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Joachim Braun

revised by Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Berdyansk, 31 July/Aug 13, 1908; d Moscow, May 21, 1986). Soviet musicologist. In 1931 he graduated from Konstantin Igumnov’s piano class at the Moscow Conservatory, where he continued postgraduate studies in musicology with Mikhail Ivanov-Boretsky. He took the Kandidat degree in 1938 with a dissertation on Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro. After teaching at the Moscow Conservatory (1931; 1933–6), he moved to Sverdlovsk, where he taught at the conservatory (1936–7) and later became senior lecturer and head of the music history research room (1942–3). He worked for the Sverdlovsk Philharmonia (1936–7) as senior music editor of the radio committee, head of the literary and musicological department, and lecturer. He was head of the music history department at the Central Correspondence Institute for Musical Education (1939–41) and was appointed senior lecturer and dean of the faculty of history and theory there (...


Karl-Ernst Bergunder


(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...


Richard Swift

(b Scott, NY, Dec 3, 1908; d Inglewood, CA, Jan 20, 1989). American composer, musicologist and teacher. He studied composition with William Berwald at Syracuse University (BM 1931, MM 1937, honorary LittD 1967) and with Bloch at the University of California, Berkeley (1944). He taught at Syracuse University (1935–7), Dakota Wesleyan University (1937–44), the College of Music, Bradley Polytechnic Institute (1941–6) and the University of Redlands (1946–7). In 1948 he gained a post at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, later becoming professor emeritus. Visiting professor at Yale University (1960–61) and at Williams College (1970), he lectured widely on the problems of modern music. A Guggenheim Fellow in 1964 and 1971, he received many awards and commissions for his music. Stevens is a noted authority on the music of Bartók, on whom he wrote the standard critical biography in English (...


Don Harrán

(fl c1570). German theorist, active in Spain. Originally his name was probably Caspar Stocker. He resided in Italy (chiefly, it would seem, in Venice) before going to Spain. There he attended lectures by Francisco de Salinas at the University of Salamanca (Salinas first lectured there in 1567) and referred to him as his teacher. His two treatises (both ed. in GLMT, v, 1988) seem to have been written about 1570 and survive in a single manuscript copy. The more substantial of the two, De musica verbali libri duo, is unique in music theory in being, so far as is known, the only work devoted exclusively to text underlay; appended to it is a much briefer treatment of solmization. In discussing text underlay Stoquerus drew and expanded on the ten rules laid down by Zarlino (Le istitutioni harmoniche, 1558, book 4, chap.33); to these he added the concept of obligatory rules (so indispensable as to demand attention by all) and optional ones (to be followed by those intent on a more meticulous coordination of pitches and syllables), and he distinguished between the practices of ‘ancients’ (the Josquin generation) and ‘moderns’ (Willaert and his school). He established 15 rules, five obligatory, five optional for earlier composers and five optional for moderns; some were additions, others exceptions, to the Zarlino canon. He provided a rational explanation of them as conforming to nature and the dictates of logic and as applicable to all forms of music, sacred and secular. They exist before the act of composition; hence the ...


(b Vienna, Dec 21, 1915; d Žernůvka u Tišnova, February 7, 2010). Czech music historian . She studied German and French at Brno University (1935–9) and at the same time attended Helfert's musicology lectures. After World War II she continued her studies in musicology with Jan Racek (1945–9) and in 1953 obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on an anonymous Moravian organ tablature. In 1942 she married the music historian and critic Vincenc Straka. She had begun working in the music collection (now the Music History Institute) of the Moravian Regional Museum in Brno in 1937; in 1948 she succeeded Racek as director. She enlarged the institute's scope and initiated the large-scale cataloguing of its music source materials and Janáček archives. In addition to her administrative work she lectured on music archival method at Brno University (1952–72). In 1968 she obtained the CSc degree with a dissertation on court music in Brtnice. Her published work deals mainly with 17th- and 18th-century Moravian court and church music and with Janáček....


Anthony F. Carver

(b Schwendi, nr Laupheim, Swabia, c1550; d c1605). German composer and theorist. He attended the University of Freiburg, probably from 1572, and in 1574 he was awarded the master's degree; in 1577–8 he was registered in the medical faculty. In 1587 he was a priest and choirman in the Kantorei at the court of Count Eitelfriedrich IV von Hohenzollern-Hechingen at Hechingen in Swabia. At the beginning of 1591 he was recommended for a benefice by Christoph Truchsess von Waldburg of Riedlingen an der Donau. At Freiburg he had studied with J.T. Freigius, a pupil of Glarean, who must have thought highly of him since he used Stuber's De musica (now lost) as the basis of the dialogue forming the fifth part, ‘De musicae elementis primus’, of his Paedagogus (Basle, 1582). Count Eitelfriedrich was an ardent advocate of the Counter-Reformation, the spirit of which is evident in the texts, entirely sacred, set by Stuber in his few surviving compositions. Rubsamen (in ...


