57,201-57,220 of 57,475 results


K.A. Gourlay

revised by Ferdinand J. de Hen

[zenze, nzenze, nsense, nzensi, dzendze, lunzenze, nzeze, luzenzu, dizeze, sese, lusese]

Stick zither widely distributed throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The stick is a solid bar of wood 55 to 65 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide throughout most of its length. Both ends of the bar terminate in a small knob to which the strings, of plant fibre, are attached. Three cylindrical ‘frets’ protrude on both sides of the stick. The U-shaped bridge is usually made of a feather quill. One or more drone strings pass beside the frets. A resonator made of two superposed calabash halves, or seldom a single half-calabash shell, is attached near one end; it is affixed to the underside of the bar by means of a small part-calabash collar and a cord. The zither produces four notes (open string and one note from each of the three frets) together with the drone(s). Accounts of the method of performance vary. Among the Shi the zither is held to the left so that the frets can be stopped with the fingers of the left hand while the thumb activates the drone string and the fingers of the right hand stroke the melody string. The half-calabash is usually placed on the player‘s chest and opened or closed in the same way as the resonator of a ...


Barbara Krader

revised by Zdravko Blažeković

(b Vratišinec, Međimurje, Croatia, Jan 22, 1890; d Zagreb, Dec 12, 1976). Croatian folksong collector . At Zagreb he graduated from the Theological Faculty (1914) and took a doctorate in law in 1919; he studied music privately, and until World War II practised law and published many legal studies. Subsequently he was the curator of the Zagreb Ethnographic Museum (1945–8), then worked for the Institute for Traditional Arts (1948–64; director 1948–52), and also lectured on traditional music at the Zagreb Academy of Music (1949–68). He first collected folksongs in Međimurje (then Muraköz, Hungary) in 1908, more intensively after 1920. The important collection published in 1924–5 led to correspondence with Bartók concerning archaic Hungarian song types and Yugoslav folk music in general (Béla Bartók: Letters, ed. J. Demény, Budapest, 1971).

From the 1940s Žganec devoted his full energies to folk music collecting and research (chiefly for the Institute of Folk Art in Zagreb), using a tape recorder from ...


Wolfram Knauer

revised by Barry Kernfeld

(b Gliwice, Poland, Feb 20, 1950). Polish flutist and composer. He played violin and piano from the age of six, then studied at the high school of music in Katowice, where he gained diplomas in flute (1972) and composition (1977). Although he was educated in classical music he was also interested in rock, and around 1970 he started to play jazz; he began with experiments in free jazz and only later acquired a knowledge of earlier styles. Having formed a duo with the double bass player Czesław Gladowski, he continued to explore this instrumental combination into the 1980s. Zgraja performed and recorded with Barre Phillips (1975) and with the double bass player Jacek Bednarek (from 1976); he is heard to advantage on La concha (1981, JG 052), recorded in a duo with Bednarek. After the proclamation of martial law in Poland in ...


Victoria Tcacenco

(b Condrăteşti, Ungheni, May 24, 1939). Moldovan composer and choral conductor. He graduated from the Kishinev Institute of Arts where he studied choral conducting with L. Aksyonova. He has since conducted the leading choral ensembles of Moldova such as the Doina chorus (1967–76) and state radio and television choir (1976–87). In 1988 he founded the Renaissance choir which, under his direction, has won a number of awards and performed internationally. Zgureanu won the ‘best conductor’ prize at competitions in Varna, Bulgaria (1995), and Debrecen, Hungary (1996). He has headed the choral conducting department of the Chişinău Institute of Arts and in 1992 was appointed professor. He was awarded first prize by UNESCO for the Trei madrigale (‘Three Madrigals’) in 1995; he has also received many official awards. His output is associated with most choral genres. In stylistic terms, he combines techniques prevalent in post-World War II composition with ancient Moldovan folklore and Byzantine chant. Miniatures such as ...


