541-560 of 57,345 results

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In medieval theory, the Final of a transposed Mode. Commonly, a was the affinalis of the Dorian or Hypodorian mode transposed up a 5th and the Phrygian or Hypophrygian mode transposed up a 4th; b was the affinalis of the Phrygian or Hypophrygian mode transposed up a 5th; and ...

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Dolores Pesce

A term first used by Guido for the relationship between certain tones in the medieval gamut, specifically between a modal final and a tone a fifth above or a fourth below (sometimes referred to as the affinalis); specifically, each pair of tones, such as ...

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J.B. Steane

(b St Chinian, Oct 23, 1858; d Cagnes-sur-Mer, Dec 27, 1931). French tenor. For 20 years he was a principal lyric-heroic tenor at the Opéra in Paris. Its director, Pierre Gailhard, had heard him in the provinces and arranged for lessons with Victor Duvernoy. Affré’s house début as Edgardo in ...

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David Fallows

An instruction to increase the tempo, with the implication of increased nervous energy. The distinction between affrettando and accelerando or stringendo is largely academic but is suggested by Verdi's marking at the end of the ‘Lux aeterna’ in his Requiem over some woodwind arpeggiated semiquaver figuration, ...

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John Baily

Country in Central Asia.

Musical life in Afghanistan has been severely disrupted by warfare since 1978. By the end of the 20th century the Taliban movement controlled 90% of the country, including all major cities. In the areas under Taliban control no musical instruments are permitted in public or private, and all forms of music save unaccompanied singing are prohibited. In other areas conditions are little better: most former professional musicians are refugees in Iran, Pakistan, Europe and North America. This article describes some aspects of music culture which are currently dormant, but no doubt music will re-emerge in due course, quite possibly not much changed....

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Afiw  

José Maceda

Idioglot Jew’s harp of the northern Philippines. Most are made of bamboo, but some are of brass or bronze with a slender triangular tongue cut through a small sheet of metal, the tongue remaining fully enclosed but attached only at the base of the triangle. Among the Bontok people it is known as the ...

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Flute of the Fon people of Benin and Togo.

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Albert T. Luper and Manuel Pedro Ferreira

(fl 1440–71). Portuguese court musician. He was a singer in the royal chapel sometime between 1440 and 1446. A letter of 1452 identifies him as mestre de capela of Afonso V. At an uncertain date, but certainly before 1461, King Afonso V (ruled ...

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See Costa family

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(fl 16th century). Italian ecclesiastic. He invented the Phagotum.

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Africa  

Gerhard Kubik

Continent with several climate zones and a population of over 800 million (2000 estimate). The extremely diversified languages within Africa are as much the result of long-term separation of local communities during the continent's remote history as it is of borrowing and processes of transculturation triggered by trade contact, migration and economic symbiosis. These formative factors have shaped the continent's expressive forms in music, dance, art, games, theatre, and oral and written literature. These forms of expressive culture should be viewed, therefore, within the context of African historicity as configurations that have been continuously changing for thousands of years. Thus, testimony is given to the immense African resources for innovation, invention, re-invention, resilience and adaptation. This dynamic picture of African cultural history clearly makes earlier notions of ‘traditional’ societies and cultures obsolete (Kubik, ...

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Africa 3. Musical structures and cognition. (v) Multipart singing, instrumental polyphony and illusory effects.: Ex.4. Simultaneous harmonic sounds produced in Xhosa music (South Africa) and Nkhumbi/Handa (Angola) musics by application of the skipping process to a scale derived from harmonics over two fundamentals a whole tone apart: (a) Columns of partials (b) Resultant scalar layout (c) Harmonic sounds obtained by the skipping process...

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Steven Huebner

Grand opera in five acts by giacomo Meyerbeer to a libretto by eugène Scribe ; Paris, Opéra, 28 April 1865.

The genesis of L’Africaine is more complex than that of any other Meyerbeer opera. A first contract between Meyerbeer and Scribe for the production of the libretto was signed in ...

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Guthrie P. Ramsey

A term applied to distinct configurations of sound organization linked historically and socially to people of African descent living within the United States. While scholarship has identified a shared body of conceptual approaches to sound among the numerous idioms of African American music, musicians have employed them across various functional divides in American culture such as written and oral, sacred and secular, art and popular. Although African American people have been the primary innovators among these idioms, due to mass mediation, the contiguous nature of culture sharing among American ethnic groups, an ever developing and sophisticated global market system, technological advances, and music’s ability to absorb the different meanings ascribed to it, people of all backgrounds have shaped, contributed to, and excelled in this fluid yet distinct body of music making. In addition, many historians of African American music have included the activities of blacks that participated as performers and composers in the Eurological concert tradition under this rubric....

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See United States of America

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Nickname of Earl Turbinton.

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Birgitta J. Johnson

The oldest and largest black Methodist denomination in the world, with approximately four million members in the United States and abroad. The first independent African American Christian denomination, it was founded by Richard Allen and other former members of St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Allen and Absalom Jones had formed the Free African Society in ...