5,221-5,240 of 5,253 results  for:

Clear all

Article

Żaqq  

Sylvia Moore and Anna Borg-Cardona

Maltese mouth-blown Bagpipe. The bag is traditionally made of calf, goat, or dog skin, with the hair exposed. The blowpipe (mserka), made of cane or rubber and without a valve, is tied into a foreleg. The double chanter (saqqafa), inserted into the neck, has two downcut idioglot single reeds. The cane pipes, the left one having five fingerholes and the right having one fingerhole, are set into a cane yoke. The bell is usually a decorated ox horn with a serrated rim....

Article

John A. Emerson and Robert Commanday

American family of musicians of German origin. They were active in San Francisco.

(b Bad Dürkheim, July 25, 1832; d San Francisco, Sept 13, 1889). Piano maker. After the death of his father Franz Phillip Zech (1789–1849), a piano maker, he went to New York and worked for five years at Nunns & Clark and Steinway. In ...

Article

Zei  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Whistle of the Mamvu people in the Uele region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The wooden body, typically about 16 cm long, has a slender conical bore. (LaurentyA, 156)

Article

Alexander Pilipczuk

(b ?1683; bur. Hamburg, April 13, 1763 ). German harpsichord maker. The year of his birth is conjectured from an entry in the register of deaths and burials at the Jacobikirche in Hamburg stating that he was 79½ when he died. According to Krickeberg and Rase he was probably a pupil of Michael Mietke. He is first mentioned in ...

Article

Edwin M. Ripin and Denzil Wraight

(b Viterbo, ?1609–11; d Paris, 1666/7). Italian maker of harpsichords, spinets and organs . His first recorded commission is from 1635, and in 1641 he was appointed to maintain Pope Urban VIII’s keyboard instrument collection. Zenti was perhaps the best known Italian keyboard maker of his day. His craftsmanship is neat, although not elaborate, but his extensive employment at the royal courts in Stockholm (...

Article

K.A. Gourlay and Ferdinand J. de Hen

Stick zither widely distributed throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The stick is a solid bar of wood 55 to 65 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide throughout most of its length. Both ends of the bar terminate in a small knob to which the strings, of plant fibre, are attached. Three cylindrical ‘frets’ protrude on both sides of the stick. The U-shaped bridge is usually made of a feather quill. One or more drone strings pass beside the frets. A resonator made of two superposed calabash halves, or seldom a single half-calabash shell, is attached near one end; it is affixed to the underside of the bar by means of a small part-calabash collar and a cord. The zither produces four notes (open string and one note from each of the three frets) together with the drone(s). Accounts of the method of performance vary. Among the Shi the zither is held to the left so that the frets can be stopped with the fingers of the left hand while the thumb activates the drone string and the fingers of the right hand stroke the melody string. The half-calabash is usually placed on the player‘s chest and opened or closed in the same way as the resonator of a ...

Article

Inna D. Nazina

Generic term for folk clarinets or hornpipes found throughout Belarus and Russia under several specific names (e.g. pishchik, charotka, and dudka). Each name reflects certain essential characteristics of the instrument—acoustical, structural, functional, etc. The word zhaleyka is derived from Slavonic zhal (‘sad, sorrowful, mournful’), also the root of ...

Article

Ziegler  

Rudolf Hopfner

Austrian firm of woodwind instrument makers . Its founder, Johann Joseph Ziegler (b Komorn [now Komárom], Hungary, 1795; d Vienna, March 10, 1858 ), was granted a privilege to trade in Vienna in 1821. He made all kinds of woodwind instruments for orchestral use, as well as the csakan, an instrument which enjoyed great regional popularity during the early 19th century. Ziegler worked on improvements to instrument design, for instance introducing metal clarinet mouthpieces. In ...

Article

Jerzy Gołos

(b1752; d1829). Polish organ builder. Active in Kraków and its environs, he seems to have specialized in large structures, building organs for Wawel Cathedral (1785), St Mary (1800) and the Franciscan and Dominican churches. The Dominican church organ perished in the great fire of ...