Inna D. Nazina


Generic term for folk clarinets or hornpipes found throughout Belarus and Russia under several specific names (e.g. pishchik, charotka, and dudka). Each name reflects certain essential characteristics of the instrument—acoustical, structural, functional, etc. The word zhaleyka is derived from Slavonic zhal (‘sad, sorrowful, mournful’), also the root of zhalnik (‘a grave’). Inhabitants of northern Belarus remember that the zhaleyka could be heard during burial ceremonies in the 1930s. The term golos (‘voice’) as applied to Belarusian instruments is related to the belief that some instruments arose from trees growing on the graves of murdered children. The soul and voice of the child were thought to move first into a sacred tree, then into the instruments made from its wood. Thus, an instrument with an extraordinary and distinctive voice is an integral feature of ancient Belarusian burial rituals. The types of zhaleyka differ in shape, size (typically 10 to 36 cm long), material (e.g. wood, straw, goose quill, reed, horn), construction, and the presence or absence of fingerholes (normally four to 12) and a bell (often of birch bark, horn, or wood). Generally it has an idioglot reed and a loud, shrill sound with a distinct nasal undertone. Typically it plays a diatonic scale spanning a 6th or 7th beginning from ...


Zhaleyka (hornpipe)

Novosti (London)


George J. Grella Jr.

(b Dandong, China, 1973). Conductor of Chinese birth. Zhang studied at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing where she undertook conducting at the age of 16 (BA 1994, MA 1996). She made her conducting debut in 1992, leading the China National Opera Orchestra in Le Nozze di Figaro. She then went on to serve as conductor-in-residence of the China Opera House, Beijing, and as the conductor of the Jinfan Symphony Orchestra. Zhang taught one year of conducting at the Central Conservatory (1997) before relocating to the United States for doctoral studies at the University of Cincinnati College-Conservatory of Music. After completing her doctoral work, she joined the faculty at Cincinnati as an assistant professor of conducting (2000). In 2002, Zhang won the Maazel/Vilar International Conductor’s Competition, upon which Loren Maazel appointed her to be his assistant at the New York Philharmonic. In ...


Jonathan P.J. Stock

(b Hejiashan village, Zhuji, Zhejiang province, Aug 29, 1933). Chinese composer. A member of the accompanying ensemble of a traditional Zhejiang yueju opera troupe as a teenager, he learnt to imitate erhu technique on the violin. In 1957 he went to the Shanghai Conservatory, studying composition, with Ding Shande, and the violin. In 1958 he set up a team to research the employment of folk techniques on the violin, and this project fed into his composition, with his colleague Chen Gang, of the violin concerto Liang Shanbo yu Zhu Yingtai (1959). Graduating in 1964, he joined the composition department of the Shanghai Conservatory. His music embraces a wide range of historical and traditional themes from both Chinese and Western sources. Combining Western with Chinese instruments in many innovative ways, he has also written for separate ensembles of each. He aims for lyricism and expressive appeal in his music....


Nicholas Tochka

(b Tirana, Albania, Sep 21, 1949). Albanian singer and composer. An amateur singer who was discovered while a student in economics in the mid-1970s, he went on to have a successful career as a member of Tirana’s State Estrada and, later, a composer. With his contemporaries Kozma Dushi, Liljana Kondakçiu, and Bashkim Alibali, he specialized in performing popular music, or light music songs, in the 1970s and 80s. Zhegu became a fixture at the annual Festival of Song and the Spring Festival organized by Radio Tirana, winning several prizes as a singer. He is best known for his interpretations of composer Aleksandër Lalo’s 1982 song Kompozitori dhe Femijët (‘The Composer and the Children’) and Osman Mula’s 1987 song A Do Të Vish (‘Won’t You Come’). Though he began composing his own songs during the 1980s, Zhegu did not often perform these works because the figure of singer-songwriter remained politically suspect during socialism. In the 1990s, he largely withdrew from the stage as a singer but he continues to compose and present popular songs and children’s songs. He received the title Meritorious Artist in ...


(b Tambov, 14/Jan 27, 1913; d Leningrad, Aug 13, 1946). Russian composer. He studied under Shcherbachyov at the Leningrad Conservatory (1928–32) and from the late 1920s was active as a concert pianist. In 1942 he taught at the College of Music in Tambov, where until 1943 he was chairman of the Composers' Union. A collection of his writings, entitled Imeninï [Namedays], was published in Leningrad in 1935.

