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Article

Viorel Cosma

revised by Valentina Sandu-Dediu

(b Simeria, 17/May 30, 1908; d Cluj, July 3, 1991). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. At the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1926–30, didactic section; 1930–35, composition department), he studied harmony and counterpoint with M. Negrea and piano with E. Fotino-Negru; he continued his studies at the Santa Cecilia Academy (1936–8) with Pizzetti (composition) and Casella (piano), and was awarded the doctorate in musicology by the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, Rome, with a study of the manuscripts of G.F. Anerio (1938). In 1946 he was appointed professor of theory, harmony, and composition at the Cluj Conservatory, of which he was rector from 1962 until 1965 and from which he retired in 1973. As mentor to a gifted group of young composers, Toduţă established Cluj as Romania’s second musical centre; he was made managing director of the Cluj State PO in 1971, and was a principal supporter of the Cluj Autumn Festival....

Article

Masakata Kanazawa

(b Wakayama, Dec 9, 1927). Japanese musicologist. He studied political economics at Tokyo University, graduating in 1953. In 1957 he won a scholarship from the Italian government to study European music history and went to Milan to study with Guglielmo Barblan and Federico Mompellio. Returning home, he was appointed professor at Seijo University in 1964. He has also lectured at Tokyo University, Tohoku University, Osaka University and the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. He was committee chairman of the Kanto Chapter of the Musicological Society of Japan, 1985–7. His musicological interests include Italian music, particularly of the Trecento, and Baroque opera. He has also translated many works from Japanese into Italian, and has translated Romain Rolland's Les origines du théâtre lyrique moderne (1965), Grout's A History of Western Music (Tokyo, 1969–71), its new edition with Palisca (Tokyo, 1998–9) and many opera libretti into Japanese....

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Përmet, Albania, Nov 22, 1963). Albanian composer, ethnomusicologist, and administrator. After early musical training in Përmet and Korça, he studied at the Tirana Conservatory (1984–7), where his teachers included Gaqi, Kushta, Lara, Simoni, and Shupo. Between 1988 and 1991 he worked in Përmet as music director at the Naïm Frashëri Palace of Culture and as artistic director of the Elena Gjika ensemble. He was appointed to teach ethnomusicology and composition at the Tirana Conservatory (now the music faculty of the Academy of Arts) in 1991. In 1993 he founded the New Albanian Music association and in 1997 the Ton de Leeuw International Competition for New Music in Tirana. After receiving the doctorate in ethnomusicology in 1994, he undertook further composition studies with Hufschmidt at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen (1994–5), followed by postdoctoral studies at Athens University (1996). In 1997 he was appointed director of the Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Tirana, and of the State Ensemble of Folk Songs and Dances. He resigned in ...

Article

Melita Milin

(b Belgrade, Nov 15, 1960). Serbian musicologist. She graduated with the degree in musicology from the Faculty of Music in Belgrade (1986), where she also obtained the MA (1990) and PhD degree (2004). She has been a research fellow of the Institute of Musicology SASA during all her career, working also as an assistant professor at the Academy of Arts in Novi Sad (2004–9). Co-founder of the international journal Muzikologija [Musicology] and its editor (2006–10), since 2013 she has been editor for music of Zbornik Matice srpske za scenske umetnosti i muziku [Matica srpska Journal for Stage Arts and Music]. Engaged in different international projects, she has been a member and leader of projects dedicated to the digitization of the Serbian musical heritage (2006–10; 2011–13), and has also made contributions to the joint projects of the Institute with TV Serbia (TV series ...

