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Article

Tijana Popović Mladjenović

(b Belgrade, June 29, 1948). Serbian musicologist. She studied musicology at the Belgrade Music Academy, from which she graduated in 1971 and received the master’s degree in 1974. She received the doctorate from the University of Belgrade in 1981. She is a full professor in the Department of Musicology of the Faculty of Music and at the Interdisciplinary Doctoral Studies in the Theory of Art and Media, University of Arts in Belgrade. She also cooperated with the Rostock University of Music and Drama and Erasmus University Rotterdam. From 2003 to 2005, she worked in the Department of Music of the University of Pretoria. She is the editor-in-chief of New Sound – International Magazine for Music, member of the editorial board of Matica Srpska Journal of Stage Art and Music, editor of numerous musicological editions, and leader of scientific projects. She is chair of the Department of Musicology (Faculty of Music, Belgrade), president of the Serbian Musicological Society, secretary of the Matica Srpska Department for Stage Art and Music, and member of the International Musicological Society. She has introduced new, innovative trends in Serbian musicology. Her scholarly activity is primarily orientated toward Serbian and European avant-garde and postmodern music....

Article

John Tyrrell

(b Brno, June 30, 1898; d Brno, Nov 30, 1979). Czech musicologist and folklorist . He studied with Helfert at Brno University (1921–6), taking the doctorate with a dissertation on Rieger. Until 1928 he worked under Helfert in the music section of the Moravian Museum; he then became head of the music division of Brno Radio (1928–45), which he helped to develop to a high standard, particularly increasing its educational role in the promotion of folk and art music. After the war he was director of the Brno University library (1945–53) and then head of the Brno Institute for Ethnography and Folklore at the Czech Academy of Sciences (1953–70); he also lectured on folk studies at the university (1954–9). Although Vetterl's writings reflect his work in libraries and the radio, where he undertook valuable cataloguing projects, his chief interest was folksong. In ...

Article

Karel Steinmetz

(b Olomouc, 5 May 1949). Czech musicologist and composer. He studied musicology at the Palacký University in Olomouc with Robert Smetana and Vladimír Hudec (MA 1972, PhDr 1974), the accordion at the Ostrava Conservatory (graduated 1972), composition with Jiří Dvořáček, and music theory with Karel Risinger at the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (graduated 1981, 1983). He taught at the department of musicology and music education at the Palacký University in Olomouc from 1973 to 1985. From 1985 to 1989 he worked as editor and chief editor with the journal Hudební rozhledy in Prague. In 1990 he became head of the re-opened department of musicology at the Palacký University, becoming professor there in 1998 and working there until 2016. Since 1980 he has worked at the department of music theory and history of the Prague Academy of Performing Arts, founding the music management programme there and teaching music analysis, aesthetics, and criticism. As a Fulbright/CIES scholar-in-residence, he lectured at eight universities in the United States (...

Article

Dragotin Cvetko

revised by Zdravko Blažeković

(b Subotica, Oct 1, 1914; d Zagreb, April 18, 1964). Croatian musicologist and composer. He studied composition and musicology at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome. From 1942 he was choirmaster at Zagreb Cathedral and editor of the church music journal Sv. Cecilija (1942–5, 1946), from 1951 professor of aesthetics and church music at the theology faculty at Zagreb. In 1963 he founded the Institute of Church Music. Vidaković was one of the most important Croatian musicologists. His systematic examination of Croatian music, for instance in his detailed analysis of Jelić’s works in the introduction to his edition of Parnassia militia or in his book on Križanić, where he discussed the Croatian musical theorists of the 17th century, are well known. His compositions consist mainly of vocal music and include a number of masses which, although written on the polyphonic basis, seek to capture the spirit of Croatian folk music....

