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Tom-tom  

James Blades

revised by James Holland

A name loosely applied in the West to certain African, Eastern and Amerindian drums, but now generally applied to the cylindrical rod-tensioned drums with wooden shells used in Western jazz and pop bands. In the Hornbostel and Sachs system they are classified as membranophones. Tom-toms are essential to the modern jazz drummer, who uses them in sets of three or more. They may be single- or double-headed and are graduated in size from 25 to 46 cm in diameter. The heads, which are mounted on a hoop, are of plastic, less commonly of calfskin. The drums are normally mounted on stands or frames adjustable for height and angle. In jazz and pop side-drum sticks are used, the tom-toms usually being combined with snare drum, cymbals and foot-pedal bass drum (see Drum kit).

There are several other types. The Chinese tom-tom is a convex-shelled drum with a thick vellum head nailed on, often decorated with Chinese characters, dragons, etc. Drums range in depth from 12 cm to as much as 90 cm; the head diameter is usually between 25 and 45 cm. The Chinese tom-tom was used in early drum sets and is the forerunner of the modern Western instrument. It has a distinctive sound, rather ‘darker’ or ‘flatter’ than that of the later instrument. Concert toms are single-headed drums developed for concert work, usually used in a set of eight; the heads range from 15 to 41 cm in diameter. They are easily transported, as the six smaller drums can be packed into the two largest. Ranges of one or two chromatic octaves have also been made. They have been largely superseded by the more easily tuned ...

Article

Tombak  

Jean During

[dombak]

Goblet drum of Iran, known since the early 19th century. It is commonly known as zarb (‘beat’). It is used in entertainment music, in some folk traditions (e.g. those of Lorestan) and in art music. The drum is made from a single block of walnut or mulberry wood, turned and hollowed out. It is 40 to 45 cm in height and 20 to 28 cm in diameter. It was used originally as an accompanying instrument, but its technique was considerably developed by the virtuoso Hossein Tehrani (1911–76), who extended the range of beating methods and sonorities and exploited its potential as a solo instrument. Iranian gymnasiums (zūrkhāne: ‘house of force’) use an earthenware tombak, about 70 cm in diameter, to provide a rhythmic background for exercises. Its powerful tone and beating technique distinguish it from its classical counterpart. The tombak can be likened to the Afghan zirbaghali...

Article

Toubi  

Jeremy Montagu

[doubi]

Cylindrical double-headed drum of Greece. It resembles the daouli but is smaller and shallower. Its sizes vary, some being shallower than the diameter and others deeper. It has two gut snares, one on each head, either over the heads or within the body. The heads can be either braced with cords or nailed to the body. It is usually hung from the left shoulder, but can be held under the armpit, slung over the left thigh, or suspended from the left arm above the wrist, like a tabor. It is played on one head with the hands or with two short wooden sticks, one of which might have the upper end cut as a fork so that it can be used to push the thongs around the bracing cords up or down and so tune the drum. The toubi is essentially an instrument of the Aegean Islands, where it accompanies the ...

Article

J. Bradford Robinson

[Dav(e)y; David Jaffray]

(b Oak Park, IL, April 26, 1907; d Newark, NJ, Dec 9, 1948). American jazz drummer. As a member of the Austin High School Gang in the mid-1920s he had a formative influence on Chicago-style jazz. In the late 1920s he toured Europe, where he made his first recordings in Berlin (1927), and took part in numerous recording sessions with Eddie Condon, Red Nichols, and others in New York. Incapacitated, mainly by alcoholism, from 1929 to 1935, he then joined Tommy Dorsey’s big band (1936–7), replaced Gene Krupa in the Benny Goodman Orchestra (1938), then rejoined Dorsey (1939). He was a leading drummer of the swing period. Two prominent features of his playing with Dorsey—his ride patterns on Chinese cymbal (and later on large Turkish cymbal) and his irregular bass drum figures—were far in advance of their time, becoming widespread only in the bop style of the 1940s. He also adapted to the progressive big band style as a member of Woody Herman’s first “Herd” (...

Article

Jeremy Montagu

Greek term for darabukka. This single-headed goblet drum is made of clay or brass with a goatskin head, which can be either glued to the shell or tied with light cord. Small pellet bells might be suspended within the drum or tied around the outside. It is found almost exclusively in Macedonia and Thrace and the islands of the eastern Aegean, and is used to accompany all the principal melodic instruments. In northern Greece it is used particularly to accompany the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[trikulyā]

Medieval hourglass drum of India. It is described as about 48 cm long and 14 cm in diameter at the faces; the middle ‘can be grasped by the fist’. The heads are stretched on iron hoops in which are seven holes; they are laced with a central cross-lacing over which is a decorated fringe. The drum is hung on a shoulder strap and played with both hands. The ...

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Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[kikasa]

Drum of the Bena Kalundwe, Luba, and Sanga peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a cylindrical, footed body 1.2 to 1.5 metres long, with a single head nailed on. Among the Luba it is beaten for the enthroning of a chief, or in times of war....

Article

Tsinda  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[ntshinda]

Drum of the Mbole, Kutu, and Saka peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single head is nailed to the footed body, which is decorated with geometrical incisions. It resembles the Nkundo bondundu.

Article

Tsuzumi  

David W. Hughes

Generic term for the Japanese hourglass drum with heads laced to the body. In its narrowest sense it refers particularly to the kotsuzumi.

