57,221-57,240 of 57,475 results

Article

(b Kazan′, 1/Nov 14, 1904; d Leningrad, Aug 27, 1964). Russian composer. In 1930 he completed studies at the Leningrad Conservatory with Shcherbachyov. He was a committee member of the Leningrad Composers' Union (1941–4, from 1948) and received the title Honoured Artist of the RSFSR in 1957. His reputation rests chiefly on his song cycles and also on the highly modernist Fragmentï.

(selective list)

Article

Barbara Mittler

[Kuo Chih-yuan]

(b Miaoli, Dec 5, 1921). Taiwanese composer and educationist. Like many other composers of his generation, Guo received a Western-style musical education during the Japanese colonization of Taiwan (1895–1945). After attending a special secondary music school in Tokyo (1936), he entered university in Tokyo to study composition and the violin (1941). Returning to Taiwan in 1946, Guo served as a teacher and musical advisor, while at the same time composing film and vocal music. His Symphonic Variations, based on Taiwanese folk tunes, was the first orchestral piece by a Taiwanese composer to be performed in Taipei (1955). In the late 1960s he returned to Japan for further composition studies. Guo’s music is a typical example of ‘pentatonic romanticism’ in its setting of Chinese pentatonic melodic lines within a harmonic framework reminiscent of 19th-century Romantic music. One such piece is Minsu zuqu...

Article

Article

Isabelle Henrion-Dourcy

(b Lhasa, 1922). Tibetan teacher and researcher. He came from an aristocratic family and showed interest in folksongs and dances from an early age. At 16 he entered the Nang-ma'i sKyid-sdug society and studied a range of instruments, especially the pi-wang (fiddle) and the sgra-snyan (lute); his main teachers were Bai Walli and A-jo rNam-rgyal. In 1978 he was appointed music teacher at what was to become Tibet University in Lhasa. He then became vice-director of its arts department and vice-chairman of the Tibet Music Association. With the gar master Pa-sangs Don-grub, he played an important role in the resurrection of Tibetan music, particularly traditional music theory and nang-ma and stod-gzhas forms, although his expertise ranges over all the Tibetan performing arts. He sat at most of the government conferences on traditional performing arts. Together with Garpa Tashi Tsering he is an important figure in the revival of ...

Article

Zhong  

Alan R. Thrasher

Bronze bell of the Han Chinese, used mainly in ritual music. Early Chinese bells are of many sub-types, differentiated by shape of the cross-section (leaf-shaped, elliptical or round), curve of the ‘mouth’ (concave or flat), lateral profile (elongated or broad), method and angle of suspension (vertical, oblique or hand-held upright) and method of striking (internal clapper or external beater). The term zhong is used both as a general reference to all clapperless bells (including bo, nao and zheng) and as a specific reference to one sub-type. Bells with internal clappers are generally called ling. Metal used in most Chinese bell construction is an alloy of three or more parts of copper to one part of tin.

The bell specifically identified as zhong has a leaf-shaped cross-section (oblate ellipsoid), concave mouth (or rim) and a slightly expanding profile from the crown outward (fig.1). Suspension methods are of two types. Most common among ancient bells is the elongated handle or shank (...

Image

Zhong bell with shank and concave mouth; line drawing, Lülü Jingyi (1596)

Article

Jonathan P.J. Stock

[Wei Chongfu ]

(b Shanghai, March 12, 1908 or Feb 21, 1909; d 1998). Chinese pipa (plucked lute) and qin (seven-string zither) player . Wei Zhongle was an early member of the influential Datong Ensemble, a group of Chinese musicians who met in Shanghai to improve their own performance skills and to develop from traditional and Western elements a new repertory of ‘national music’ (guoyue). Other than pipa and qin, Wei also learnt several instruments. From the 1930s onwards Wei held a succession of music teaching and performing posts at universities and colleges in Shanghai, one of the most notable of which was his founding of a traditional instruments department at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music in the early 1950s.