Article

Magdalena Manolova

revised by Kristina Yapova

(b Sofia, June 26, 1933; d Feb 3, 2011). Bulgarian musicologist whose medieval researches in Byzantine music have placed her name among the leading East-European medievalists. After finishing her secondary education at the Catholic School St. Lucia, Toncheva entered the Faculty of Music Theory at the Bulgarian State Music Academy in Sofia where she also studied piano in the class of Andrey Stoyanov. Graduating in 1958, Toncheva joined the Institute of Musicology at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, where she was assistant professor (1981), professor (1994), chief of the Department of Music History (1981–96), and head of the Institute of Art Studies (1996–2004), uniting researchers of all the arts. In addition to her orientation towards East Orthodox church music, Toncheva was interested in musical practice and teaching church singing under the arch-acolyte of the Bulgarian East Orthodox Church, Peter Dinev. She specialized in the history of medieval music with S. Korbin in Paris (...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Oviedo, April 8, 1888; d London, Feb 17, 1955). Spanish folklorist, writer on music and literature, teacher, choral conductor and composer . He began his musical education in Oviedo, studied the piano and composition at the Madrid Conservatory (1907–10), and, after two years in Oviedo conducting research on traditional Asturian music, went to the Schola Cantorum in Paris (1912–14), where he studied composition with d’Indy; he also went to lectures by Tiersot (who had influenced him earlier) at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales. He was invited by Ramón Menéndez Pidal to work at the Madrid Centro de Estudios Históricos in 1916, and was one of the remarkable group of artists living at the Residencia de Estudiantes which included Bal y Gay, Falla, Turina, Adolfo Salazar, Sainz de la Maza, Lorca, J. Ramón Jiménez, Buñuel and Dali. Later he dedicated to the institution his ...

Article

David Scott

(Lewis)

(b Wokingham, Berks., Feb 21, 1931). English musicologist. He studied at Christ's Hospital and Cambridge University (BA 1953, PhD 1960), where Thurston Dart supervised his research on music in 15th-century England. He lectured in music at Birmingham University (1957–62) and King's College, London (1964–5). He held appointments as head of radio opera at the BBC, where he supervised many first performances (1967–70), and Regents' Professor at the University of California at Berkeley (1970); he returned to King’s College, first as reader in music (1970) and then (1974) as King Edward VII Professor of Music. In 1988 he became Heather Professor of Music at Oxford University, retiring in 1996. Apart from his 15th-century studies Trowell has been much concerned with opera (of all periods, but particularly pre-Classical and 20th-century), and has worked as editor, translator, coach and producer. His later writings also reflect an interest in Elgar and he has served on the editorial committee of the complete edition of Elgar's works....

Article

Ioannis Fulias

(b Athens, Dec 4, 1968). Greek musicologist, conductor, and guitarist. He studied guitar from his early childhood and in 1986 he received the diploma from the National Conservatory in Athens under the guidance of Dimitris Fampas. In the 1980s and 1990s he won awards in international music competitions, gave many concerts in Greece, Italy, France, England, and Russia, and also recorded four discs with works for solo guitar, violin and guitar, and guitar and orchestra. With a Russian state scholarship, from 1987 to 1993 he studied orchestra conducting in both the Moscow and the St. Petersburg State Conservatories, and then he collaborated as a conductor with many orchestras in Russia and in Greece, especially in opera and musical theatre productions.

From 1995 onwards, he has taught in the faculty of music studies at the University of Athens, where he also defended his doctoral dissertation on Mystification and Temporality in the Late Works of Wagner and Mahler...

Article

Masakata Kanazawa

(b Gifu, Dec 20, 1895; d Tokyo, April 21, 1987). Japanese musicologist. He graduated in psychology at Tokyo University in 1920; he also studied composition and conducting with Ryūtarō Hirota, violin with Shin Kusakawa and gagaku (Japanese court music) with Yoshiisa Oku. In 1922 he began teaching at St Paul’s University, Tokyo, retiring as professor emeritus in 1965; he also lectured at Tokyo University, the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music and Kyūshū University. From 1968 to 1977 he was professor at Kunitachi Music College. The first important Japanese scholar to specialize in European music, Tsuji introduced musicology to Japan. He specialized in Bach and the history of Protestant church music, but is also known for his biographies of Mozart and Schubert. He was one of the founders of the Musicological Society of Japan, serving as president from 1964 to 1970.