Article

Enrique Franco

(b León, Nov 13, 1875; d Madrid, Nov 4, 1937). Spanish composer, teacher and musicologist. A follower of nationalism in its most direct phase, he investigated the folk music of his native region and at once used popular rhythms and melodies in orchestral, vocal, chamber and piano works; however, in some of his songs, settings of classical and Romantic Spanish poets, he cultivated an elegant and refined salon style. Two of his three quartets are based on Leónese folk music, whose characteristics brought out Villar's innate lyricism, melancholy and nostalgia, qualities for which he became known as ‘the Spanish Grieg’. From 1919 until the beginning of the Civil War (1936–9) he was a professor at the Madrid Conservatory, where he defended the Spanish music of his generation. In 1928 he founded the magazine Ritmo, in which, as in his books and essays, he inveighed against the most recent musical trends, supporting tonality, melody as the basis of all music, and the essentiality of a functional modal harmony derived from national folk music. Nevertheless, he was an ardent defender of Falla and of his most daring work, the Concerto for harpsichord and five instruments....

Article

Matthew Harp Allen

(b Madras [now Chennai], India, Aug 13, 1927; d Hartford, CT, Sept 10, 2002). flutist, vocalist, and ethnomusicologist of Indian birth. Born into a family of musicians and dancers, he received his musical training from his mother T. Jayammal and from flutist T.N. Swaminatha Pillai, an MA in economics from Annamalai University (1951), and a PhD in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University (1975).

He first came to the United States as a Fulbright scholar at UCLA (1958–60), was reader and head of the department of Indian music at the University of Madras (1961–6), and returned to the United States, where he studied ethnomusicology at Wesleyan University (1967–1970), taught at the California Institute of the Arts (1970–5), and then worked in the faculty of Wesleyan University (1975–2002).

He was honored in India with the Kalaimamani Award by the government of Tamil Nadu (...

Article

Margaret Grave

[Abbé Vogler]

(b Würzburg, June 15, 1749; d Darmstadt, May 6, 1814). German theorist, teacher, keyboard player, organ designer and composer. His theory of harmony influenced 19th-century approaches to music analysis, and he anticipated the Romantic period in his chromatic harmony, colouristic orchestration and melodic borrowings from folk tradition and exotic cultures. His radical concept of organ design aroused widespread interest and controversy; his writings on the reform of sacred music foreshadowed the Cecilian movement.

The son of a Würzburg instrument maker, Vogler attended a Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in humanistic studies at Würzburg University in 1763. Subsequently he studied common and canon law, first at Würzburg, then at Bamberg. During his student years he composed ballet and theatre music for university performances. In 1770 he obtained a post as almoner at the Mannheim court of Carl Theodor, the Elector Palatine. Politically resourceful, he soon attained prominence in the court’s musical life, secured the elector’s favour, and was granted the financial means to pursue musical study in Italy (from ...

Article

Josef Bek

(b Trenčín, July 15, 1923; d Prague, Feb 22, 1989). Czech musicologist and aesthetician . He studied composition at the Prague Conservatory (1941–6) and the Prague master class (1946–8) under Šín, Hába and Řídký. He gained his musicological and aesthetic education at the Prague and Bratislava universities (1946–52). An important stimulus for his own creative work came from Jan Mukařovský, the structuralist aesthetician, and through his own contacts with Emil Utitz, a German aesthetician of Jewish extraction who lived in Prague until his death. He took the doctorate in 1952 in Bratislava with a dissertation on theoretical bases of harmony from the viewpoint of scientific philosophy. He then became successively lecturer (1952–7), reader (1957–68) and professor (1968) in the arts faculty of Prague University. He took the CSc degree in 1958 and the DSc degree in 1968...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Leipzig, Feb 23, 1848; d New York, Jan 15, 1918). American pianist, teacher, and composer of German origin. From 1862 he trained at the Conservatory of Leipzig, where he studied with Moscheles, Reinecke, and Hauptmann (Helbig Prize in composition in 1864). Upon graduating in 1866, he toured Germany for two years before moving to the USA and settling permanently in New York. In December 1868 he made a successful début at one of Theodore Thomas’ Classical Soirées. Lacking the ambition to become a virtuoso, or simply because of disinterest in certain repertoires, he failed to secure a prominent position among other pianists who had also settled in New York at that time. He nonetheless retained prestige as a scholarly pianist. For the next four decades he appeared often as accompanist and in chamber music concerts, often collaborating with Thomas and with Leopold Damrosch. Those concerts gave momentum to a form that was still rather unappreciated by general audiences. A sought after teacher, he instructed Frank and Walter Damrosch. In ...

