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Article

Jiří Fukač and Geoffrey Chew

(Xavier Alois)

(b Opočno, July 31, 1830; d Budweis [now České Budějovice], Aug 19, 1892). Czech composer, theorist, and teacher. Born into an educated family of physicians, he attended grammar school in Königgrätz (now Hradec Králové) and Prague, and medical school in Prague and Vienna for four terms before giving up medicine in favour of music. He had been a keen amateur musician and composer since he was 12 and had graduated from the Prague Organ School, where he was a pupil of Karel Pitsch (1846–7). After two years as a music teacher to Count Hardegg of Seefeld he studied with J.B. Kittl in Prague for a short time. From 1854 to 1866 he worked in Innsbruck, first as a theatre conductor, then as the director of the musical society and as choirmaster at the university church. There he performed symphonic and choral music, taught at the school attached to the musical society and wrote operas (which were unsuccessful). He failed to win the position of director of the Prague Conservatory (...

Article

Theodore Levin

(b Detroit, March 15, 1943). American ethnomusicologist . He received the BA (1964) and the PhD (1969) at Michigan University, the latter under W.P. Malm. In 1971 he was appointed to the faculty of Wesleyan University, where he was made professor in 1984. He served as editor of Asian Music (1972–87) president of the Society for Asian Music (1987–9) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1989–91). The focus of his early work was the music of Central Asia, particularly of northern Afghanistan, where he conducted fieldwork (1967–8, 1971 and 1972). In the mid-1970s he turned his attention to Eastern European Jewish music, concentrating on music found in the USA. His ethnographic work on Yiddish songs, Yiddish theatre, Klezmer musicians and cantors was complemented by research and writing on the theory and method of ethnomusicology. He has been in the forefront of efforts to forge links between ethnomusicology and sister disciplines such as folklore, performance studies, anthropology, sociolinguistics and cultural studies; he has also made documentary videos and directed theatre projects. As an educator, he has played a key role in the development of the World Music Program at Wesleyan University and its model of a ‘world music community’. He has also worked to open up a dialogue with scholars in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe....

Article

Paula Morgan and Israel J. Katz

(b New York, Aug 8, 1905; d Washington, CT, Sept 19, 1994). American musicologist and music librarian. He took the BA and MA at Harvard University (1927 and 1928), and was also music critic for the Boston Transcript (1927–8). In 1930 he took the doctorate at Vienna University with a dissertation on Austro-Spanish relations in the 17th century, and then returned to the USA to join the history faculty of Columbia University (1931–5). In 1931 he was appointed chief of the music division of the New York Public Library, a position he held until his retirement in 1959, and where he developed an extensive collection of American music and conceived the idea of a ‘library-museum’, which was realized in 1965. From 1939 to 1967 he taught music and history at New York University and in 1967 he became director of the Spanish Institute, New York. Upon his retirement he, together with Ernesto da Cal, established the Brazilian Institute at New York University. From ...

Article

Leta Miller

(b Rochester, NY, Nov 4, 1933; d Reno, NV, Sept 1, 2009). American musicologist and flutist. She completed the BA in European history at Smith College (1954), the MM in flute performance at Northwestern University (1957), and the DMA in 18th-century performance practice at Stanford University (1969). Her doctoral work centered on flute method books of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Smith served on the faculty of the University of Nevada, Reno from 1969 to 2000 and was principal flutist with the Reno Philharmonic up until 1999.

Smith’s published work centered on three areas: music in Los Angeles (including a study of the life and work of composer Mary Carr Moore); music and feminism; and the work of African American composer William Grant Still. Her explorations of Moore’s work-including a biography (1987), an edition of some of her songs (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Pittsburg, KS, Nov 15, 1925). American musicologist. After taking the BA at Hamline University in 1950, Smither undertook graduate work at Cornell University, where he studied musicology with Donald Grout and William Austin and music theory with Robert Palmer; he received the MA in 1952. From 1953 to 1954 he studied musicology with Rudolf von Ficker at the University of Munich. Returning to America, he received the PhD from Cornell in 1960. He began teaching at the Oberlin College Conservatory of Music in 1955 and remained there until 1960. He taught at the University of Kansas (1960–63) and at Tulane University (1963–8). In 1968 he joined the music faculty of the University of North Carolina where he was James Gordon Hanes Professor of music from 1979. He was elected president of the American Musicological Society for the period 1980–82 and he received a Fulbright fellowship to lecture at the Moscow Conservatory in ...

