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Susana Salgado

(b Buenos Aires, Nov 23, 1862; d Buenos Aires, June 17, 1952). Argentine composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. Born into a family of musicians, he began to compose very early. His first piano lessons were with Pedro Beck; he also attended the Colegio S Martin and, from its foundation, the Escuela de Música de la Provincia, where he studied with Luis Bernasconi (piano) and Nicolás Bassi (harmony). While still a pupil at the school he played works by Paer and Liszt at the Teatro Colón; one of his first public performances was in 1879 at a Sociedad del Cuarteto concert organized by Bernasconi. Two years later he published his first work, the mazurka Ensueño de juventud. A scholarship took him in 1882 to the Paris Conservatoire, and there he was a pupil of Georges Mathías (piano), Emile Durand (harmony) and Benjamin Godard (instrumental ensemble), also studying composition with Franck. In Paris the piano works ...


(b Belmont, MA, Jan 19, 1937). American trombonist, educator, and arranger. He first learned piano and later took up trombone, which he studied at the New England Conservatory; while in Boston he played in Herb Pomeroy’s big band (1955–7). After playing trombone and piano with Jimmy Dorsey intermittently from 1956 to 1958, in 1959 he led his own band until being drafted in December of that year. During his military service he briefly continued his studies at the Navy School of Music and played trombone in the North American Air Defense Command Band (1962). Wilson then became a regular soloist with Woody Herman, with whom he was associated from 1962 until 1965. The following year he was appointed to the faculty of the Berklee School of Music, where he became head of the trombone department and taught theory and arrangement; he also renewed his association with Pomeroy. Wilson wrote some arrangements for Buddy Rich (notably ...


James Wierzbicki

revised by Mary L. Frantz


(b Cleveland, May 15, 1941). American composer and pianist. After studying the cello and the piano at the Cleveland Music School Settlement, he was awarded the BA from Harvard (1963), then studied the piano with Wührer in Munich and composition with Moevs (his main Harvard professor) in Rome on a Frank Huntington Beebe Fellowship. He pursued postgraduate study at Rutgers, New Jersey (MA 1966), subsequently joining the music faculty of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York, where he was appointed professor in 1976; he was appointed to the Mary Conover Mellon Professorship there in 1988. His works have been performed worldwide; among his many awards are a joint prize in the League of Composers/ISCM Piano Music Competition (1976) as well as the Burge/Eastman Prize (1978) for his virtuoso piano work Eclogue, and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1992–3). He has been commissioned by the San Francisco SO for ...


Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....


Jewel A. Smith

(b Schkeuditz, nr Leipzig, Sept 27, 1827; d New York, Sept 18, 1863). German pianist, composer, and teacher. He studied at the Leipzig Conservatorium with Julius Knoor (piano) and Moritz Hauptmann (composition). Following his arrival in the United States in 1845, he appeared as pianist on various occasions with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and in other concerts, and attained a distinguished career as a pianist, teacher, and composer. In 1855 he undertook a successful concert tour of Europe. He wrote nearly 100 compositions, chiefly for the piano, including five Morceaux caractéristiques en forme d’Etude, op. 22; Nocturne, op. 29, no. 10; A Bord de l’Arago, valse brilliant, op. 33; Fantasia, “Il Trovatore,” op. 43; Stories of Nocomis, for four hands, op. 48; Star Spangled Banner, paraphrase brilliant, op. 60; and many transcriptions and arrangements. His compositions have been successfully used as teaching pieces, and many of them were also published in Europe....


Pamela Fox

(b Easthampton, MA, April 7, 1857; d Florence, Italy, Dec 20, 1944). American composer, pianist and teacher. She studied the piano with B(enjamin) J(ohnson) Lang in Boston, performed locally in solo and chamber music recitals, and was active in many of Boston's leading musical organizations. Lang encouraged her to compose, and she continued to study the piano and composition in Boston with Arthur Foote, then in New York, with Henry Huss, Albert Parsons and J. H. Cornell. Her songs, chamber works and sacred vocal music display solid craftsmanship and a conservative, refined style. She married A. B. Mason and lived in Florence for many years.

