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Article

Eva Badura-Skoda

A term describing music for military band with piccolos and Turkish percussion instruments (cymbals, triangles, drums, bells) or music imitating the effect of Turkish band music (see Janissary music). According to Schubart (Ideen zu einer Ästhetik der Tonkunst, Vienna, 1806/R...

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Mireille Helffer, Gert-Matthias Wegner and Simonne Bailey

Kettledrum of Nepal. The bowl, of various shapes, is made of brass, copper, iron, pottery, or wood, typically with a diameter of 14 to 23 cm and depth of 17 to 23 cm. The skin head is lapped to a hoop that is held to the body with V lacing. It is suspended at waist level from a neck strap and played with two sticks. The drum is not tuned to a definite pitch. It is used by the ...

Article

James W. McKinnon and Robert Anderson

Ancient hand drum (a Membranophone). Approximately 30 cm in diameter, it consisted of a rim of metal or wood covered on both sides by a skin membrane. It is usually shown held in the left hand being struck by the fingertips of the right. Normally it was associated with the orgiastic cults of Dionysus and Cybele where it appeared almost invariably with the ...

Article

Henry Johnson

Frame drum of Japan. The name refers to the shape of the instrument: uchiwa (fan); daiko/taiko (drum). It has a circular wooden or metal frame about 21 to 60 cm in diameter with a handle about the same length as the diameter, and resembles a traditional Japanese flat fan. The single head, of cow or horse hide, can be struck on either side, using a wooden beater. Other names for different forms of frame drums with long handle, and sometimes two heads, include ...

Article

Vejiga  

J. Richard Haefer

Inflated animal bladder used as a percussion instrument in Panama and Puerto Rico. The bladder, usually that of a pig or cow, about 20 to 30 cm in diameter, is struck with a stick to provide rhythmic accompaniment to the music and movements of the ‘little devil’ street dancers. It may be worn as part of a dancer’s costume. In the ...

Article

Waka  

Ronnie Graham

Yoruba percussive and vocal genre. Waka has its origins in south-west Nigeria, where extensive Islamic conversion during the 19th century produced a variety of musical genres performed during key periods in the Muslim calendar. Waka (Hausa term for song or poem) was originally sung by women, accompanied by handclaps and beaten ...

Article

Gareth Dylan Smith

(b Kalamazoo, MI, April 23, 1952). American drummer, producer, and composer. The drum major in his high school marching band, he majored in music for three semesters at Western Michigan University, and then joined a soul band from Fresno, California. After witnessing the Mahavishnu Orchestra in concert, he sought to learn from that band’s leader and guitarist, john McLaughlin. At 21 years of age, following lessons from McLaughlin, he played on ...

Article

A type of friction drum. See String drum.

Article

Waning  

Andrew C. McGraw

Drum of Flores, Indonesia. It has a cylindrical wooden body, often closed at the bottom, and one goatskin head affixed by leather straps attached to a counterhoop. The head is tuned by moving wooden pegs placed between the straps and the body of the drum. Two are used in the ...

Article

Wankara  

J. Richard Haefer

Two-headed log drum of the Bolivian Alti Plano. It is about 50 cm in diameter and about 15 cm deep; the heads, of goat or sheep hide, are laced together in a V pattern. It has a snare (chariera) across the bottom head made from animal intestines to which cactus spines can be attached to amplify the resonance. It is played with a drumstick (...

Article

Mary Riemer-Weller

Single-headed drum common in Native American culture, having as a distinctive feature a hollow body containing water. The volume of water is adjusted for tuning purposes, and, among the Iroquois, Ojibwe, and Navajo (and formerly among the Omaha and Pawnee), the head is made wet before use, usually by inverting the drum. The body may be of wood, or may be an earthen or iron pot, or a kettle (the Seminole drum was a kettle with a buckskin head, played with a padded wooden beater about 25 cm long). Wooden drums may have a bung-hole in the side so that the quantity of water can be changed without removing the head. A padded wooden stick is generally used as a beater, but the Iroquois use an unpadded stick for their small ...

Article

Matthew Alan Thomas

(b Pittsburgh, PA, Jan 20, 1960). American percussionist. He began playing snare drum at nine years old and performed with the Pittsburgh Youth SO as a teenager. He studied classical percussion at Duquesne University before transferring to Berklee College of Music, where he met Kevin Eubanks, Branford Marsalis, and Wallace Roney. He frequently performed on vibraphone as a Berklee student and played with Marvin “Smitty” Smith in the school’s fusion ensemble. Watts recorded and toured regularly with Wynton Marsalis’s quintet (...

Article

A drumroll. See Drum, §II .

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Roslyn Rensch and Hugh Davies

Firm of instrument makers and dealers of German origin.

Rudolph Wurlitzer (Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer; b Schöneck, Saxony, 31 Jan 1831; d Cincinnati, OH, 14 Jan 1914) came to the United States in 1853; he settled in Cincinnati and began dealing in musical instruments in addition to working in a local bank. It is likely that he was one of a long line of Saxon instrument makers, beginning with Heinrich Wurlitzer (...

Article

Xiyaogu  

Alan R. Thrasher

Hourglass-shaped drum of the Han Chinese, historically known as zhanggu (‘stick drum’). Several related drum types were introduced from India or Central Asia into the Chinese courts of the Sui and Tang dynasties (6th to early 10th centuries ce), though according to Chen Yang’s ...

Article

Henry Johnson

Barrel drum of Japan. The name refers to its former context of performance (yagura or : turret/tower). The drum is especially known for its use in sumō (Japanese wrestling), when it announces the event, and from some historical kabuki performances, when the drum was positioned atop a high stage. It is about 60 cm long and 27 cm in diameter. The two heads are affixed to the wooden body by one or two rows of broad-headed nails. The drum can be positioned in several ways, including placing it on a tiny stand at a 45-degree angle in front of the player, who kneels perpendicular to the drum, or on a high stand at a similar angle for a standing player. The higher head is struck by two slender wooden sticks....

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Drum of the Yeke people in the Shaba region, Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is a very large, double-headed instrument, part of the king’s regalia. The heads, of buffalo, antelope, or elk skin, are laced together and beaten with two sticks. The yamilango may be played only by the king and only on official occasions. (...

Article

John M. Schechter

Drum of Oriente Province, Cuba. The body, about 40 cm long and smaller in diameter, consists of 12 staves from the trunk of a yarey palm, hence the name of the instrument. The single head is attached with nails, and the drum is open at the lower end. The body is encircled with a small belt of wire, cactus fibre, or iron chain tightened with wedges placed against (not into) the sides. The belt has nothing to do with tensioning the head. The instrument, of African origin, is always struck by the hands in ensembles with the ...

Article

Zabumba  

Alice L. Satomi

Snare drum of El Salvador and Brazil. It is a double-headed cylindrical drum with a wooden body 20 to 30 cm deep and 40 to 56 cm in diameter. Zabumba is also called bumbo, bombo, bumba, caixa grande, tambor grande, or Zé-Pereira, preserving some Portuguese names. It is also known as ...

Article

John M. Schechter

Friction drum of Spain and the New World. In Spain, the zambomba accompanies Christmas carols. The membrane of the instrument is pierced with a stick on which the player’s hand rubs up and down. The Basque eltzagor is made from an earthenware pot covered with a membrane through which the friction stick is inserted. The term ...