Article

(b London, July 21, 1892; d Weeley, Essex, Aug 17, 1974). English educationist and musicologist. He studied at Battersea Training College and King’s College, London (BMus 1928), where A.W. Reed encouraged his research into medieval music drama (PhD 1940). From 1934 to 1947 he taught at Stratford Grammar School (where he had himself been a pupil) and from 1948 to 1962 at Cheshire County Training College as senior lecturer in music and lecturer in English. In 1967–8 he lectured at SUNY. Where previous scholars had largely concentrated on the literary texts of medieval music dramas Smoldon was chiefly concerned with their musical presentation in practical performing editions. He published acting editions of eight dramas, notably the plays of Daniel and Herod (both London, 1960) and the Visitatio sepulchri (London, 1964). He also published a number of songs, partsongs, piano pieces and suites.

The Plainsong Music-Drama of the Mediaeval Church...

Article

Josef Bek

(b Prague, April 8, 1933; d Prague, August 19, 2011). Czech musicologist and composer. He studied musicology with Očadlík and Sychra at Prague University (1951–6). His diploma work on Vycpálek’s evolution as a composer (1956) determined his further scholarly interests in the history and theory of Czech 20th-century music. He also studied composition with Dobiáš (1953–6), though he devoted comparatively little time to composing thereafter. He worked for the gramophone company Supraphon (1956–62), from 1959 as a writer of sleeve notes and music producer. In 1962 he joined the music faculty of the Prague Academy, where he became lecturer in music theory (1968). He obtained the CSc in 1964 with a standard work on the Czech cantata between the wars for which he was awarded the doctorate in 1966. He became professor and head of the department of theory and history of music (...

Article

Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Leninakon [now Gryumri, Armenia], April 7, 1924; d Leningrad, March 12, 1977). Soviet musicologist, aesthetician, sociologist and critic. He graduated in 1949 from the faculty of theory and composition at the Leningrad Conservatory, in 1953 from the Research Institute of Theatre and Music, and in 1954 from the philosophy department of Leningrad University. A year later he joined the staff of the Leningrad Institute of Theatre, Music and Cinematography, and in 1968 was also appointed to a professorship at the Leningrad Conservatory. He was awarded the Kanditat degree in 1954 for his dissertation on populist song during World War II and received the doctorate in 1965 for his dissertation on Borodin. In 1976 he initiated the formation of the Soviet Union’s first department of music criticism, at the Leningrad Conservatory. In the last ten years of his life he was a director of the criticism and music studies divisions of the Leningrad Union of Composers and of the Union of Composers of the USSR....

Article

Nicola Scaldaferri

(b Shkodër, Albania, 14 June 1920; d Tirana, 12 March 2008). Albanian ethnomusicologist, musician, composer, and writer. He began his musical studies as a boy in Shkodër. In the years between 1940 and 1944 he studied the flute and composition at the Conservatory of Florence, Italy. Back in Albania in the early years of the Hoxha regime, Sokoli was imprisoned, as were other scholars who had studied abroad, and he spent five years in incarceration.

In 1952 he moved to Tirana, where he taught the flute and folklore in the high school. Although he was not qualified to teach at the higher academic level, he played a key role in musical research in Albania. He collaborated on ethnomusicological expeditions carried out in 1957 with East German scholars and in 1958 with Romanian scholars.

He was the author of numerous pioneering books and articles on Albanian musical folklore, employing both descriptive and analytical approaches, as well as surveying important figures of the musical, and wider cultural, Albanian tradition. His writings and ideas shaped the discipline and educated two generations of Albanians ethnomusicologists, including scholars in Kosovo. His many publications include the books ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, May 17, 1942). American musicologist. She graduated from Smith College with the BA in 1964 and then moved to Chicago University, where she gained the MA (1966) and the PhD with a dissertation on melody analysis (1977), studying with Leonard B. Meyer. She taught at Mary Baldwin College (1972–4), after which she joined the faculty at Smith College and became professor of music there in 1988. She has held visiting appointments at Yale University and Columbia University. Solie approaches 19th-century theory and criticism from a feminist perspective and has been active in the development of women's studies within the discipline of musicology. Her work also focusses on social and intellectual history, particularly in Europe. She has been an active member of the American Musicological Society and was president for the term 1999–2000.

Metaphor and Model in the Analysis of Melody...

