(b Brussels, June 21, 1964). Belgian double bass player. Self-taught, he first played guitar and electric bass guitar at the age of 11. He took up double bass when he was 14 and played with a dixieland band before turning to modern-jazz styles; from around the age of 18 he began to rehearse and to give concerts with Charles Loos. From the mid-1980s he performed and recorded with Félix Simtaine’s Act Big Band and accompanied such visiting soloists as Joe Lovano, Joe Henderson, Larry Schneider, Ali Ryerson, Steve Grossman, Chet Baker, Dave Kikoski, Richard Beirach, and Tom Harrell. He recorded as the leader of a trio (1994) and as a sideman with Loos (from 1987), Jacques Pelzer (1993), Steve Houben (1994), and Lew Tabackin (1996), and appeared at many European jazz festivals. In December 1996 Aerts performed in a trio with Loos and Simtaine in Shanghai, and in summer ...
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(b Antwerp, bap. May 22, 1586; d Antwerp, bur. April 14, 1658). Flemish printer, active in Antwerp. He issued his first publication in 1613 and in 1640 his son Hendrik Aertssens (ii) (b Antwerp, bap. 17 April 1622; d Brussels, 30 Sept 1663) joined the firm. The Aertssens were well known for their publications of sacred vernacular songs, particularly Het paradys der gheestelycke en kerckelycke lofsanghen which was reprinted five times. Hendrik Aertssens (iii) (b Antwerp, bap. 27 Dec 1661; d Antwerp, 16 July 1741) also became a printer, obtaining his patent in 1686. He continued the work of his stepfather Lucas de Potter and his mother. By clever scheming he managed to establish a virtual monopoly of music publishing for the Flemish region; however, his publications, mostly reprints and mainly of Italian music, were criticized by contemporaries, including Sir John Hawkins, for their poor typography....
revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen and Robert Anderson
(b Eleusis [now Elefsina], 525
Probably the earliest of Aeschylus’s plays was the Persians (472
William S. Rockstro
revised by Mary Berry
A technical pseudo-word formed from the vowels of ‘Alleluia’ and used in medieval service books as an abbreviation in the same manner as Evovae. Steinmeyer has shown that the abbreviation of biblical words and phrases through the use of the vowels alone was not unusual even as early as the second half of the 11th century. Aevia and Evovae, however, are in a special category since both sprang from a musical rather than a purely scribal necessity, i.e. to show singers the exact underlay of syllables; Aevia appears to have been used less frequently than Evovae.
Unless little space was available, scribes preparing pages for musical notation generally preferred to write the word ‘alleluia’ in full. For simple settings, they might use one of the normal scribal abbreviations, such as ‘allā’. However, of all the forms of abbreviation Aevia was the only one that could show with precision the correct underlay of the text in a florid musical setting....
(b Tobol′sk, 31 Dec/Jan 12, 1821; d St Petersburg, 22 May/June 3, 1898). Russian violinist and composer. He received his musical education from his father, the violinist Yakov Ivanovich Afanas′yev, an illegitimate son of the writer and poet Prince Ivan Dolgorukov. In 1836 he made his début as a violinist in Moscow, and two years later was appointed leader of the Bol′shoy Theatre Orchestra. He resigned in 1841 to become conductor of the serf orchestra maintained by the wealthy landowner I.D. Shepelyov at Vïksa, near St Petersburg. In 1846 he decided to pursue a career as a solo violinist and toured the major provincial cities of Russia, settling in St Petersburg in 1851. There he made occasional appearances as a soloist, and also led the orchestra of the Italian Opera, sometimes deputizing for the regular conductor. In 1853 he became a piano teacher at the Smol′nïy Institute and relinquished his orchestral post. He visited western Europe in ...
(b Moscow, Sept 8, 1947). Russian pianist, conductor, writer and poet. A student of Yakov Zak and Emil Gilels at the Moscow Conservatory (1965–73), he won the 1968 Leipzig Bach Competition, four years later taking the gold medal at the Queen Elisabeth Competition in Brussels. After seeking political asylum in Belgium in 1974, he settled in France in 1980, but since 1989 he has returned regularly to his native country for concerts and recordings. Intent on philosophical truths more than absolutes of pianistic finish, placing emotions of the mind and spirit above ‘outward prettiness’, Afanassiev is a provocatively inspirational artist, indebted on his own admission to many of the great individualists of the past: Gilels, Gould, Horowitz, Michelangeli, Rachmaninoff and Sofronitsky all receive tribute in his ‘Homages & Ecstasies’ album (1996). Partial to mono/duographic programming, with a repertory extending from Froberger to Crumb, his extensive discography includes Bach (Book 1 of ...