Article

Miloš Velimirović

(b Voznesensk, Kostroma province, 5/Sept 17, 1838; d Kostroma, 8/Dec 21, 1910). Russian writer on church music . Voznesensky graduated from the Kostroma Seminary in 1860 and from the Moscow Theological Academy in 1864. He served as teacher of chant in the Kostroma Seminary until 1883, when he became an inspector of the Riga Seminary until 1894; he then served as head priest of the cathedral of the Trinity, Kostroma. In the late 1880s and in the 1890s he published several volumes of studies dealing with the different varieties of chant in Russian churches. His works are basically compilations, and eclectic in nature. He did only a minimal amount of original research on the historical evolution of Russian chant, but he was among the first in Russia to investigate the melodic traditions of south-western Russian provenance from the 17th and 18th centuries preserved in Western staff notation. He translated into Russian a treatise of the ‘method’ of the Greco-Slavonic chanting originally written in Latin by Ioan de Castro (Rome, ...

Article

Josef Bek and Geoffrey Chew

(b Košice, May 11, 1924; d Brno, Nov 26, 2015). Czech musicologist. He studied at the arts faculty in Brno University (1945–9), taking the doctorate in 1949, with a dissertation on music ethnography, and the CSc degree in 1959, with a dissertation on Janáček and folksong. He began his career at Brno University in 1961, acting as head of the Institute for Musicology from 1963 until his retirement in 1990, but continuing to lecture there until his death, and he took the DSc degree in 1974 with a work on Alois Hába, with whom he had struck up a close friendship. He was active in the administration of the Union of Czechoslovak Composers, and was president of the Brno International Musical Festival (1976–89) and chairman of the Brno International Colloquia (1976–95); he is among those listed in the controversial Cibulka list of state secret agents, with the code name ‘Debbussy’. His research was first directed towards the study of Moravian folksong, but later his interests extended to include Janáček, Alois Hába, and Czech music of the 20th century and earlier....

Article

George Ruckert

(b Nashville, TN, March 29, 1941). American ethnomusicologist . She took the BMus at Boston University (1963) and at UCLA she completed the MA (1967) and the PhD (1971), the last with a dissertation on khayāl. She taught at Brown University (1971–5) and then joined the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley, where she established the internationally respected ethnomusicology programme. She was made professor at California in 1981 and has served as chairman of the music department (1983–88), undergraduate dean (from 1992), and chair of the deans (from 1994). She has held offices in a number of professional societies, including that of vice-president of the AMS (1990–93), board member of the IMS (1987–97) and president of the Society for Ethnomusicology (1999–2001).

A pioneer in her field, Wade wrote one of the first standard ethnomusicological textbooks, ...

Article

Penelope Gouk

(b Ashford, Kent, Nov 23, 1616; d Oxford, Oct 28, 1703). English mathematician, experimental philosopher and music theorist . He entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632, graduated BA in 1637 and MA in 1640, the same year he was ordained. In recognition of his services to parliament during the Civil War (e.g. decoding ciphers used by the royalist army), Cromwell appointed Wallis to the Savilian Chair of Geometry at Oxford in 1649. He lectured on harmonics as a branch of mathematics and over the next half century established himself as the foremost English authority on musical science. He was also one of the experimental philosophers active in London and Oxford during the Interregnum who became founder members of the early Royal Society of London. His dual interest in mathematics and experimental philosophy is reflected in his music theory, which was written entirely from the perspective of a scholar rather than a practising musician....

Article

Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Paula Morgan and Christina Linklater

(b Oakland, CA, July 6, 1917, d Cambridge, MA, Dec 12, 2011). American musicologist. He studied with Gombosi at the University of Washington (MM 1942), with Herzog at Columbia University (1945–6), and with Sachs and Reese at New York University (PhD 1953, with a dissertation on the vihuela de mano). In 1944 Darius Milhaud wrote of Ward, ‘He lives in a dream state, somewhere between the Renaissance and Eric Satie. That gives to his music a flavor of purity and simplicity from which we may expect very good results’ (Milhaud, 1944). From 1947 to 1953 Ward was an instructor at Michigan State University and from 1953 to 1955 an assistant and then an associate professor at the University of Illinois. In 1955 he joined the faculty of Harvard University, where he was William Powell Mason Professor of Music from 1961 to 1985. In ...