Shūberuto [Schubert] (Tokyo, 1950)Mōtsaruto...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Jon Stroop and Paula Matthews

(Thomas)

(b Seattle, June 4, 1954; d Williamsburg, VA, Dec 6, 2000). American musicologist. He studied music at Yale University (1971–5), the piano at the Yale School of Music (1975–6), and undertook postgraduate work at the University of Michigan (1979–83), gaining the doctorate in 1986 with a dissertation on Duke Ellington. He lectured at Yale University (1985–6) before moving in 1987 to Columbia University, where he became associate professor of music in 1993. He was also visiting associate professor in the department of Afro-American Studies at Harvard University. Tucker's field of study was American music, especially jazz. He made numerous contributions to the Newsletter of the Institute for Studies in American Music, including a regular column, ‘Behind the Beat’, and was a critic for the New York Times and Jazz Times. As a pianist, he specialized in the music of Duke Ellington, on whom he also wrote extensively, and jazz music of the 1920s and 30s. He was also experienced as a transcriber of jazz from recordings. Before his death he was at work on a full-length study of Thelonius Monk, to be titled ...

Article

Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Sibiu, Romania, March 27, 1940). Romanian composer, professor, and musicologist of German ancestry. His works are inspired by the folklore and academic art of the Transylvanian Saxons, while also manifesting a moderate tendency to assimilate modern idioms. Published especially by German and Swiss houses, his compositions gained him international prestige within German-language circles. Additionally, he pursued his vocation as a researcher by analysing the works of J.S. Bach and of Transylvanian musicians, especially Gabriel Reilich and Paul Richter. He studied at the Conservatory of Cluj (1959–65) with Sigismund Toduţă (composition), Cornel Tăranu (harmony), and Vasile Herman (musical forms). He took the Ph.D. in musicology from the Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca (1978) with a thesis called Contradominanta în creaţia lui W.A. Mozart (‘The Counter-Dominant in the Works of W.A. Mozart’). As a professor in the harmony/composition department of the Cluj-Napoca Conservatory, Türk developed significant treatises and courses, including the book ...

Article

Abraham I. Klimovitsky

(b Reval [now Tallinn], 14/Dec 26, 1893; d Moscow, May 8, 1978). Russian musicologist, theoretician and composer. He studied mathematics (later switching to law) at St Petersburg University (1912–17); at the same time he attended the St Petersburg Conservatory, where he studied with Kalafati, Sokolov and Tcherepnin. He was awarded the doctorate from the Conservatory in 1937 for his dissertation on harmony. From 1921 he lectured at the Institute for the History of the Arts, with which he was periodically associated as a scientific officer until 1958, and worked at the Experimental Monumental Studio Theatre (Mamont) attached to the State Academic Theatre (Mariinsky). He taught at the Leningrad State Conservatory (1925–67), the Tashkent Conservatory (1948–50), the Gnesin State Institute for Musical Education (1970–75) and the Moscow Conservatory (1971–8).

Tyulin became known particularly for his innovatory theory of harmony, which he described as ‘a logically differentiated system of the qualitative interrelation of tones’ and in which he regarded mode as the basis of all musical thought. Based on psychophysiology and acoustics, Tyulin saw mode as a multi-level and historically mobile system of direct communication, characterized by the unity of functional organization of all levels and components. For him, the system, with its origins in ...

Article

Rodney H. Mill

(b Tallmadge, OH, Dec 17, 1870; d Adelphi, MD, Jan 19, 1961). American organist, pianist, teacher and musicologist. He studied music at Oberlin College and Conservatory (BA 1896, MusB 1904, MA 1924) and the piano with Leschetizky in Vienna (1896–8) and Josef Lhévinne in Berlin (1913–14). He taught the piano at Oberlin Conservatory (1894–1936) and served as organist at the Calvary Presbyterian Church, Oberlin (1903–18). His interest in contemporary American art song led to his major and probably most enduring work, the revision and expansion of O.G.T. Sonneck's Bibliography of Early Secular American Music, first published in 1905 and still central to American scholarship. His biographies of A.P. Heinrich and W.H. Fry have not been superseded. In 1945 Oberlin College awarded him an honorary doctorate in music.