Tom R. Ward
revised by David Fallows
(fl ?c1430). Composer, possibly Italian. He may have been active in Brescia, if that is indeed the origin of the manuscript I-Bu 2216, which contains his only known work. This is a Sanctus (ed. in MLMI, 3rd ser., Mensurabilia, iii, vol.ii, 1970, pp.86–8), written in major prolation, with two equal high voices in florid style over a tenor....
Opera in one act, op.99, by Felix Werder to a libretto by Leonard Radic; Sydney, Opera House, 14 March 1974.
Lady Celia (soprano) sets a trap for her apparently unfaithful husband, Sir Reginald (tenor), the Australian High Commissioner, who spends too much time with Olivia Tomas (mezzo-soprano), the wife of the South American Ambassador. Lady Celia plans an opera performance to celebrate the Queen’s birthday and offers Sir Reginald and Olivia roles. When the opera begins, it becomes clear that the plot is a slice of Sir Reginald’s own life. He tries to break out of the scene but cannot. When Olivia shoots him as rehearsed, the ‘dummy’ gun turns out to be real and Sir Reginald collapses. Neither woman is responsible: Gregory Jones (baritone), the Second Secretary, loaded the gun knowing that it would be fired at his superior, a man who had long denied him promotion and had incessantly ridiculed him....
George J. Buelow
In its German form, a term first employed extensively by German musicologists, beginning with Kretzschmar, Goldschmidt and Schering, to describe in Baroque music an aesthetic concept originally derived from Greek and Latin doctrines of rhetoric and oratory. Just as, according to ancient writers such as Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian, orators employed the rhetorical means to control and direct the emotions of their audiences, so, in the language of classical rhetoric manuals and also Baroque music treatises, must the speaker (i.e. the composer) move the ‘affects’ (i.e. emotions) of the listener. It was from this rhetorical terminology that music theorists, beginning in the late 16th century, but especially during the 17th and 18th centuries, borrowed the terminology along with many other analogies between rhetoric and music. The affects, then, were rationalized emotional states or passions. After 1600 composers generally sought to express in their vocal music such affects as were related to the texts, for example sadness, anger, hate, joy, love and jealousy. During the 17th and early 18th centuries this meant that most compositions (or, in the case of longer works, individual sections or movements) expressed only a single affect. Composers in general sought a rational unity that was imposed on all the elements of a work by its affect. No single ‘theory’ of the affects was, however, established by the theorists of the Baroque period. But beginning with Mersenne and Kircher in the mid-17th century, many theorists, among them Werckmeister, Printz, Mattheson, Marpurg, Scheibe and Quantz, gave over large parts of their treatises to categorizing and describing types of affect as well as the affective connotations of scales, dance movements, rhythms, instruments, forms and styles....
(It.: ‘affectionate’, ‘loving’).
A word used in musical scores to indicate an affectionate or affect-conscious style of performance, used as a qualification to tempo designations, as a tempo (and mood) designation in its own right, and as a mark of expression. Other related forms include con affetto, the noun affetto, the adverb affettuosamente (all three mentioned in Brossard's Dictionaire of 1703), affetti (Marini), the French cognate and equivalent affectueusement and the commonly encountered misspelling affetuoso. Brossard also mentioned the superlative forms affettuoso affettuoso and affettuosissimo, translating them fort tendrement.
As might be imagined, the various forms appear often in 17th-century discussions of music, and indeed of the other arts: Caccini (Le nuove musiche, 1601/2/R) mentioned esclamazione affettuosa; Frescobaldi (preface to Toccate e partite, 1615) stated that the runs should be taken men velocemente et affettuoso; Francesco Rognoni (1620) mentioned a violin bowing he called ...