(selective list)


Kevin O’Brien

(b Hartford, CT, Jan 7, 1923; d Charlottesville, VA, March 16, 1994). American composer, keyboard player, conductor, and teacher. He studied piano with Charles King, organ with Ernest White at the Pius X School of Liturgical Music in Manhattanville, New York, composition with Franz Wasner, and chant at Solesmes Abbey in France. In 1944 he enrolled at Catholic University of America as a seminarian; he was ordained a priest in 1947 and received a master’s degree in Romance languages in 1948. He continued composition studies with nicolas Nabokov at the Peabody Conservatory and Nadia Boulanger. Woollen was the youngest charter faculty member of Catholic University’s music department in 1950. Originally in charge of choruses and chant studies, he later taught composition, paleography, history, organ, art song literature, and diction. He attended Harvard University (MA 1954), where he studied composition with walter Piston and musicology with Tillman Merritt. In ...


Adrian Thomas

(b Dunajowce, Podolia, Dec 5, 1899; d Katowice, July 11, 1980). Polish composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with Michałowski at the Chopin High School of Music in Warsaw (1920–4) and immediately embarked on a performing career that took him throughout Europe and to North America. At the same time he studied composition with Szopski and Maliszewski, followed by three years in Boulanger’s class in Paris (1929–32). During World War II the ‘Woytowicz Café’, which he organized in Warsaw, was a vital public focus for Polish music-making as well as being a centre for underground activities of the resistance. After the war, he was appointed to positions at the conservatories in Katowice (from 1945) and in Kraków (from 1963); his pupils included the composers Baird, Kilar and Szalonek.

Woytowicz is at his most inventive in the surviving orchestral works. Poemat żałobny...


Milan Poštolka

revised by Roger Hickman


(b Nová Říše, Moravia, June 13, 1761; d Vienna, Aug 6, 1820). Czech composer, violinist and music teacher active in Vienna, brother of Paul Wranitzky. He attended the grammar school at the Premonstratensian monastery in Nová Říše and later studied philosophy and law at a Jesuit seminary in Brno. His earliest musical training included violin lessons from his brother; he was also known for his beautiful voice. Before December 1783 he became choirmaster to the chapel of the Theresianisch-Savoyische Akademie in Vienna (until the abolition of church music there with the reforms of Joseph II). In Vienna he studied composition with Mozart, Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger, and became renowned as a violin teacher and virtuoso. By 1790 he had entered the services of Prince J.F. Maximilian Lobkowitz as a composer, music teacher, Konzertmeister and (from 1797) Kapellmeister of the prince’s private orchestra; in these duties he was active at Vienna, Prague and the prince’s country seats in Bohemia (at Roudnice, Jezeří and Bílina). After the prince took charge of the Vienna court theatres (...


Jamie C. Kassler

(b Stockton-on-Tees, Sept 18, 1763; d Wycliffe Rectory, nr Barnard Castle, Nov 24, 1829). English musician and inventor . Wright was instructed in music by his father, Robert, by John Garth and, as an articled apprentice, by Thomas Ebdon. On expiration of his articles about 1784, he succeeded Garth as organist at Sedgefield. In 1794 he married Elizabeth Foxton and set to music her operetta, Rusticity. In the ‘Advertisement’ to his Concerto for Harpsichord or Pianoforte (London, c1796), he promoted his invention of a pendulum for keeping musical time as more practicable than the timekeepers of Loulié, Sauveur and others. A model of the invention, owned by Wright’s granddaughter, Miss Edith Wright of Wakefield, was seen by Frank Kidson, when compiling his article for Grove’s Dictionary (3rd edn). In 1797 Wright succeeded his father as organist at Stockton. In 1817 he was organist at Kirkleatham near Redcar; but sometime after he returned to Stockton and remained there as organist, teacher and composer until his death....