Paula Morgan

(b Boston, Dec 3, 1942). American musicologist. She graduated from Wellesley College (BA 1963), then studied with Edward Lippman, Paul Henry Lang, and Jacques Barzun at Columbia University (MA 1965, PhD 1973). She began her teaching career as an assistant professor at the University of Chicago (1973–80). She was visiting associate professor of music at the Graduate Center, CUNY (1986–7), then joined the faculty of Brown University (1990); she was appointed professor of music in 1993. She has received fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies (1977), the Guggenhein Foundation (1977) and the Howard Foundation (1996).

Subotnik’s academic interests include American and British musical theatre and critical theory. She has written extensively on Adorno, structuralism, poststructuralism and postmodernism, applying her theoretical insights to music from the Classical period to the present day and examining music with regard to its place in society....


Brian Fennelly

(b Middlepoint, OH, Sept 24, 1927; d Davis, CA, Nov 8, 2003). American composer and theorist. After private studies in the 1940s, he was a pupil of Leland Smith, Grosvenor Cooper and Leonard Meyer at the University of Chicago (MA 1956). He then taught at the University of California, Davis (1956–91), where he received a special appointment as Faculty Research Lecturer in 1982–3. He received awards from the NEA (1977), the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters (1978) and other institutions. Swift was active in the San Francisco Composers Forum and the New Music Ensemble, whose influence is reflected in improvisatory elements in his works of the 1960s. Most of his music is serial and in large part 12-note. He wrote many articles on 20th-century composers for this dictionary and contributed numerous reviews to Notes; he was also a consulting editor of ...


Josef Bek

(b Boskovice, June 9, 1918; d Prague, Oct 21, 1969). Czech musicologist and aesthetician. His musicology studies under Helfert at Brno University were interrupted by the closing of the universities under the Nazi occupation, during which he became a member of the underground resistance led by the Communist party. After the liberation he completed his musicology studies in Prague, where he was attracted by Jan Mukařovský's structuralist aesthetics, an analytical method he used in his doctoral dissertation at Prague (1946) on music and word in folksong. Before completing his doctorate he had begun working in the art department of the Education Research Institute in Prague and lecturing at the education faculty. In 1948 he was appointed lecturer at the Prague Academy (AMU), where he later became dean (1950) and professor (1951). He completed his Habilitation at Prague University in 1952 with a work on the semiotics of music, becoming lecturer in the aesthetics and history of music. In ...


Ferenc Bónis

(b Budapest, Aug 2, 1899; d Budapest, Jan 21, 1973). Hungarian musicologist. He studied law, literary history and philosophy at Budapest University (1917–20), musicology, history and art history at Leipzig University (1921–3) and composition at the Budapest Academy of Music with Kodály, Weiner and Siklós (1917–21) and in Leipzig with Karg-Elert (1921–3), taking the doctorate in 1923 under Abert with a dissertation on Benedetti and Saracini. From the 1920s he worked in Budapest as a publisher’s reader, editor and music critic, and as co-editor of the journal Zenei szemle (1926–9) and (with Tóth) of the Hungarian Zenei lexikon (1930–31). From 1945 until his death he was professor of music history at the Budapest Academy of Music, where he founded the faculty of musicology (1951), serving as its professor and head until his death. He was on the editorial committees of the periodicals ...


Zofia Helman

(Klementyna )

(b Złoczów, nr L′viv, May 13, 1902; d Poznań, Oct 18, 1962). Polish musicologist. After piano studies at the Lwów Conservatory, she studied musicology with Chybiński at Lwów University (1922–6), where she took the doctorate in 1926 with a dissertation on Manuscript 52 in the Krasiński Library, Warsaw. From 1926 to 1939 she was a lecturer in the musicology department at Lwów University; she also lectured in theoretical subjects at the Paderewski Music School (1929–31) and at the Lwów Conservatory (1931–5). In 1940–41 and 1944–5 she was successively senior lecturer, professor and dean of the theory department of the conservatory. From 1946 until her death she worked in the musicology department at Poznań University, becoming senior lecturer in 1956 and head of the department in 1957. She also lectured at the State Music School, Poznań (1948–51). Szczepańska’s main achievement was her work on basic sources of Polish polyphonic music of the 15th to 17th centuries. She devoted considerable attention to the works of the leading Polish composer of the 15th century, Nicolaus de Radom, and prepared editions of music by a number of Polish composers, including Jarzębski, Zieleński and Pękiel. Her work formed the basis for further research on the evolution of polyphony in Poland....


