy in Vienna, Heidelberg and Tübingen (1878–85), and graduated in philosophy at Tübingen in 1885 and law at Berne in 1886. After the publication in 1886 of his Ästhetik der Tonkunst he became a lecturer in philosophy in Freiburg. From 1890 to 1895 he studied in London, and in 1896 he went to the University of Vienna to lecture on the psychology and aesthetics of music. In 1908 he was made an extraordinary (unsalaried) professor, and in 1911 a salaried university professor. He taught the aesthetics of music in the conservatory of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde (1900–02) and also wrote music articles and reviews for Die Zeit (1896–1904).
According to Graf (1974), Wallaschek's appointment in 1896 to the University of Vienna marks the beginning of the field of comparative musicology. Noted for his positivistic and empirical approach to musicological study, in ...
(b Munich, Aug 20, 1876; d Munich, Oct 29, 1956). German musicologist. She studied in Munich at the Akademie der Tonkunst and with Sandberger and Kroyer at the university, where she took the doctorate in 1910 with a dissertation on music of the 16th and 17th centuries. Subsequently she worked with Sandberger, preparing inventories for Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Bayern, including a catalogue of Michael Haydn's works in the Bavarian State Library. After holding an appointment at the Salzburg Mozarteum (1942–5), she returned to Munich and continued her research on Bavarian music to the end of her life. She drew attention to many previously neglected sources of music and documents of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries and did much to define the musical character of Munich and Bavaria in those periods. Her editions include performing editions of Beethoven's piano sonatas (Munich, 1952–3) and piano pieces by Mozart (Munich, ...
Esther R. Crookshank
(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.
With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...
(b Freinsheim, nr Mannheim, March 1, 1779; d Bad Kreuznach, Sept 21, 1839). German composer and theorist. As a child, he studied the flute and piano, and later the organ and cello. In 1802, after studying law, he settled as a lawyer in Mannheim. There he composed, founded a musical society and conducted concerts; and he befriended Carl Maria von Weber (who was no relation) and Meyerbeer. In 1814 he moved to Mainz and in 1819 to Darmstadt, where he continued his legal career and became Grossherzoglicher Generalstaatsprokurator (General State Prosecutor).
Weber's musical achievements include writings about acoustics, music history, performing practice and theoretical issues; the founding in 1824 of the music journal Cäcilia; and the invention of a chronometer that initially rivalled Maelzel's metronome and a double-slide trombone, considered a predecessor of the Wagner tuba. He was the first to question the complete authenticity of Mozart's Requiem. As a composer, he is recognized for his through-composed lieder and his church music....
(b Erfurt, April 21, 1864; d Munich, June 14, 1920). German social economist and sociologist . He held professorial appointments in economics and sociology at the universities of Berlin (1893), Freiburg (1894), Heidelberg (1897–1903) and Munich (1920). He is regarded as the founder of comprehensive sociology which he developed from the social theories of Hegel, Comte and Marx and the historical philosophies of Dilthey, Windelband and Simmel. He avoided monocausal interpretations and stressed the concrete relationships between a spiritual climate and the corresponding material (economic and political) historical data. The range of his writings reflects his sharp distinction between the sociologist’s freedom of evaluation and socially relevant comment (which he considered a non-scientific process and not a task of the sociologist), for the conservative outlook of his political writings frequently conflicts with the perspective of his scientific works. In his only substantial musico-sociological work, ‘Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik’ (Eng. trans., ...
revised by Fiona Clampin
(b Guebwiller, Nov 9, 1821; d Trottberg, nr Guebwiller, May 20, 1910). French folklorist, bibliographer and composer. Destined by his father for a career in industry he studied chemistry, but in 1843 ran away to Paris to study music. He was accepted at the Conservatoire shortly thereafter despite his lack of musical training and studied composition (with Halévy), harmony and singing. After leaving the Conservatoire he earned his living by teaching music, and from 1850 to 1855 he was the choir conductor of the Société Ste Cécile, founded and directed by F.-J.-B. Seghers; there Weckerlin gained familiarity with major choral works and was able to have his own compositions performed. Several operas and orchestral works also helped to make his name in the 1850s. In 1863 he became librarian and archivist of the Société des Compositeurs de Musique. He was appointed clerk to the librarian of the Conservatoire in ...