Albert R. Rice

(b Paris, 1754; d Paris, July 5, 1786). French clarinettist, composer and teacher. He studied the clarinet with Joseph Beer and made his first public appearance in 1777 at the Concert Spirituel. One of the earliest French solo clarinettists, Yost was admired for the beauty of his sound and the precision of his execution. He performed on 38 different occasions at the Concert Spirituel in 1781 and between 1783 and 1786, often playing his own concertos. Although he had no formal training in composition, he had a facility for finding agreeable melodies and brilliant flourishes, which were edited and scored by his friend J.C. Vogel. At least three of his 14 concertos, his Duos op.10 and all his quartets were signed ‘Michel et Vogel’. Although his writing emphasized a fluent technique it was criticized by Gradenwitz as ‘virtuosoship [which] has degenerated into a series of empty roulades’. However, the melody from one concerto was incorporated into one of Cyrille Rose’s ...


Zofia Chechlińska

(b Grodkowice, nr Kraków, July 6, 1837; d Kraków, Jan 23, 1921). Polish composer, conductor, pianist and teacher. He studied in Kraków with Jan Germasz (piano) and Franciszek Mirecki (harmony), then (from 1859) in Prague with Alexander Dreyschock (piano) and Joseph Krejčí (composition). From 1866 to 1870 he studied composition in Paris with Henri Reber and Berthold Demcke. He had earlier studied philosophy at the University of Kraków and in 1862 received the PhD from the University of Prague. In 1871 he returned to Poland. He was appointed professor of harmony and counterpoint at the Warsaw Music Institute (1872–8) and became director of the Warsaw Music Society (1878). In 1881 he moved to Kraków, where he was initially a teacher of theory at the music school. In 1888 he helped to establish the conservatory of the music society in Kraków, and became its director. He also conducted symphony concerts and wrote articles for the Kraków journal ...


Boris Schwarz

(Alexandrovich )

(b Rostov-na-Donu, April 9, 1890; d Reno, NV, Feb 22, 1985). American violinist, composer and teacher of Russian birth . His father, a professional violinist and conductor of the Rostov Opera, taught him for the first few years. In 1901 Zimbalist joined Auer's class at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and received the Gold Medal and the Rubinstein Prize on his graduation in 1907. That year he made his débuts in Berlin (7 November) and London (9 December). He made a memorable appearance at the Leipzig Gewandhaus on 1 January 1910 under Nikisch, playing the Tchaikovsky Concerto. At his American début in Boston on 27 October 1911 Zimbalist introduced Glazunov’s Concerto. His success made him decide to settle in the USA. He married twice, in 1914 the singer Alma Gluck with whom he frequently appeared in joint recitals as a violinist and also as an expert accompanist, and in 1943...


Vladimír Zvara

(b Ružomberk, May 16, 1926; d Bratislava, Jan 21, 1993). Slovak composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the organ, the piano with Anna Kafendová (from 1941) and composition with Suchoň at the Bratislava Conservatory before continuing his studies in composition under Farkas at the Budapest Music Academy (1948–9) and in Salzburg (1949). From 1945 to 1948 he contributed to Czechoslovak radio and, for the next four years, taught theory and the piano at the Bratislava Conservatory. Thereafter he devoted his time to composition and, exceptionally, to performance as a concert pianist.

His compositional style had its roots in the work of Suchoň, manifested by his emphasis on concise structure (based mostly on Classical or Romantic forms) and in the use of modally extended tonality, with elements of dodecaphony in works of the 1960s. After an early period of compositional constructivism and sober emotionality (as in the Concerto grosso, ...


(b Paris, ?March 19, 1785; d Paris, Oct 29, 1853). French pianist, teacher and composer. The son of a Paris piano maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798 to study piano with Boieldieu and harmony with J.-B. Rey and then Catel. In 1800 he won a premier prix for piano (over Kalkbrenner) and in 1802 a premier prix in harmony; later he studied composition with Cherubini. From 1811 he assisted in teaching the piano at the Conservatoire and in 1816 was appointed professor. In 1821 he was selected to succeed A.-F. Eler as professor of counterpoint and fugue, but decided to teach the piano only and the vacant post went to Fétis. He was one of the most influential French keyboard teachers of his time; his pupils included Franck, Alkan, Louis Lacombe, Ambroise Thomas, Bizet and A.-F. Marmontel (who succeeded him in 1848). He also taught Gounod (who became his son-in-law). He retired early from public performance in order to devote himself to teaching and composition. His ...


Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...