Mirosław Perz

(b Kraków, May 12, 1929). Polish musicologist. He studied musicology at Poznań University under Chybiński, graduating in 1951, and he took the doctorate under Chomiński at Kraków University in 1964 with a dissertation on concertato technique in the Polish Baroque. He was Chybiński’s assistant at the musicology faculty of Poznań University (1950–53) before moving to Kraków, where he was appointed editor of the Polish music publishers, Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne (1954–61). Concurrently he was an assistant at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków (1954–63), later becoming assistant professor (1964–70), head of the musicology department (from 1970), reader (1971–89) and full professor (from 1990).

Szweykowski is one of the leading Polish musicologists of his generation. His interests are mainly in the historical aspects of music (especially Polish) and Italian cultural history. He worked first on the Renaissance and did intensive research into Baroque music, especially that of the 17th century, discovering many unknown Polish compositions and sources concerning Polish musical culture. He later studied style and performing practice in Florence and Rome from the late 16th to the mid-17th century. He also examined Italian sources concerning polychoral technique and the role of Italian musicians in Poland in this period. His editions of early Polish music are highly regarded; he has also initiated and edited a number of established journals. He developed Wydawnictwo Dawnej Muzyki Polskiej, which from volume li (...


János Demény

revised by Wolfgang Suppan


(b Cinfalva [now Siegendorf], Sept 25, 1902). Austrian composer, pianist, ethnomusicologist and teacher of Hungarian origin. He studied composition with Hans Gál and Joseph Marx and the piano with Felix Weingartner in Vienna, where he was also in contact with the Second Viennese school. From 1927 to 1932, and again from 1934 to 1936, he taught at the Cairo Conservatory, taking an interest in Arab music; at the 1932 Cairo congress on Arab music he met Bartók, whom he had come to know in 1926 in Budapest. On his second visit to Egypt, he also served as music adviser to Egyptian Radio. In between he taught at the University of the Philippines in Manila (1932–4), from where he made ethnomusicological expeditions to the tribes of north Luzon. Apart from making concert tours of Europe he has visited the Middle East and East Asia (he played his Piano Concerto for Radio Tokyo) and in ...


Agnes Gádor

(b Salzburg, April 12, 1946). Hungarian musicologist. He studied musicology at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest under Szabolcsi, Bartha and Kroó (1964–9), and continued his studies at the University of Vienna on a Herder grant (1971–2). He was a research fellow in the library of the Liszt Academy (1969–72) and in the Institute of Musicology at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1972–91); he became deputy director of the Institute (1995) and director (1998). He joined the musicology faculty of the Liszt Academy in 1976 and held a chair there from 1997. He worked in Rome (1976), New York (1984) and Berlin (1988–90) on research projects, and was awarded the Erkel prize in 1982.

Tallián is one of the leading personalities of Hungarian musicology. His writings on the life and music of Béla Bartók have become an intrinsic part of the Hungarian and international literature on the composer. His main area of research is the history of 20th-century Hungarian music and musical life, with a special emphasis on opera as a genre, opera performance, the concert scene, communist policy on music and the ideology of the decades between ...


Pierluigi Petrobelli

(b Pirano, Istria [now Piran, Istra, Slovenia], April 8, 1692; d Padua, Feb 26, 1770). Italian composer, violinist, teacher and theorist.

Tartini's father Giovanni Antonio, of Florentine origin, was general manager of the salt mills in Pirano. Giuseppe, destined for the church by his pious parents, was to have been first a minore conventuale, a branch of the Franciscan order, and subsequently a full priest. To this end he was educated in his native town and then in nearby Capodistria (now Koper, Slovenia) at the scuole pie; as well as the humanities and rhetoric, he studied the rudiments of music. In 1708 he left his native region, never to live there again, but carrying in his memory the peculiarities of the local musical folklore. He enrolled as a law student at Padua University, where he devoted most of his time, always dressed as a priest, to improving his fencing, a practice in which, according to contemporary accounts, few could compete with him. This account of Tartini's youth has been questioned (see, for instance, Capri), but it is supported by contemporary evidence and is consistent with the later development of his personality, characterized by a fiery and stubborn temperament with a strong tendency towards mysticism. These qualities are equally evident in his writings – both letters and theoretical works – and in his compositions....