Article

L.M. Butir

revised by Larisa Georgievna Danko

(b Vitebsk, 20 Nov/Dec 3, 1902; d Novosibirsk, Feb 11, 1944). Russian musicologist, and theatre and music critic. He studied at the University of Petrograd (1921–4), specializing in Romano-Germanic philology and Spanish Classical literature. At the same time he studied drama at the Institute for the History of the Arts, graduating in 1923 and later pursuing postgraduate studies (1926–9). Apart from a few lessons in conducting from Malko in the mid-1920s, he was musically self-taught. While still young, his phenomenal memory, wide knowledge and linguistic mastery made him a well-known figure in academic circles. From 1923 he lectured in the history of literature, the theatre, music, psychology and aesthetics in various higher education establishments in Leningrad, including the Conservatory, where he became a professor in 1939. For 12 years from 1929 he was a lecturer at the Leningrad Philharmonic, and was also in charge of its repertory section. Later he became editor of the Philharmonic publishing house (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(Elliott )

(b New York, Jan 5, 1930). American musicologist . He graduated from Brooklyn College, CUNY, with a BA in 1950 and pursued graduate studies at Columbia University, 1950–52. In 1979 he was an adjunct associate professor at the Graduate School, CUNY, and between 1988 and 1994 he held visiting professorships at SUNY Stony Brook, Columbia University, Harvard University and Yale University. In 1998 he joined the graduate faculty of the Juilliard School of Music. Solomon was co-founder and co-owner of the Vanguard Recording Society Inc., which issued numerous recordings between 1950 and 1986.

Solomon has specialized in the music of the Classical period, particularly that of Beethoven, Mozart and Schubert. His 1977 biography of Beethoven, which is a psychological study, has been widely praised as a definitive work and has been translated into many languages. His book on Mozart (1995), in which Leopold Mozart is cast in a negative light, has caused debate among scholars, as has Solomon’s discussion of Schubert’s sexuality (...

Article

István Kecskeméti

revised by Zsuzsanna Domokos

(b Jászladány, Aug 15, 1934). Hungarian musicologist. He studied musicology at the Budapest Academy under Bartha, Bárdos, Gárdonyi and Szabolcsi (1953–8), graduating in 1959 with a dissertation on the development of the Classical quartet by Haydn. He was music librarian at the National Széchényi Library (1958–62) and in 1963 joined the staff of the Bartók Archives (from 1969 the Institute of Musicology of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), of which he subsequently became director (1972). He joined the musicology faculty of the Budapest Academy in 1969, first as a lecturer, and from 1980 as professor; in 1997 he became director of the PhD course in musicology. He was awarded the doctorate from the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1982 for his book on Haydn's piano sonatas. He was visiting professor at CUNY and Berkeley in 1984 and 1989.

Somfai is one of the leading personalities of Hungarian musicology, and has done much to facilitate Hungarian access to the latest international research. One of his main areas of study is the 18th century, especially the works of Haydn. He proved that the quartets op.3 attributed to Haydn are not his compositions; he also produced the first scholarly iconography of the composer. The focus of his 18th-century research is the connection between notation and performing practice; he was among the first in Hungary to promote historically-informed performance styles. His other main area of exploration is 20th-century music, and he is one of the foremost Bartók scholars. In addition to working on the complete edition and preparing the thematic catalogue of Bartók's works, he has written the first systematic treatment of Bartók's working practices, sketches, and the relationship between notation and performance by the composer (...

Article

Gerard Béhague

(b Mexico City, Nov 11, 1932). Mexican ethnomusicologist, singer, percussionist and music administrator. She studied at the Colegio Juan de Dios Peza in San Luis Potosí (BA in philosophy and letters), the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City (singing and percussion, 1959–67) and the Idyllwild School of Music of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles (1965–70). Concurrently she lectured extensively on Mexican folk music in the USA and Europe and pursued a career as a performer. In 1966 she became head of the Sección de Investigaciones Musicales and in 1974 director of the Centro Nacional de Investigación, Documentación e Información Musical of the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes and of the instrument museum of the same institute, where she also inaugurated the annual courses in ethnomusicology (1967–72). As an official researcher of the institute, she has studied and published in the areas of Mexican music history, folklore, dance, and ethnomusicology....