Robert W. Wason
(b Berlin, Aug 10, 1808; d Berlin, Nov 7, 1880). German music theorist . He studied violin and composition with Carl Henning and Bernhard Klein in Berlin in the mid 1820s, and composition and theory with Spohr and Moritz Hauptmann in Kassel (1827–32). In Riga, he composed for a Liedertafel that he founded with Heinrich Dorn (1832); appointed music director in Reval (now Tallin) in 1834, he composed three operas, all unsuccessful. His later return to Berlin brought with it a second period of compositional activity, but all his works are of purely historical interest. In 1836 he began a ten-year career in court orchestras in St Petersburg, where he seems also to have begun the collection of rare musical books and folk material that was essential to his later scholarly activities. On retirement, with a substantial pension, he set off on a concert tour of Lapland and Finland (where he also collected folk music), followed by brief orchestral engagements in Paris and London. In ...
(b Oderzo, Sept 24, 1849; d Venice, Feb 17, 1920). Italian musicologist . While studying law and philosophy in Venice he was taught harmony and counterpoint by Tonassi and Maggi. He became one of the first active musicologists in Italy, serving as an assistant librarian of the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice and head of the Venetian chapter of the Associazione dei Musicologi Italiani, under whose auspices he began the catalogue of the Marciana’s extensive musical holdings (first section published 1915–16). His most important publication, I codici musicali contariniani del secolo XVII (1888), became fundamental to scholarship on Venetian seicento opera, subsequently developed in the studies of Kretzschmar (1892) and Goldschmidt (1893).
His particular interest in Francesco Cavalli, whose operas constitute the largest single section of the Contarini collection, yielded one of the first significant documentary monographs on that composer. As president of the concert society of the Liceo Musicale (later the Conservatorio Nazionale di Musica Benedetto Marcello) in Venice he organized one of the first concerts devoted exclusively to Cavalli’s music (...
(b Berlin, Jan 28, 1784; d Berlin, Feb 19, 1852). German musicologist . He studied law at the University of Halle and was appointed a judge in Breslau in 1816. He returned to Berlin in 1832, and was made an honorary member of the Prussian Academy of the Arts in 1839. He was a corresponding member of the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst and one of the founders of the Bach-Gesellschaft.
During a journey he made to Italy in 1812, of which he kept a diary, Winterfeld transcribed compositions of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries; the collection he left is now in the Staatsbibliothekzu Berlin. His work Johannes Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter (1834) is not only a biography of the composer but also a history of music of the city of Venice. In his study of Lutheran church music he regarded the song settings of Johannes Eccard as the most valuable works in that field, as they conform to the chorale; the works of Schütz and Bach, in his view, maintain their position as sacred music, though not as music for the church....
Zygmunt M. Szweykowski
(b Lemberg [now L′viv], Aug 6, 1890; d Warsaw, April 11, 1938). Polish musicologist. She studied philosophy and mathematics, and musicology with Chybiński at Lwów University, taking the doctorate in 1917 with a dissertation on Johann Fischer. She was an assistant in the musicology department of Lwów University (1919–25) and professor of music at the Lwów Conservatory (1919–20). She completed the Habilitation in musicology at the University of Kraków in 1934. Most of her research was devoted to the music of Chopin. Her most valuable work is her book Melodyka Chopina (1930), the first extended study on the subject.‘Tańce polskie Jana Fischera z Augsburga’ [Polish dances by Johann Fischer of Augsburg], KM , 2 (1913–14), 83–90; repr. in Szkice muzykologiczne (1923) Tańce polskie Jana Fischera z Augsburga [Polish dances by Johann Fischer of Augsburg] (diss., U. of Lwów, 1917) ‘Johann Fischer von Augsburg (1646–1721) als Suitenkomponist’, ...
revised by Pamela M. Potter
(b Berlin, April 17, 1869; d Munich, May 25, 1947). German musicologist . In addition to his practical music studies at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, Wolf studied musicology (under Spitta and Heinrich Bellermann) and German literature at the University of Berlin. He took the doctorate under Riemann at Leipzig in 1893 with a dissertation on an anonymous music treatise of the 11th–12th centuries. After studying medieval music sources in France and Italy he completed the Habilitation in 1902 at Berlin University with a work on Florence and 14th-century music history, and lectured on early music history and church music. From 1899 to 1903 he was secretary of the new International Music Society. He became professor in 1907. From 1908 until 1927 he also taught at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in Berlin. In 1915 he became director of the early music collection at the Prussian State Library, Berlin, and in ...