Article

James Blades, James Holland and James A. Strain

Cymbal makers, comprising the Avedis Zildjian Co. of Norwell, Massachusetts, and Sabian, Ltd, of Meductic, New Brunswick, Canada. The family traces its lineage back to Avedis Zildjian I, an alchemist in Constantinople (now Istanbul) who in 1623 discovered a process for treating alloys. He applied this process to the making of cymbals, an already flourishing craft in Turkey. The details of his secret were closely guarded and have been passed down through the family. From ...

Article

A term found in medieval sources for the Cymbala.

Article

(b Morgenroethe, Saxony, Germany, Sept 4, 1817; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 20, 1898). Instrument maker of German birth. He immigrated to the United States in 1864 and settled in Philadelphia. His work with and improvements to the accordion led him to devise a complex “tone numbering” system of musical notation that used numbers in place of notes; he wrote articles describing this as early as ...

Article

Edward Garden

(b Sternberg, Sept 22, 1851; d Berlin, April 25, 1922). German music publisher and woodwind and brass instrument manufacturer . He had factories in St Petersburg (1876), Moscow (1882) and Riga (1903). The headquarters of the publishing firm was established in Leipzig in ...

Article

John Baily

Single-headed goblet drum of Afghanistan. It is usually made of pottery, and occasionally from a block of mulberry wood, carved or turned in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The single goatskin head, usually slightly narrower than the widest part of the body (which curves in at the top), is glued on and can be tuned by heating or wetting it. Sometimes the head bears a patch of black tuning paste. Some modern instruments have the head lapped on a ring with metal tuning rods. The drummer sits cross-legged on the floor with the drum resting on its side on the ground, or in the player’s lap. Drummers use a large variety of rhythmic patterns and special techniques such as the ...

Article

Zither  

Mark Lindley, Andreas Michel and Alan R. Thrasher

A term having two main senses in modern organology. The first denotes (in both English and German) a large category of string instruments also known as ‘simple chordophone’ (defined in §1 below); the second, more limited and perhaps more familiar sense refers to a small group of Alpine folk and popular instruments. From the late 15th century the term ‘zither’ was used exclusively to denote chordophones with necks, of the cittern type. It was only from the early 19th century that the name began to be used for descendants of the north European ...

Article

Gregg Miner

Musical instrument. Generic term for an American or European zither that has only nonfretted (open) strings, as opposed to a concert or “Alpine” zither, which utilizes a fretted fingerboard. (See also Zither, fretted .) Fretless zithers were commercially developed and widely distributed in many forms beginning in the late 19th century, especially in the United States. The earliest such invention is the ...

Article

David J. Kyger

Musical string instrument. The fretted zither is a resonating body with strings extending across the width of the instrument. A modern zither has five fretboard strings and up to 37 open strings. It is placed on a flat surface with the player seated behind the instrument. Frets are set into the fretboard, indicating where the fingers of the left hand need to stop the strings in order to play melodies. A ring with a projecting thorn is placed on the tip of the right-hand thumb to strike the fretboard strings, while the remaining fingers act upon the open strings for the accompaniment....

Article

Laurence Libin

Imitation or representation of animal forms in instrument design. Included under this heading is anthropomorphism, referring to human body forms. Zoomorphism appears in all areas of material culture, but sound adds an important dimension to the practice. Musical instruments of many kinds can be made to resemble animals or humans, or parts of them. These forms serve decorative, symbolic, magical, acoustical, structural, and other purposes. Worldwide since prehistory, many instruments, especially those used in rituals, have been constructed of animal parts or whole animals, or made in the shapes of animals, deities, or monsters whose ‘voices’ and powers the instruments evoke. Animal components such as hollowed horns, bones, and shells lend themselves readily to instrument fabrication, so it is not surprising that recognizable cattle and goat horns (the latter for the ...

Article

A term applied to a rhythm in which the second quaver in a bar of 2/4 time is accentuated, typical of some Hungarian dances, and of American ragtime.

Article

Howard Schott and Edward L. Kottick

(b Berlin, Oct 11, 1922). Harpsichord maker and developer of the kit harpsichord, of German birth. He came to the United States in 1938, studied psychology at Queens College, New York (BA 1949), and continued with postgraduate work. But his musical interests led him to study piano technology. He was never apprenticed to a harpsichord builder, but, having to deal with harpsichords in the course of his work as a piano technician, he determined in ...