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Paula Matthews and Jon Stroop

(b Minneapolis, Feb 19, 1920; d Port Charlotte, FL, Oct 13, 2002). Black American musicologist. She attended the Chicago Musical College, studying the piano, and the University of Chicago, where she took the BA in 1940 and the MA in 1941. She then taught at Southern University (1943–5; 1949–51) and was active as a concert pianist (1940–55). She continued her graduate studies under Gustave Reese at New York University, where in 1961 she took the PhD. In 1960 she was appointed to the faculty at Brooklyn College; in 1969 she became associated with York College of the City University of New York, where she was appointed professor of music in 1972. She was made professor of music at Harvard University in 1976 and she served on the AMS board of directors (1974–6) and the editorial boards of the Journal of the American Musicological Society...

Article

Lucija Bodić

(b Zaglav on Dugi otok [Long Island] near Zadar, June 11, 1934). Croatian musicologist and Franciscan brother. Špralja graduated from the Faculty of Theology in Zagreb. In 1961 he was ordained in Zadar. During this time he attended a musical seminar with Albe Vidaković and took private lessons in music (with fr. A. Crnković). Later he graduated from the Institute for Church Music in Zagreb (1963–7), and then gained the master’s degree in musicology from the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome (1967–70) and the doctorate at the Faculty of Theology (1998). During the early 1970s he taught music in high schools and from 1973 at the Institute for Church music where he remained until his retirement in 2000. He contributed to the Institution’s work by writing textbooks (Povijest gregorijanskog pjevanja [The history of Gregorian singing] and Povijest crkvene glazbe Crkve u Hrvata...

Article

Sofia Kontossi

[Leda]

(b Heraklion, Crete, Nov 4, 1971). Greek professor and researcher. After graduating from the School of Early Childhood Education (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1993), she completed doctoral studies in music education (Michigan State University, 1998) supported by a Fulbright scholarship. She also specialized in music learning theory and Suzuki pedagogy on scholarships from the Gordon Institute for Music Learning and the Suzuki Association of the Americas respectively, and in Orff pedagogy as well.

She has taught at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (1998–2000), where she served also as Director of both the Orff-Schulwerk Teacher Certification Program and the Early Childhood Music Program. In 2000 she started teaching at the University of Macedonia, Greece, Department of Music Science and Art, where she has been active as scientific coordinator in teacher training and specialization programs.

She is a member of numerous scientific journal review boards (...

Article

Gwynne Kuhner Brown

(Lawrence)

(b Brooklyn, NY, April 17, 1946). American musicologist. He received the BA in music from Queens College of the City University of New York (1967) and the doctorate from the University of California, Berkeley (1973). He taught at the State University of New York at Stony Brook from 1970 until 1977, when he joined the music history faculty of the University of Washington. He was promoted to Professor in 1993. A dedicated teacher, he has been formally recognized by the University of Washington for his outstanding contributions to undergraduate education. He served as a member of the Society for American Music Board of Trustees from 2005–8.

Starr’s scholarship combines cultural insight, rigorous musical analysis, and accessibility. Much of his research focuses on American music of the 20th century, particularly the works of George Gershwin, Aaron Copland, and Charles Ives. He co-authored with Christopher Waterman the widely used textbook ...

Article

Miroslav K. Černý

(b Kosmonosy, nr Mladá Boleslav, Jan 22, 1861; d Mladá Boleslav, March 13, 1918). Czech theorist, composer and teacher. Having studied law and aesthetics at Prague University, and at the Organ School, he turned at first to music criticism. In 1885 he was appointed teacher at the Organ School, and in 1889, after the school was joined to the conservatory, he became professor of composition, organ, theory and history of music. He tended in his compositions mostly to church music, in strict ecclesiastical style, which also attracted his interest as a theorist. Stecker was a very intelligent musician with scientific aspirations. He published the first Czech textbook on musical forms and their history, and he was the first Czech theorist to apply the analysis of musical form in practice as a teacher.

(selective list)

many MSS in CZ-Pk

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Oak Park, IL, Feb 2, 1931). American musicologist. She studied with Jan LaRue and Hubert Lamb at Wellesley College, receiving the BA in 1952. After working with Reese at the Manhattan School of Music from 1952 to 1953, she completed the MA at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1957 and in 1963 she took the doctorate at the Catholic University of America, where she joined the faculty the same year. She was made full professor in 1974. Her main area of study has been medieval liturgical music. Her articles in scholarly journals have dealt primarily with groups of chants in the Sarum and Gregorian rites, the manuscript sources for these compositions, and problems of style analysis and dating. She was also director of the CANTUS project (1987–97), originally developed at the Catholic University of America, which indexes selected chant sources; the files are available online, and printouts are issued by the Institute of Mediaeval Music, Ottawa....