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Article

Tof  

Ancient Jewish drum. See Biblical instruments, §3, (xi).

Article

Tom-tom  

James Blades and James Holland

A name loosely applied in the West to certain African, Eastern and Amerindian drums, but now generally applied to the cylindrical rod-tensioned drums with wooden shells used in Western jazz and pop bands. In the Hornbostel and Sachs system they are classified as membranophones. Tom-toms are essential to the modern jazz drummer, who uses them in sets of three or more. They may be single- or double-headed and are graduated in size from 25 to 46 cm in diameter. The heads, which are mounted on a hoop, are of plastic, less commonly of calfskin. The drums are normally mounted on stands or frames adjustable for height and angle. In jazz and pop side-drum sticks are used, the tom-toms usually being combined with snare drum, cymbals and foot-pedal bass drum (...

Article

Tombak  

Jean During

Goblet drum of Iran, known since the early 19th century. It is commonly known as zarb (‘beat’). It is used in entertainment music, in some folk traditions (e.g. those of Lorestan) and in art music. The drum is made from a single block of walnut or mulberry wood, turned and hollowed out. It is 40 to 45 cm in height and 20 to 28 cm in diameter. It was used originally as an accompanying instrument, but its technique was considerably developed by the virtuoso Hossein Tehrani (...

Article

Toubi  

Jeremy Montagu

Cylindrical double-headed drum of Greece. It resembles the daouli but is smaller and shallower. Its sizes vary, some being shallower than the diameter and others deeper. It has two gut snares, one on each head, either over the heads or within the body. The heads can be either braced with cords or nailed to the body. It is usually hung from the left shoulder, but can be held under the armpit, slung over the left thigh, or suspended from the left arm above the wrist, like a ...

Article

J. Bradford Robinson

(b Oak Park, IL, April 26, 1907; d Newark, NJ, Dec 9, 1948). American jazz drummer. As a member of the Austin High School Gang in the mid-1920s he had a formative influence on Chicago-style jazz. In the late 1920s he toured Europe, where he made his first recordings in Berlin (...

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Greek term for darabukka. This single-headed goblet drum is made of clay or brass with a goatskin head, which can be either glued to the shell or tied with light cord. Small pellet bells might be suspended within the drum or tied around the outside. It is found almost exclusively in Macedonia and Thrace and the islands of the eastern Aegean, and is used to accompany all the principal melodic instruments. In northern Greece it is used particularly to accompany the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Medieval hourglass drum of India. It is described as about 48 cm long and 14 cm in diameter at the faces; the middle ‘can be grasped by the fist’. The heads are stretched on iron hoops in which are seven holes; they are laced with a central cross-lacing over which is a decorated fringe. The drum is hung on a shoulder strap and played with both hands. The ...

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A string drum. See Tambourin de Béarn.

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Bena Kalundwe, Luba, and Sanga peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical, footed body 1.2 to 1.5 metres long, with a single head nailed on. Among the Luba it is beaten for the enthroning of a chief, or in times of war....

Article

Tsinda  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Mbole, Kutu, and Saka peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single head is nailed to the footed body, which is decorated with geometrical incisions. It resembles the Nkundo bondundu.

O. Boone: Les tambours du Congo belge et du Ruanda-Urundi...

Article

Tsuzumi  

David W. Hughes

Generic term for the Japanese hourglass drum with heads laced to the body. In its narrowest sense it refers particularly to the kotsuzumi.

Tsuzumi is the only term for drum encountered in Japan’s earliest written sources, which purported to chronicle the indigenous culture before the apogee of Chinese and Korean influence. What sort of drum this term referred to is not clear. The only distinct examples of Japanese drums, before the known imports of about the 8th century, are those depicted in two clay tomb figurines (...

Article

Edward H. Tarr and Peter Downey

From the 14th century to the end of the 18th, a signal or flourish on trumpet(s) or drum(s). As a verb, ‘tuck’ occurs in the 14th and 15th centuries, more often in connection with drums (‘nakeryn noyse, notes of pipes, Tymbres & tabornes, tulket among’; Morris, l....

Article

Tuhung  

Conical single-headed drum of the Kayan and Kenyah peoples of Sarawak, Malaysia. It is about 3.6 metres tall. The goatskin head is 90 cm in diameter and the hollow opening at the other end 45 cm.

Article

Military kettledrum of Russia and Ukraine. It was beaten by a thong with a bulging end, called a boshchaga.

Article

Tumao  

J. Richard Haefer

Single-headed cylindrical drum of the Saramaka Maroon people of Suriname. It is made from a hollow log up to 2 metres long and 15 to 20 cm in diameter. The skin head is attached by a loop of cords wrapped around the edge of the head and laced to a second loop of multiple strands of fibre about 15 cm below the top. The head is tuned by pounding wedges between the fibre loop and the body. Initially four wedges about 40 cm long are put in place. Fine tuning is accomplished by using a series of shorter wedges placed between the larger wedges and the body. Tension can also be adjusted by heating the head. The tumao is played with one hand only, the performer squatting near the drum, which is placed at an angle to the ground....

Article

Alastair Dick

Large goblet drum of Kashmir. It is similar and related to the tombak of Iran and the zirbaghali of Afghanistan; like the latter, it is usually made of pottery. It is held horizontally on the seated player’s lap and left thigh and played with both hands. It is usually played in folk music and to accompany wedding songs such as ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Double-headed drum of the Santal people of Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, East India. The body is made of clay. The right head (about 20 cm in diameter) is smaller than the left (about 29 cm), and the centre of the conical body is very gently waisted (inverted bi-conical), though this is concealed by the leather lacings, densely laced in a ‘V’ pattern, giving a long, truncated conical appearance. Both heads (of cow- or goat-skin) are double, the upper skin (...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Yeke, Luba, and Lomotwa peoples in the Shaba region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is made of a palm tree log, with both ends hollowed but left solid in the centre. The heads are nailed on. Frequently it is decorated with white and red geometrical patterns. It is suspended from the neck of the player and used to accompany songs of praise to the chief....

Article

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Kettledrum of the Newar musician caste in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It accompanies the mvālī shawm and jhyāli cymbals on ritual occasions such as visits to temples. The clay body is 13 cm deep with a goatskin head 21 cm in diameter secured by ‘V’ lacing. The drum is tied to the waist of the player by thongs and the two drumsticks hang from the thongs in a cloth bag when not in use. The body of the drum may be decoratively painted....

Article

Tupim  

Ancient Jewish drums. See Biblical instruments, §3, (xi).