‘The Songs of Charles T. Griffes’, MQ, 9 (1923), 314–28‘Some Recent Representative American Song-Composers’, ...

Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

(Aapo)

(b Savonranta, April 9, 1890; d Helsinki, July 18, 1969). Finnish ethnomusicologist. He studied at Helsinki University under Ilmari Krohn (MA 1919), taking the doctorate there in 1939 with a dissertation on Ob-Ugrian folk music; this was one result of his extensive fieldwork, which included travels in Estonia (six visits, 1912–23), Karelia (1915, 1918, 1919), Vepsä (1916), Inkeri and Mordva (1914), Finnish Lapland (1926), Swedish Lapland (1946) and central Europe (1925, 1927). Between 1929 and 1957 he was director of the Helsinki Conservatory and from 1940 lectured at Helsinki University, where he was also professor of musicology (1956–9). As an active promoter of early Finnish (especially Karelian) and national culture he worked at the Kalevala Society as manager (from 1919), secretary (from 1930) and chairman (from 1942); he organized the Kalevala centenary celebrations (...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Strasbourg, Nov 27, 1906). German musicologist. He studied musicology (with Adolf Sandberger), Germanic philology and education at Munich University, where he took the doctorate in 1928 with a dissertation on the evolution of the toccata in the 17th and 18th centuries. He subsequently lectured at the Staatliches Privatmusiklehrer-Seminar in Magdeburg (1929–35), and was concurrently a lecturer at the Salzburg Mozarteum and director of the Zentralinstitut für Mozart-Forschung (1939–45), remaining a member of the institute after relinquishing his directorship. He later lectured at the Nordwestdeutsche Musikakademie in Detmold (1948–53). From 1953 he taught at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, holding a professorship from 1955 and the directorship from 1964 to 1972.

Valentine was editor-in-chief of the Zeitschrift für Musik (1950–55) and co-editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (1955–9). In 1954 he became editor-in-chief of Acta mozartiana, and in ...

Article

Howard Schott

( Jean Eugène )

( b Ixelles, nr Brussels, Nov 17, 1874; d Brussels, Jan 14, 1966). Belgian musicologist . He first studied law, becoming a doctor juris of the University of Brussels in 1897. After practising as a barrister in the court of appeals there until 1905 he abandoned his legal career to pursue musical studies, attending Maurice Kufferath's lectures on music history, and working on harmony, counterpoint and fugue with Ernest Closson. From 1909 to 1914 he served as music critic of L'indépendance belge; he also contributed criticism to other journals and lectured at the Brussels Institut des Hautes Etudes Musicales et Dramatiques on the origins of polyphony and the history of music in the Low Countries, and at the Free University on the history of keyboard music. In 1919 he succeeded Wotquenne as librarian of the Brussels Conservatory and remained in that post until his retirement in 1940. During his tenure the library continued to make important accessions, such as the Fonds Ste Gudule (several hundred 18th-century manuscripts from one of the principal churches in Brussels). He held the chair of the history of music at the Free University (...

Article

Armineh Grigorian

revised by Robert Atayan and Aram Kerovpyan

[Gomidas Vartabed; Soghomonian, Soghomon]

(b Kütahya, Turkey, Oct 8, 1869; d Paris, Oct 22, 1935). Armenian composer, ethnomusicologist, choral conductor, singer and teacher. One of the first Armenians to have a classical Western musical education, as well as instruction in the music of his own people, he laid the foundations for a distinctive national style in his many songs and choruses, all of which are deeply influenced by the folk and church traditions of Armenia. His work on Armenian folksong is also of musicological importance.

