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Bryce Morrison

(b Zabrze, Dec 5, 1956). Polish pianist . He studied with Andrzeij Jasinski, first privately and then at the Katowice Conservatory. He gave his first recital at the age of six and in 1975 became the youngest-ever winner of the International Chopin Competition in Warsaw. Feeling the need to expand his horizons, Zimerman worked intensively with Rubinstein, one of his greatest musical heroes, in 1976. In 1980 he curtailed his flourishing career and took a 14-month sabbatical in London. On his return to the concert platform his playing was marked by even greater freshness and vitality, which he attributes to his refusal to give more than 50 or 60 concerts a year. Among the finest pianists of his generation, he has made numerous recordings, including the Lutosławski Concerto (written for him and first performed by him in 1988), the complete Beethoven and Brahms concertos (the latter with Bernstein), much Chopin and an imaginative coupling of Liszt’s B minor Sonata with several of his later, prophetic works, including ...

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Durrell Bowman

(b Frankfurt, 12 Sept 1957). German film composer, keyboardist, and producer. He moved to London in his teens and later wrote jingles there for commercials. He briefly played synthesizers with the British New Wave rock band the Buggles (appearing in the video for Video Killed the Radio Star in 1979), the Italian electronic-pop group Krisma (playing synthesizer on its 1980 album Cathode Mamma), and New Zealand singer Zaine Griff. He also co-formed the band Helden (1980–83, known for two singles and a bootleg album) and worked with the Spanish synth-pop band Mecano (1983–5). While apprenticing from 1982 to 1985 with the British film composer Stanley Myers, Zimmer combined his ’synthetic’ work as a popular music synthesizer player and songwriter with more traditional, orchestral film sounds. Zimmer’s collaborations with Myers included Moonlighting (1982), Insignificance (1985), and My Beautiful Laundrette (...

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Rene Macura

Oscar-winning composer Hans Zimmer poses at the keyboard in his Santa Monica, Calif. studio March 6, 2001. The music he wrote for "Gladiator" has so-far produced two best-selling CDs and earned Zimmer his seventh Oscar nomination.

(AP Photo/Rene Macura)

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Vladimír Zvara

(b Ružomberk, May 16, 1926; d Bratislava, Jan 21, 1993). Slovak composer, pianist and teacher. He studied the organ, the piano with Anna Kafendová (from 1941) and composition with Suchoň at the Bratislava Conservatory before continuing his studies in composition under Farkas at the Budapest Music Academy (1948–9) and in Salzburg (1949). From 1945 to 1948 he contributed to Czechoslovak radio and, for the next four years, taught theory and the piano at the Bratislava Conservatory. Thereafter he devoted his time to composition and, exceptionally, to performance as a concert pianist.

His compositional style had its roots in the work of Suchoň, manifested by his emphasis on concise structure (based mostly on Classical or Romantic forms) and in the use of modally extended tonality, with elements of dodecaphony in works of the 1960s. After an early period of compositional constructivism and sober emotionality (as in the Concerto grosso, ...

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(b Wauneta, KA, June 20, 1923). American musicologist . He attended the University of Southern California, where he took the BA in 1949 and the MA in 1952. He earned the BLitt at Oxford in 1956, then returned to USC to complete the doctorate on Purcell in 1958. His teachers have included Ingolf Dahl, Halsey Stevens, Egon Wellesz and Sir Jack Westrup. He began his teaching career at the State University of New York, Potsdam (1958–9). From 1958 to 1964 he taught at USC. He was professor of music and director of the collegium musicum at Dartmouth College, 1964–8, and following a brief period teaching at the University of Kentucky (1968), he became chairman of the music department at the University of Pennsylvania. He retired in 1993.

Zimmerman is noted for his research on English Baroque music, particularly the music of Restoration England and the works of Purcell and Handel. His numerous Purcell studies culminated in a thematic catalogue (...

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K. Thomas Brantley

(b Canton, OH, March 1, 1866; d Englewood, NJ, Dec 18, 1935). American Trombonist. Zimmerman grew up in Canton, Ohio. He left for New York City in 1896, accepting a position with the Frederick Neil Innes Band. Largely self-taught, Zimmerman became a highly sought-after soloist. In 1903, Zimmerman replaced the departing Arthur Pryor as John Philip Sousa’s trombone soloist....

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Shelly C. Cooper

(b Peoria, IL, March 15, 1929; d Urbana, IL, Feb 15, 1995). American music educator and scholar. She earned degrees from Illinois Wesleyan University (BA 1951) and the University of Illinois (MS 1955, EdD 1963). She taught for three years in the Illinois public schools before joining the music faculties at Illinois Wesleyan University (1955–6), Southern Illinois University (1956–9), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (1959–64, 1968–71, 1987–93), and Northwestern University (1964–8). She held several visiting professor positions, including director of the graduate program in music education at Temple University (1978–9) and Distinguished Flora Stone Mather Visiting Professor at Case Western University (1980–81). Known for her seminal research in music conservation based on the work of Jean Piaget, she published more than 50 articles. Among her publications are Musical Characteristics of Children (Reston, VA 1971...