See also China, People’s Republic of.

Xu Lisheng: ‘Rang Zhongguo de minzu yinyue zou xian shijie: ji pipa yanzoujia, yinyue jiaoyujia Wei Zhongle’ [Let Chinese national music reach the world: a record of ...

Article

Frank Kouwenhoven

(b Santai, Sichuan, Dec 12, 1924). Chinese composer. As a composition student of Tan Xiaolin and Ding Shande at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music in the 1940s, he developed a special interest in the music and writings of Hindemith, whose book on harmony he translated into Chinese. He went to Beijing in 1951 where he worked with the Central Philharmonic Society as a resident composer until his retirement. His formal reputation in China is based on the popular mass song The Land is Beautiful Beyond the Mountain (1947) and on various conventional orchestral works of the 1950s and 60s. Luo was harassed and imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution.

When he took up composition again in 1979, his affinities with Western music shifted from Hindemith to Schoenberg. He wrote several song cycles and chamber works applying serial techniques. Luo has frequently stressed the coincidental but striking relationship between Western rhythmic or timbral serialism and the structural principles of ...

Article

Yandi Yang

(b Shanghai, Oct 24, 1932; d June 30, 2011). Chinese composer. She studied the piano with her father, and in 1950 entered the Shanghai Conservatory where she studied harmony, counterpoint, orchestration and composition with Ding Shande, Sang Tong and Den Erjin. After graduation in 1957 she took postgraduate courses with Guroff. She taught composition at Shanghai Conservatory (1958–60) and at the Central Conservatory of Music in Beijing, and in 1970 she was appointed professional composer to the Central Philharmonic Society in Beijing. She was a member of the Chinese Musicians’ Association and the Chinese Film Music Society and from 1989 to 1991 was Asian scholar-in-residence at Syracuse University on a Fulbright Fellowship. Liu’s music is technically accomplished and characterized by clarity of structure and poetic expression. Many of her compositions have been performed and recorded both in China and abroad.

(selective list)

Article

Olga Manulkina

(b Aktyubinsk region, Kazakhstan, Dec 2, 1927; d December 13, 1993). Kazakh composer. She was the daughter of the composer and scholar Akhmet Zhubanov, who was the organizer and conductor of the Kazakh Instruments Orchestra. She studied composition with Gnesin and Streicher at the Gnesin Institute, Moscow, and with Shaporin at the Moscow Conservatory, from which she graduated in 1954, continuing with postgraduate work until 1957. Between 1962 and 1968 she was chairwoman of the Kazakh Composers’ Union. She taught composition at the Alma-Ata Conservatory from 1967 and was its director from 1975 to 1987.

A significant part of Zhubanova’s output consisted of large-scale works, in which a blurring of generic boundaries is evident: traits of oratorio appear in her operas, such as Enlik-Kebek and Dvadtsat′ vosem′ (‘Twenty-Eight’), as do operatic traits in oratorios, including Pesnya Tat′yanï (‘Tat′yana’s Song’). She perpetuated the Eastern tradition of writing dedications; for example her ‘Zhiger’ Symphony is dedicated to the folk composer Dauletkerei, and the opera ...

Article

Alla Vladimirovna Grigor′yeva

(b Zhytomyr, Ukraine, Aug 30, 1951). Russian composer. He studied with Chulaki at the Moscow Conservatory and completed a postgraduate course in 1980, when he was accepted into the Composers' Union. His artistic diversity manifests itself through the range of stylistic, linguistic and temporal sources he draws on in works which span the widest of genres. His ballet Solyaris, based on the science fiction novella by Stanisław Lem, employs an orchestra amplified by an expanded percussion section and synthesizer in a counterpoint of earthly and cosmic references; likewise, Zhrebiy Nemezidï (‘The Destiny of Nemesis’) is notable for its singular combination of dancing clarinettist, ballerina and tape. His compositional style ranges from the folkloristic and tonal to one which employs aleatory, constructivist, minimalist, serialist and sonoristic methods. He has also drawn on Baroque models in works such as the Pesni proshchaniya (‘Songs of Farewell’) for soprano, flute, viola da gamba and harpsichord. In his setting of texts he stresses psychological subtext and is drawn towards metaphor, while in spiritual terms he is attracted to Daoism, anthroposophy and mysticism. Since the mid-1980s the religious aspect of his work has been embodied in his use of ...