Article

(b Harrow-on-the-Hill, Dec 5, 1893; d Frome Vauchurch, Dorset, May 1, 1978). English music scholar. Daughter of a master at Harrow, she studied music, including composition, under Percy Buck, director of music at Harrow School. Her early compositions, which remain unpublished, were admired by Vaughan Williams. On the recommendation of W.H. Hadow, she became a member of the editorial committee of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), working alongside Buck, Alexander Ramsbotham and E.H. Fellowes. In addition to her extensive editorial work on the first ten volumes of Tudor Church Music (1917–29), she contributed a chapter on notation to the Oxford History of Music (introductory volume, 1929), lectured before the Musical Association (1918–19) and edited octavos of Tudor compositions for performing editions published by Stainer & Bell. For these clear and careful performing editions, she followed the editorial methods of Fellowes. With the success in ...

Article

Bruno Nettl

(b Solvang, CA, July 10, 1914; d Tampa, FL, Nov 8, 1971). American ethnomusicologist . After completing his undergraduate studies at Santa Barbara State College (1937), he obtained the MA in anthropology at Claremont State College (1941), and took the doctorate under M.J. Herskovits at Northwestern University in 1943. His subsequent appointment to the Northwestern anthropology faculty marked the introduction of the field of ethnomusicology to the American Midwest. He taught at Wayne State University (1957–65) and subsequently at the University of South Florida. His most extensive field research was carried out with the people of Yirkalla, northern Australia, but his research interests centred on the music of the African diaspora, particularly of Afro-Cubans and Cuban-Americans, and on jazz in its social and historical context. He was also a distinguished jazz musician, frequently performing on the double bass throughout his academic career.

Waterman’s publications are modest in number, but they cover a variety of subjects and approaches and are regarded as significant, innovative and influential. His greatest contributions were the interpretation of black American music using the concept of syncretism, the introduction of research in urban American subcultures and the assembling of major bibliographies....

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Augusta, ME, May 31, 1947). American music educator and scholar. He earned degrees in music education from the University of Southern Maine (BS 1969) and the Eastman School of Music (MM 1971, PhD 1977). He taught music in the public schools of Maine (1965–9), Massachusetts (1969–70), and New York (1970–74), and at Case Western Reserve University (1974–88). Since moving to Northwestern University in 1988 he has taught philosophy, graduate research methods, music technology, assessment, and creative thinking in music; advised numerous dissertations; and served as chair of the music education program, chair of the Department of Music Studies, and associate dean of the Bienen School of Music. Webster has published over 70 articles and book chapters on technology, music cognition, and creative thinking in music, works that have appeared in journals and handbooks in and outside of music. He is co-author (with David Williams) of ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Springfield, MO, May 9, 1917; d Ann Arbor, June 3, 1988). American music bibliographer. He graduated from the University of Michigan (BM 1949, MM 1950, PhD 1956) and was on the faculty of its School of Music from 1952 until his retirement in 1982; in 1967...

Article

Caroline Cepin Benser

(Joseph)

(b Vienna, Oct 21, 1885; d Oxford, Nov 9, 1974). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher. His importance as a composer rests chiefly on his stage works and symphonies. While his creative career was divided between Vienna and Oxford, his musical style was unpredictable, showing his affection for beautiful melody often with wide leaps and angular in profile. As a musicologist, he did pioneer work on Byzantine chant.

Wellesz was born into comfortable circumstances in the Schottengasse. His father Samú Wellesz was in the textile business; his mother Ilona Lovenyi met and married her husband in Vienna after they had each come from the Hungarian part of the empire. Wellesz inherited his musical inclinations from his mother, who had once studied the piano with Carl Frühling, to whom she sent her son. Even so, his parents had expected him to study law and follow in his father's business; however, on his 13th birthday he heard Mahler conduct ...