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G.J. Cederquist

(Alice )

(b Lincoln, NE, Aug 23, 1960). American Director, adapter, and educator. From a family of academics, Zimmerman received her BS, MA, and PhD at Northwestern University in Performance Studies under the mentorship of Frank Galati. The program focused on how to adapt works of literature for the stage; much of Zimmerman’s later work would reflect such scholarly and text-based influences. Based in Chicago, her career began at Lookingglass Theatre Company, a troupe whose founding members also attended Northwestern. The company’s aesthetic focused on storytelling through strong physicality and breathtaking aerobatics within a highly presentational style, as seen in Zimmerman’s 1990 production of The Odyssey. In 1995 she joined the artistic collective of the Goodman Theatre—a roster of resident directors formed by artistic director Robert Falls—and led a production of All’s Well That Ends Well. Other early notable adapted productions at the Goodman included The Arabian Nights and The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci...

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Sophie Fuller

(Marie Jacobina)

(b Cologne, July 5, 1847; d London, Nov 14, 1925). English pianist and composer of German birth. Her family moved to England when she was a young child. From 1857 to 1864 she attended the RAM, studying the piano with Cipriani Potter and Ernst Pauer, and composition with Charles Steggall and George Macfarren (who later wrote his third piano sonata for her); she won the King’s Scholarship in 1860 and again in 1862. She made her professional début in 1863 at the Crystal Palace, where she performed two movements of Beethoven’s ‘Emperor’ Concerto. In 1865 she gave the first of a long-running series of recitals and chamber concerts at the Hanover Square Rooms, continued from 1875 at St James’s Hall. Zimmermann was praised for her clarity and control, and was regarded as one of the country’s leading pianists. She performed regularly at the Popular Concerts in London and accompanied Joachim (the dedicatee of her first violin sonata), Neruda and Alfredo Piatti; she also made several tours of Germany....

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Milan Poštolka

revised by Darina Múdra

(b Breitenau [now Široká Niva], nr Bruntál, bap. Dec 27, 1741; d Pressburg [now Bratislava], cOct 8, 1781). Austrian composer. He probably received his musical education in Silesia; later he was organist at the cathedral in Königgrätz (now Hradec Králové, Czech Republic). From the early 1770s he was active in Pressburg, where his Singspiel Narcisse et Pierre is reported to have been performed in 1772 (as documented by the Pressburger Zeitung); in 1773 he composed works for the St Cecilia festivities there. His works were first listed in the Breitkopf thematic catalogues in 1769 and 1772–84; the earliest manuscript sources date from 1770, and printed sources apparently from 1775. Early in 1776 he was appointed Kapellmeister and court composer to Count Joseph Batthyány, the Archbishop (cardinal from 1778) of Hungary. Zimmermann developed the orchestra into an outstanding ensemble of over 20 musicians (including the double bass virtuoso Johannes Sperger), in which wind instruments seem to have been prominent; he conducted from the first violinist’s chair and remained the head of the orchestra until his death. The orchestra performed publicly twice a week, with secular works dominating its repertory. From ...

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Andrew D. McCredie and Marion Rothärmel

(b Bliesheim, nr Cologne, March 20, 1918; d Grosskönigsdorf [now Pulheim], nr Cologne, Aug 10, 1970). German composer. Remaining independent from the various fashionable schools of the 1950s and 60s, he steadfastly developed and perfected an individual style in which quotations, carefully woven into a colourful atonal fabric, often played an important part. His single opera, Die Soldaten, is widely acknowledged as the most important in German since those of Berg.

Zimmermann studied philosophy, German literature and music education before embarking on professional training in music at the universities of Cologne and Bonn, and at Musikhochschulen in Cologne and Berlin. His studies were temporarily interrupted by military service; he was posted to the Russian front and to occupied France, where he became acquainted with scores of Stravinsky and Milhaud that greatly influenced his subsequent development. In 1942 he resumed his studies, which now included musicology, at the University of Cologne (...

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(b Morgenroethe, Saxony, Germany, Sept 4, 1817; d Philadelphia, PA, Oct 20, 1898). Instrument maker of German birth. He immigrated to the United States in 1864 and settled in Philadelphia. His work with and improvements to the accordion led him to devise a complex “tone numbering” system of musical notation that used numbers in place of notes; he wrote articles describing this as early as 1871. After years of revising the system he decided to invent a musical instrument that would require its use; he tried at first to adapt the accordion for this purpose but soon turned his attention to the autoharp, a zither with attached chord bars. He first alluded to his plans to manufacture the instrument around 1878 in his book Zimmermann’s Directory of Music in General; he applied for a patent in 1881 (issued the following year) and began production in 1885. Within three years he had sold 50,000 instruments. His models ranged from one with 21 strings and three bars that could produce only three chords to a concert instrument with 49 strings, six bars, slides, and levers that could produce 72 chords. In ...