Article

(b Radyvyliv [now Chervonoarmiyske], Volhynia region, 29 Oct/Nov 11, 1913; d Kiev, March 15, 1976). Ukrainian composer. He studied the piano and composition with Revuts′ky at the Kiev Conservatory, graduating in 1941, and returned to teach theory there (1951–8). In 1950 he was awarded the Stalin Prize even though his opera of that year Vid shchyroho sercia (‘From the Whole Heart’) was officially banned for ideological deviation; he was made National Artist of Ukraine in 1973. He wrote in many genres, but his chief contribution lay in the nine operas and three ballets he composed between 1939, with the opera Maryna, and 1971, with the ballet Divchyna i Smert′ (‘Death and the Maiden’), the latter of which is arguably one of his best. His musical style is a slightly modernistic version of the prevailing socialist realism. In Divchyna i Smert′ the cantilena passages are sharply contrasted with episodes in which elastic motoric rhythms are etched in sharply, albeit traditional, harmonic schemes....

Article

Richard Taruskin

(b Mishenskoye, Belev district, Tula province, 29 Jan/Feb 9, 1783; d Baden-Baden, April 24, 1852). Russian poet and translator. He was a highly placed official in the government of Tsar Nicholas I. As one of the prime representatives of the Romantic movement in Russia he cast a long shadow over Russian opera in the 19th century. A friend of Glinka, he steered the latter towards writing the opera that won him immortality, A Life for the Tsar; Zhukovsky contributed the text of the famous (or infamous) patriotic epilogue-apotheosis that became an alternative tsarist anthem. Earlier, his ballad Gromoboy had formed the basis for Aleksey Verstovsky’s magic-romantic opera Vadim (1832), as well as its much later sequel Gromoboy (grand fantastic opera, 1854). Rachmaninoff and Taneyev composed song-settings of Zhukovsky’s poems, and Janáček’s Pohádka for cello and piano is based on the epic poem Skazka o tsare Berendyeye...

Article

Yandi Yang

(b Huang Yan County, Zhe Jang Province, June 25, 1926). Chinese composer . She entered the Lu Xun Academy of Arts in Yanan as a drama student in 1938 but in the following year she began to study singing and composition with Xie Xinhai, Lü Ji and Zheng Lücheng. As a vocal performer and actress she took part in many performances addressed to mass audiences. She composed her first film score in 1948. In 1949 she was appointed resident composer by the Beijing Film Studio and in 1951 became resident composer of the Shanghai Film Studio. Her film music is lyrical and expressive, often based on Chinese folk music materials. Many songs in her film music have become popular because of their mellow melodies. She is a member of the Board of the Chinese Musicians’ Association.

(selective list)

Article

Zia  

Article

Theophil Antonicek

revised by Jennifer Williams Brown

(b Venice, c1653; d Vienna, Jan 22, 1715). Italian composer, partly active in Austria, nephew of Pietro Andrea Ziani. Towards the end of the 17th century he was a leading composer of opera for Venice, and he was a major figure at the imperial court in Vienna early in the 18th century.

The most important influence on Ziani's early life was probably his uncle, with whom he may have studied. Certainly Pietro Andrea's reputation and connections, particularly in Venice and Vienna, must have aided Ziani throughout his life. Marc’Antonio began his career as an opera composer in 1674 by adapting older works for the Venetian stage. In 1677 he acted as an intermediary for his uncle (who was in Naples) during negotiations with S Marco concerning the latter's post as first organist; after Pietro Andrea resigned, Marc’Antonio boldly applied for the position, but was passed over. Pietro Andrea may have arranged for his nephew's first opera, ...