Tsuzumi is the only term for drum encountered in Japan’s earliest written sources, which purported to chronicle the indigenous culture before the apogee of Chinese and Korean influence. What sort of drum this term referred to is not clear. The only distinct examples of Japanese drums, before the known imports of about the 8th century, are those depicted in two clay tomb figurines (haniwa) from a single tomb dating from the 6th or 7th century. Both drums have two heads and are hung diagonally across the chest by straps across the right shoulder. One is barrel-shaped and played with a stick in the right hand and apparently the bare left hand. (A similar technique is used today for the Korean hourglass drum changgo.) The other drum, somewhat damaged, is thinner, perhaps slightly narrow-waisted; the hands are positioned as in the other figurine although the stick is missing, if indeed one was ever present....

Article

Edward H. Tarr and Peter Downey

[touk, tuicke, tuk, tuke, took etc] [tucquet]

From the 14th century to the end of the 18th, a signal or flourish on trumpet(s) or drum(s). As a verb, ‘tuck’ occurs in the 14th and 15th centuries, more often in connection with drums (‘nakeryn noyse, notes of pipes, Tymbres & tabornes, tulket among’; Morris, l.1414). The sounds of trumpet and drum were often distinguished, especially in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, by the use of different verbs, as in ‘The trumpet sounds, The dandring drums alloud did touk’ (Battle of Harlaw, after 1500) or in ‘toucking of kettle Drummes, sounding of Trumpets, and other ostentations of ioy’ (Lithgow). As a noun, ‘tuck’ was used in John Lydgate’s translation of The Destruction of Troy (1410–20) to mean a trumpet signal for assembly: ‘With the tuk of a trump, all his tore knightes He assemblit’. Otherwise its musical use was apparently confined exclusively to drums, and the ‘tuck of drum’ survived in the works of Scottish writers until well into the 19th century, as in Scott’s ...

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Tuhung  

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Article

Tumao  

J. Richard Haefer

Single-headed cylindrical drum of the Saramaka Maroon people of Suriname. It is made from a hollow log up to 2 metres long and 15 to 20 cm in diameter. The skin head is attached by a loop of cords wrapped around the edge of the head and laced to a second loop of multiple strands of fibre about 15 cm below the top. The head is tuned by pounding wedges between the fibre loop and the body. Initially four wedges about 40 cm long are put in place. Fine tuning is accomplished by using a series of shorter wedges placed between the larger wedges and the body. Tension can also be adjusted by heating the head. The tumao is played with one hand only, the performer squatting near the drum, which is placed at an angle to the ground.

The tumao, dedicated to the Apuku spirits, plays intermediate rhythm patterns with the ...

Article

Alastair Dick

Large goblet drum of Kashmir. It is similar and related to the tombak of Iran and the zirbaghali of Afghanistan; like the latter, it is usually made of pottery. It is held horizontally on the seated player’s lap and left thigh and played with both hands. It is usually played in folk music and to accompany wedding songs such as ...

Article

Alastair Dick

[tumdā]

Double-headed drum of the Santal people of Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, East India. The body is made of clay. The right head (about 20 cm in diameter) is smaller than the left (about 29 cm), and the centre of the conical body is very gently waisted (inverted bi-conical), though this is concealed by the leather lacings, densely laced in a ‘V’ pattern, giving a long, truncated conical appearance. Both heads (of cow- or goat-skin) are double, the upper skin (moudha) pasted to the lower (cakki) and cut away to leave an outer ring. On the right head the upper skin is about 37 mm wide; the lower has a paste (kharen) of powdered limestone, gram-flour, half-boiled rice, and soot, dried for three to four days and rubbed smooth with a stone. The paste on the left head (whose upper ring is about 45 mm wide) is thicker, has no soot and is not smoothed. Both heads are beaten by the hands. The ...

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Double-headed drum of the Yeke, Luba, and Lomotwa peoples in the Shaba region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The body is made of a palm tree log, with both ends hollowed but left solid in the centre. The heads are nailed on. Frequently it is decorated with white and red geometrical patterns. It is suspended from the neck of the player and used to accompany songs of praise to the chief....

Article

Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

[tamva]

Kettledrum of the Newar musician caste in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It accompanies the mvālī shawm and jhyāli cymbals on ritual occasions such as visits to temples. The clay body is 13 cm deep with a goatskin head 21 cm in diameter secured by ‘V’ lacing. The drum is tied to the waist of the player by thongs and the two drumsticks hang from the thongs in a cloth bag when not in use. The body of the drum may be decoratively painted....

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Tupim  

Article

Eva Badura-Skoda

(It.: ‘in the Turkish style’)

A term describing music for military band with piccolos and Turkish percussion instruments (cymbals, triangles, drums, bells) or music imitating the effect of Turkish band music (see Janissary music). According to Schubart (Ideen zu einer Ästhetik der Tonkunst, Vienna, 1806/R, 330ff), Turkish band musicians living in Vienna were used by Gluck in his operas (he was probably referring to Le cadi dupé, 1761, and Iphigénie en Tauride, 1779). But operas and ballets with Turkish motifs were favoured elsewhere as well. Many composers in all parts of Europe wrote alla turca passages or pieces. Thus Haydn used the style, for instance, in his operas Lo speziale (1768) and L’incontro improvviso (1775) as well as in various symphonies (nos.63, 69, 100); and Mozart used it in his ‘Turkish’ Violin Concerto in A k219 (1775), in the Rondo alla turca of his Piano Sonata in A ...