(selective list)


Colin Mackerras

(b Suzhou, 1902; d 1992). Chinese Kunqu opera performer. Undoubtedly the 20th century’s most distinguished performer of Kunqu, Yu Zhenfei was most noted for his performance of xiaosheng (young scholar-lover) roles. He also performed in Beijing opera , belonging to troupes headed by such notable performers as Mei Lanfang and Cheng Yanqiu, and was an accomplished player of the dizi, the transverse flute which is so essential to the musical accompaniment of Kunqu. He wrote a treatise on Kunqu acting and several other works.

Yu Zhenfei was the son of the Kunqu specialist Yu Zonghai (1847–1930). After early training, in 1923 he gained a major opportunity when the great dan performer Cheng Yanqiu visited Shanghai and invited him to share the stage with him in the role of the scholar-lover in the centrepiece scene of the famous ‘Peony Pavilion’ (Mudan ting) by Tang Xianzu (...



Han Mei

A plucked half-tube zither with movable bridges, one of the principal Chinese zithers, the others being the Qin and the ancient se ( see China, People’s Republic of ). Discussed here are construction, early history, tuning and notation; for living traditions and repertories, see China, People’s Republic of .

The zheng consists of a soundbox with adjustable bridges over which a number of strings are stretched. The size of the zheng ranges from 120 to 170 cm long and 20 to 35 cm wide, depending on the number of strings. The soundboard is made of wutong wood (Firmiana platanifolia), the bottom being flat and the upper board convex. The wood used for the sides and bottom is traditionally hardwood: red sandalwood, rosewood or sometimes boxwood. The bridges, used for fine tuning, are usually made of wood, occasionally of ivory or bone. The strings are secured on pins at one end of the instrument, stretched over individual bridges, and wound around tuning pegs at the other end. While silk strings were traditionally used, today they are most commonly of steel wound with nylon. The bridges divide the strings into two sections, the portion to the right delineating the open-string tuning mode and the plucking area, that to the left the area where ornamentations and pitch modifications may be made....


Stephen Jones

[Guo Jiguang]

(b Xinmin county, Liaoning, Dec 31, 1920; d Beijing, April 4, 1998). Chinese zheng plucked zither player and scholar. While studying classical Chinese literature in Beijing, he took lessons on the zheng from Lou Shuhua; later he also studied briefly with Liang Tsai-ping. Turning professional on the eve of the Chinese revolution, from 1950 until 1964 he was based at music academies in north-eastern China, also spending periods at the Shanghai and Xi′an conservatories and making many recordings. Having been appointed in 1964 to the Chinese Conservatory of Music in Beijing, he was based there from the end of the Cultural Revolution.

Cao Zheng's zheng playing mainly represented the Henan style, though also borrowing from Shandong and southern styles. An influential music educator, he was author of teaching materials and wide-ranging articles. Despite his base in the conservatory system, Cao Zheng's outlook firmly reflected his training in the Chinese classics. He was also a keen maker and researcher of the ancient ...



Su Zheng

(b Wuchang, March 18, 1904; d Shanghai, Sept 15, 1968). Chinese musicologist and teacher . After graduating in 1931 from a teachers’ college in Shanghai, he studied privately from 1932 to 1935 with the Russian Jewish musician Aaron Avshalomov. He also kept contact with leading Chinese traditional musicians, and later with Beijing opera actors. He taught the history of Western and Chinese music at Hujiang University from 1940 to 1946, and the State Music School of Shanghai (later the Shanghai Conservatory of Music) from 1946 to 1949. After the Communist revolution he held leading positions on the faculty at the Conservatory. He died tragically in the Cultural Revolution.

Apart from his broad and thorough knowledge of both Chinese and Western music, Shen was much admired as an inspirational teacher. He was chief editor, compiler or translator of several influential publications. He also composed works for orchestra such as Xiao zuqu...


Margarita Pavlovna Fayzulayeva

(b Ural′sk, Kazakhstan, 2/Jan 15, 1911; d Ufa, Bashkir Republic, June 1, 1988). Tatar composer. He was orphaned at the age of five and, 12 years later, made his own way to Moscow to attend a music college before transferring to the conservatory there in 1935; he graduated in 1938 from the composition class of Litinsky. In 1939 he was appointed artistic director of the Tatar Opera Theatre and also became the chairman of the Tatar Composers' Union, a post he held until 1978. He taught orchestration in the Kazan′ Conservatory (1945–88, professor 1953); he held numerous official positions and received the USSR State Prize in 1948 for the opera Altinchech (‘Golden-Haired’).