Denise Von Glahn

(b Boston, MA, Oct 22, 1923; d Boston, Oct 4, 2011). American music scholar, composer, and teacher. Tawa attended Harvard University (BA 1945, PhD 1974). Beginning in 1965, he taught courses on music history and research at the University of Massachusetts, Boston. As an early champion of American music, Tawa co-founded the Sonneck Society for American Music (now Society for American Music) in 1975 and was its first vice-president. He edited the society’s first newsletter and was instrumental in promoting the inclusive approach to American music studies. Tawa published 15 books and numerous articles on the American popular music tradition including Sweet Songs for Gentle Americans: The Parlor Song in America, 1790–1860 (Bowling Green, OH, 1980), A Music for the Millions: Antebellum Democratic Attitudes and the Birth of American Popular Music (Hillsdale, NY, 1984), The Way to Tin Pan Alley (New York, 1990), Arthur Foote: A Musician in the Frame of Time and Place...


Jere T. Humphreys

(b Cheyenne, WY, Jan 28, 1935). American music educator and scholar. He earned degrees in music education from the University of California, Santa Barbara (BA 1957), composition from the University of Washington (MA 1959), and systematic musicology from the University of Washington (PhD 1971). He taught in the California public schools (1960–67), and at Florida State University (FSU) (1970–2001) and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro (2001–4). At FSU he taught classes in music perception and cognition, research, and music technology, and served as director of the Center for Music Research (1979–2001), a unit dedicated to research in music technology and music psychology. Taylor served as editor of the Journal of Research in Music Education (1980–86), Psychomusicology (1995–2008), and production editor for the Journal of Technology in Music Learning (2001–). He has lectured extensively and authored or coauthored five books and 38 articles on music technology, music education, and music perception and cognition....


Walter Emery

(b Newport Pagnell, Oct 24, 1864; d Westerton of Pitfodels, nr Aberdeen, Nov 5, 1936). English historian and Bach scholar. Descended from a line of doctors, he was educated at St Paul’s Cathedral Choir School, where he was a solo boy under Stainer, and later at Lancing. He read history at Cambridge, devoting his spare time to music. In 1890 he went to Newcastle upon Tyne as lecturer in history at what was then the Durham College of Science and founded the College Choral Society. In 1898 he took a similar post at the University of Aberdeen, where he set up a choral society of 150 with an orchestra of 70, which he conducted himself, and in 1903 he was appointed professor, retiring in 1930. In that year he lectured on Bach in America and Canada, and in 1935 he became an honorary PhD of Leipzig. He received several other honorary degrees and distinctions, and in ...


Jocelyn Mackey

(b Naumburg, July 29, 1646; d Naumburg, bur. June 24, 1724). German composer, theorist and teacher. He is noted particularly for his sacred music, and he was a specially skilful contrapuntist.

Theile received his first musical training from Johann Scheffler, Kantor of Magdeburg, and attained enough skill to support himself as a law student at the University of Leipzig from 1666 until about 1672. Friends helped to pay for his first publication, Weltliche Arien … (1667), a set of student songs. Membership of the university's collegium musicum gave him musical experience and contacts, and some time between 1666 and 1672 he studied with Schütz. It is doubtful whether he completed his legal studies. He may have taught in Stettin before moving to Lübeck, where he was living in 1673, numbering among his friends Reincken and Buxtehude.

In 1673 Theile was appointed Kapellmeister at Gottorf. There he may have written his first operas or opera-like works, as Duke Christian Albrecht spent money on ‘musical entertainments’ as well as plays. Political developments soon interrupted the duke's promising reign: he was kidnapped and forced to cede territory, and in ...


Evi Nika-Sampson

(b Thessaloniki, 1931). Greek composer and musicologist. He is the son of the poet George (Georgios) Themelis. He studied violin and advanced theory at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki and continued his studies with a scholarship (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst) in Munich. There, he studied violin with Professor Kurt Stiehler and musicology and Byzantine and ancient history at the University of Munich and received the PhD diploma.

He served as director of the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki (1971–85) and since 1985 as professor of musicology at the school of music studies of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh), for which he was the head of department four times. He also served as dean of the faculty of fine arts of AUTh and chairman of the art committee of the State Orchestra of Thessaloniki. Since September 1998 Themelis has been emeritus professor of AUTh. He is a member of the Greek Composers Union, the Gesellschaft für Musikforschung, the International Musicological Society, the International Organization of Folk Art, and an active member of the New York Academy of Sciences. He was liaison officer in Greece of the International Council for Traditional Music. In ...