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Harold Rosenthal

(b Meissen, Nov 29, 1892; d Berlin, Feb 24, 1968). German tenor . He studied in Dresden, where he made his début in 1918. Engagements in Dortmund, Brunswick and Leipzig followed; from 1925 to 1931 he was a member of the Staatsoper in Munich, and from 1931 to 1934...

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Margaret Campbell

(b Duisburg, Feb 27, 1965). German violinist . He studied at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen, with Valery Gradov, the Staatliche Hochschule in Berlin with Saschko Gawrillof, and from 1980 with Hermann Krebbers in Amsterdam. He made his début in 1975 playing Mozart's G major Concerto k216, and in 1976 he won the Jugend Musiziert competition. Zimmermann subsequently appeared as a soloist throughout Europe and made his US début in 1984 with the Pittsburgh SO. He has since followed an international solo career, performing with the world's leading orchestras and conductors, and has often played in major festivals. Notable among his many recordings are Tchaikovsky's Concerto and Prokofiev's First Concerto with the Berlin PO conducted by Maazel, Mozart sonatas with Alexander Lonquich and Paganini's 24 Caprices (1985). He plays the ‘Hilton’ Stradivarius of 1691, strung with gut strings, on which he produces a beautiful, pure tone.

S. Tomes...

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Friedhelm Brusniak

(b Freiburg, Aug 11, 1930). German composer. He first received composition tuition from J. Weismann, then studied with Fortner in Heidelberg (1950–54). After taking examinations to teach composition in Freiburg he became lecturer and Fortner's successor at the Kirchenmusikalisches Institut Heidelberg. Zimmermann's proximity to one of the most important Protestant theological faculties, together with the cultivation of church music in Heidelberg, directed his attention to biblical texts, above all psalms, and he began to examine the legacy of the movement to renew church music. In 1963 he was appointed director of the Berliner Kirchenmusikschule in Spandau. His awards include a scholarship for the Villa Massimo, Rome (1965–6). In 1967 he received an honorary doctorate from Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio. He taught in the USA, from 1967, and at New College, Oxford (1969). From 1975 to 1996 he taught composition in Frankfurt at the Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst....

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(b Hamburg, c1742; d Brunswick, 1792). German stage designer. He studied painting and architecture in Italy and was in Rome in 1785. After working in Hamburg as a set designer, he served the Duke of Brunswick from 1788 until his death. The few extant designs in his hand are in the Berlin Kunstbibliothek. One, typical of an ...

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Edward Garden

(b Sternberg, Sept 22, 1851; d Berlin, April 25, 1922). German music publisher and woodwind and brass instrument manufacturer . He had factories in St Petersburg (1876), Moscow (1882) and Riga (1903). The headquarters of the publishing firm was established in Leipzig in 1886, with the actual printing being carried out by Breitkopf & Härtel. Zimmermann became friendly with Balakirev in 1899 and thereafter published all the works of that composer. It may be that it was Zimmermann’s exhortations that encouraged the prolificness of the final decade of Balakirev’s life. He also published the majority of the compositions of Balakirev’s protégé Sergey Lyapunov. Other composers’ music published by him include Medtner, Josef Hofmann, Tausig, A.S. Taneyev and Reinecke. He suffered financial hardship during World War I, but, although he resumed the publication of music by Russian composers in 1919, he was unable to reopen his former Russian factories and shops. In ...

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Elizabeth Forbes

(b Buenos Aires, Aug 1942). Argentine mezzo-soprano. She studied in Buenos Aires, making her début in 1977 at the Teatro Colón as Gluck’s Orpheus, then singing Carmen and Ulrica at the Landestheater, Salzburg. She made her American début at Miami in 1979 as Delilah and her Covent Garden début in 1980 as Cherubino, and sang Rosina at San Francisco (1982). She has sung in Brussels, Naples, Madrid, Bologna, Venice, Geneva, Rome, Lyons and Paris. Her repertory includes Juno (Cavalli’s Ercole amante), Purcell’s Dido, Handel’s Agrippina and Julius Caesar, Dorabella, Idamantes, Zerlina, Sextus, Rosina (Haydn’s La vera costanza), Andromache (Ermione), Fricka and Lola. She created the title role of Piazzolla’s Maria di Buenos Aires (1987, Turcoing). Her beautiful, warm-toned voice, not large but well-projected, is particularly effective in French music: Berlioz’s Marguerite and Dido, and Massenet’s Charlotte, Dulcinée and Thérèse are among her finest roles, while she sang the Old Prioress (...

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Chris Walton

(b Berne, Aug 7, 1927). Swiss composer and teacher. She studied the piano and music theory in Berne, Lausanne and Paris. Her first composition teacher was Arthur Honegger; she later studied composition and conducting at the Milan Conservatory. She has received many commissions and several works have been recorded for radio and on disc. In 1987 she won second prize at the first international competition for women composers at Unna in Germany. Zimmermann describes her style as ‘atonal, but traditional’, though in her search for new timbres she often employs techniques such as cluster glissandos and quarter-tones that are more commonly associated with a progressive aesthetic.

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