Gary W. Kennedy
(bPittsburgh, Dec 30, 1966). Americanelectric guitarist. He took up guitar at the age of 12 and was primarily self-taught. In 1984 he moved to Los Angeles, where he played with Jack Sheldon, Dave Pike, and Pete Christlieb. From 1987 he has led a quartet, in which his sidemen have included the pianist Brian O’Rourke and Andy Simpkins (both from 1987) and Sherman Ferguson (to 1989). In 1989, when Colin Bailey joined the group, Affif settled in New York. From around 1995 he has worked steadily at the Zinc bar in a trio with Essiet Essiet and Jeff Watts. He has also performed with Dave Kikoski, Leon Parker, Michael Carvin, and Ralph Lalama. Affif plays with a reckless assertiveness that lends immediacy to his cleanly articulated lines. Sudden contrasts of fast moving lines and tuneful motifs, and sudden changes in dynamics, are characteristics of his style. His early stinging, trebly, almost rock-derived sound softened somewhat when he changed the model of his guitar in the mid-1990s....
In medieval theory, the Final of a transposed Mode. Commonly, a was the affinalis of the Dorian or Hypodorian mode transposed up a 5th and the Phrygian or Hypophrygian mode transposed up a 4th; b was the affinalis of the Phrygian or Hypophrygian mode transposed up a 5th; and c...
A term first used by Guido for the relationship between certain tones in the medieval gamut, specifically between a modal final and a tone a fifth above or a fourth below (sometimes referred to as the affinalis); specifically, each pair of tones, such as d and a, share a particular pattern of surrounding tones and semitones within the six-note diatonic segments c–a and g–e′. This concept was recognized earlier, though not as systematically, by Hucbald and the authors of Musica enchiriadis and Scolica enchiriadis (who used the term socialitas) and by the anonymous author of the Dialogus de musica (who used similitudo). By recognizing this feature of their gamut, theorists were able to reconcile an inherited chant repertory with the eight-mode system. Specifically, it allowed them to preserve chants with aberrant tones by notating them at the position of the affinalis, where the same tone–semitone arrangement prevails; for example, a first-mode chant with a B♭ (theoretically non-existent) could be notated at the ...
(b St Chinian, Oct 23, 1858; d Cagnes-sur-Mer, Dec 27, 1931). French tenor. For 20 years he was a principal lyric-heroic tenor at the Opéra in Paris. Its director, Pierre Gailhard, had heard him in the provinces and arranged for lessons with Victor Duvernoy. Affré’s house début as Edgardo in 1890 coincided with Melba’s, in Lucia di Lammermoor. He developed a large repertory, appearing in Gluck’s Armide and also in the first performances at the Opéra of Entführung and Pagliacci. In 1891 he sang in the première of Le mage by Massenet, who found his voice ‘vibrant as pure crystal’. At Covent Garden in 1909 his roles were Faust and Saint-Saëns’s Samson. He went to the USA in 1911, appearing at San Francisco and New Orleans where in 1913 he became director of the Opera. He was a prolific recording artist and sang Romeo in one of the earliest complete operatic recordings (...
(It.: ‘hurrying’, ‘quickening’; gerund of affrettare)
An instruction to increase the tempo, with the implication of increased nervous energy. The distinction between affrettando and accelerando or stringendo is largely academic but is suggested by Verdi's marking at the end of the ‘Lux aeterna’ in his Requiem over some woodwind arpeggiated semiquaver figuration, dolciss. con calma senza affrettare...
Country in Central Asia.
Musical life in Afghanistan has been severely disrupted by warfare since 1978. By the end of the 20th century the Taliban movement controlled 90% of the country, including all major cities. In the areas under Taliban control no musical instruments are permitted in public or private, and all forms of music save unaccompanied singing are prohibited. In other areas conditions are little better: most former professional musicians are refugees in Iran, Pakistan, Europe and North America. This article describes some aspects of music culture which are currently dormant, but no doubt music will re-emerge in due course, quite possibly not much changed.
Afghanistan is situated at the juncture of three major cultural areas: Central Asia, the Middle East and India. Each area has exercised a strong influence on Afghanistan at various points in history. In its ethnic origin, language and topography, Afghanistan is more clearly related to Central Asia and the Middle East than to India. The present-day boundaries of Afghanistan (fixed ...
Idioglot Jew’s harp of the northern Philippines. Most are made of bamboo, but some are of brass or bronze with a slender triangular tongue cut through a small sheet of metal, the tongue remaining fully enclosed but attached only at the base of the triangle. Among the Bontok people it is known as the ...