Article

Theophil Antonicek, Harris S. Saunders and Jennifer Williams Brown

(b Venice, probably before Dec 21, 1616; d Naples, Feb 12, 1684). Italian composer and organist, uncle of Marc’Antonio Ziani. By 1639 he was organist at S Salvatore, Venice, where he also belonged to the convent of canons regular. He became a deacon on 19 March 1639 and took holy orders on 22 December 1640. From April 1650 to 1657 he was employed at S Marco, probably as a singer. In 1648 an opera possibly by Ziani was staged in Venice; another performed in January 1654 was certainly by him. From 15 May 1657 to 21 June 1659 he was Cazzati’s successor as maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore, Bergamo. He then returned to S Marco in Venice and became music director of the Venetian Ospedale degli Incurabili. In late autumn 1662 Ziani, like Antonio Cesti, went to Innsbruck; at the end of that year he went on to Vienna as Kapellmeister to the dowager Empress Eleonora. While in her service Ziani continued to fulfill commissions for Venice. In winter ...

Article

Josef Bek

(b Králové Městec, March 25, 1879; d Ouběnice, nr Benešov, July 9, 1934). Czech composer and aesthetician. While studying mathematics at Prague University (where he took the doctorate in 1901) he was a pupil of the Czech musicologist and aesthetician Otakar Hostinský from 1897 to 1901; later he attended a course in composition under Stecker. From 1901 he taught physics and mathematics at a secondary school in Domažlice, a town in the Chod region of south-west Bohemia which at that time retained a strong folk tradition. He used the time spent in this region to collect folksongs and dances, which in turn influenced his own compositions. In 1906 he returned to Prague and completed his Habilitation as an aesthetician at the university in 1911 with a work on the apperception of music. When the university in Brno was established, he became professor of philosophy (1919) but returned to Prague in ...

Article

John S. Weissmann

revised by Maria Eckhardt

(b Sztára, Hungary [now Slovakia], July 23, 1849; d Budapest, Jan 14, 1924). Hungarian pianist and composer . Although he lost his right arm in a hunting accident when he was 14, he became a celebrated piano virtuoso and made frequent concert tours from 1880. He studied composition with Robert Volkmann and the piano with Liszt, who orchestrated his ballad Der Zaubersee (now lost), transcribed his Valse d’Adèle (originally for left hand) and wrote a preface to his Six études pour la main gauche seule (Paris, 1878); the two became intimate friends and performed together in benefit concerts. Zichy also attained prominence as a jurist and administrator in Budapest; between 1891 and 1894 he was Intendant of the Royal Hungarian Opera, his appointment precipitating Mahler’s resignation as music director. From 1895 to 1918 he was president of the National Conservatory. In 1911 he was elected to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, giving an inaugural address on Liszt (in ...

Article

Jonathan P.J. Stock

(b Yangyuan, Hebei province, June 17, 1904; d Dec 25, 1987). Chinese dizi bamboo flute player. Adept on both the sihu four-string fiddle and dizi bamboo flute, Feng Zicun supplemented his income as a labourer by working in the evenings as a performing musician accompanying local song and dance entertainment, folksongs and stilt dances. In the early 1920s he spent four years as a musician in Baotou, Inner Mongolia, where he learnt local errentai opera music, a style he was subsequently to introduce to Hebei province.

Following the Communist victory in 1949, Feng – now a locally renowned dizi player – was appointed to a full-time post as a performing musician, joining the Central Song and Dance Troupe as dizi soloist in Beijing in 1953. In 1964 he took a teaching post at the China Conservatory of Music, also in Beijing.

Feng popularized several dizi solos, including Xi xiangfeng (‘Happy Reunion’), ...