Robert Atayan, revised by Aram Kerovpyan

Both of his parents (his father Gevorg Soghomonian was a cobbler) had gifts for music and poetry; in 1881, however, the boy was orphaned and sent to Armenia to study at the Gevork’ian Theological Seminary in Vagharshapat (now Edjmiadzine), and was ordained as a celibate priest in 1894, being given the name Komitas (a 7th-century Catholicos who was also a hymn composer). There his beautiful voice and his musical talents attracted notice, and under Sahak Amatuni’s guidance he mastered the theory and practice of Armenian liturgical singing. He also made decisive contact with folksong, to the collection and study of which he gave himself wholeheartedly. When he had only just learnt Armenian modern notation he set about recording the songs of the Ararat valley peasants and immigrant Armenians of other regions. Although he had no knowledge of European music theory, he harmonized these songs for performance with a student choir at the academy. His earliest surviving collection of folk melodies dates from ...

Article

Lujza Tari

(b Budapest, Feb 1, 1914; d Budapest, October 11, 2007). Hungarian ethnomusicologist. He studied folk music under Kodály (1932–3, 1935–6), church music at the Budapest Academy of Music (1936–7), and philology at the University of Budapest, where he took the doctorate in 1941 with a dissertation on Hungarian folk music from the village of Áj. After working in the Budapest University library (1941–52), as head of the music department of the Ethnographic Museum (1952–67) and as lecturer at the ethnography faculty of the University of Budapest (1952–4), he was appointed research assistant (1967) of the folk music research group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which he also directed (1970–74). Between 1975 and his retirement in 1983 he was academic adviser at the musicology institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was awarded the degree of doctor of sciences for a study of the medieval folk ballad in ...

Article

Danka Lajić-Mihajlović

(b Zakuta, nr Kraljevo, 1903; d Opatija, 1963). Serbian music educator and ethnomusicologist. He learned to play various folk music instruments as a child. After gaining basic music education in Kraljevo, he enrolled at the Prague Conservatory, but when he did not receive a promised scholarship, he returned to Belgrade and continued studies at the ‘Mokranjac’ music school. Following his graduation (1930), Vasiljević moved to Macedonia to be a teacher, and also worked as a conductor, violinist, and composer, while during holidays he collected traditional music. In teaching music literacy, he introduced his own method based on singing native traditional songs. In 1937 Vasiljević returned to Belgrade to become a lecturer at the newly founded Music Academy (today: the Faculty of Music). Besides teaching music theory, he translated works in music theory into Serbian and wrote his own studies. After World War II he was engaged in establishing the folk music department at the Radio Belgrade. At the Music Academy, he began teaching musical folklore among other courses. During fieldwork expeditions he notated music ‘by ear’ until the 1950s, when he acquired a sound recorder. By implementing a scholarly approach to folk music, Vasiljević solidified the founding of ethnomusicology in Serbia. He also actively participated in the establishing of the department of musical folkore at the Music Academy (...

Article

Inna Barsova

revised by Detlef Gojowy

(b Balta, nr Odessa, 11/June 23, 1899; d Moscow, Oct 13, 1958). Russian composer and musicologist. He went to school in Warsaw, then studied the piano under Wendling at the Leipzig Conservatory until 1914; he then continued his studies with N.A. Dubasov (piano, 1914–17) and A.M. Zhitomirsky (composition, 1917–20) at the St Petersburg Conservatory. He was a pupil of Myaskovsky at the Moscow Conservatory (1920–23), where he then taught orchestration (1923–41), and was made a professor in 1930 and head of faculty from 1938. He was later professor at conservatories in Sverdlovsk and Saratov (1942). On his return to Moscow in 1943 he resumed composition and research.

Veprik was a reformer of musical education in the 1920s, when he joined a faction of ‘Red Professors’. In 1925 he initiated the invitation to Arnold Schoenberg to head the composition class at Moscow Conservatory (which he refused); in ...