Zhiganov is regarded as the founder of Tatar art music. He aspired to attain European standards of professionalism in the writing of stage and orchestral works – he wrote the first Tatar symphony while still a student (first performance: Kazan′ ...


Geoffrey Norris

(b Kursk province, c1766; d Moscow, c1848). Russian composer . At the age of six months he lost his sight, but nevertheless he learnt to play the piano, violin, cello and guitar. In 1808 he was appointed Kapellmeister of the Institute for Blind Workers in St Petersburg, where he directed the orchestra and gave concerts. He left the Institute in 1818, and after a brief sojourn in Moscow went to live in his home town of Kursk. He returned to Moscow in 1837, where he remained until his death.

His first known composition is a song written in 1809; the following year in St Petersburg he produced a Journal de musique pour le piano-forte, which was intended solely as a collection of his own compositions. The Journal contains six polonaises, one of which has a part for solo voice, six marches, quadrilles, waltzes and écossaises, together with variations on six Russian folk tunes. Some of these piano pieces were published in the first volume of the keyboard anthology ...


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kursk, 6/Oct 18, 1881; d Jan 20, 1938). Russian critic, composer and teacher. A member of the London Geographic Society. Zhilyayev first studied with Taneyev (1896–1900) and was one of his favourite pupils; he later studied with Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1905. His activity as a composer was limited to the period 1905–9, and several of his works were published by Jurgenson. After a round-the-world trip during which he visited Grieg at his house in Troldhaugen (1907), he appeared as a pianist with the singer M. Deysha-Sionitskaya at the Muzïkal′nïye vïstavki (‘Musical Exhibitions’) in Moscow. He was active as a music critic and wrote for the journals Zolotoye runo (‘The Golden Fleece’), Moskovskiy yezhenedel′nik (‘Moscow Weekly’), Muzïka (‘Music’) and for the newspaper Rul′ (‘The Rudder’) (in which he used the pseudonym Peer Gynt). One of Skryabin’s close friends, Zhilyayev made editorial corrections to a number of his works during the composer’s final years, including the piano sonatas nos.8, 9 and 10. Not long before World War I Zhilyayev began teaching; among his first pupils were Stanchinsky, Feinberg and Anatoly Aleksandrov; as a member of the editorial board of the Music Sector of Gosizdat during the 1920s and 30s, he edited Skryabin’s complete works (in ...


Mikhail Mishchenko

(b Kherson, Ukraine, 11/May 23, 1881; d Leningrad, Dec 16, 1937). Russian composer and teacher. He studied the violin under Ye. Mlïnarsky in Odessa (1892–97) and under K. Prill in Vienna (1898–1900) where he also attended a course in composition and the piano. In the 1900s he entered the St Petersburg Conservatory, studying under Rimsky-Korsakov (orchestration and composition) and Lyadov, graduating in 1910. He later taught there (1915–37) and in 1919 he became a professor. Many outstanding musicians graduated from his class including Andrey Balanchivadze, Mikhail Chulaki, Aleksandr Gauk, Khristofor Kushnaryov, Aleksandr Melik-Pashayev and Mikhail Yudin.


Tamara Nikolayevna Levaya

(b Pavlodar, Yekaterinoslav province, 9/Dec 22, 1906; d Moscow, June 27, 1992). Russian musicologist and critic . He studied the theory of music at Kharkiv Conservatory under S.S. Bogatïryov and later studied the theory and history of music with Ivanov-Boretsky and composition with Zhilyayev at the Moscow Conservatory, graduating in 1931. He took the Kandidat degree in 1942 with a dissertation on Tchaikovsky and the doctorate in 1968 with a dissertation on Schumann. In the late 1920s and early 1930s he was a member of the Russian Association of Proletarian Musicians (RAPM) and, as music critic, was on the editorial staff for the journals Proletarskiy muzïkant (‘The Proletarian Musician’) and Za proletarskuyu muzïku (‘For Proletarian Music’). He began teaching the history of music at the Moscow Conservatory in 1931. He was forced to leave his post in 1937 and despite being quickly reinstated was once again dismissed in ...