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J.B. Steane

(b Kravaře, nr Opava, June 4, 1926; d May 19, 2003). Czech tenor . He studied in Ostrava, where he made his début as Werther (1944), then joined the Prague Opera in 1948, his roles including Tamino, Don Carlos, Siegmund, Hoffmann, Tom Rakewell and Peter Grimes. Many of his greatest successes were in Janáček operas, most notably as Gregor in The Makropulos Affair, Števa and Laca in Jenůfa and Skuratov in From the House of the Dead. In 1966 he sang the Inventor in the première of Kašlík’s Krakatit. He also appeared in Vienna, Wexford, Germany, South America and at the Edinburgh Festival (1964 and 1970 as Dalibor and as Mazal in the British première of Janáček’s The Excursions of Mr Brouček). Though occasionally reported as sounding strained or coarse, he was widely acclaimed for the commanding style of his acting and the clear-cut intensity of his singing. Recordings include ardent performances as Jeník in ...

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Ann Van Der Merwe

(b Chicago, IL, March 21, 1867; d New York, NY, July 22, 1932). American theatrical producer. He was one of the most prolific and influential producers in the history of American musical theater. Ziegfeld began his career recruiting musicians for the 1893 World’s Fair in Chicago on behalf of his father. He soon found himself drawn to the world of popular entertainment rather than classical music, however, and spent the next few years promoting various types of acts, ranging from strongman Eugene Sandow to the infamous dancing ducks of Denmark. By the late 1890s, Ziegfeld had moved from vaudeville and variety to the Broadway stage and was producing musical comedies for anna Held , his first wife. Having seen her perform in Paris, he thought she would prove popular with New York audiences. He was right; shows such as A Parlor Match (1896) and The Parisian Model...

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Ziegfield revue. Photo by White Studio ©The New York Public Library

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Ziegler  

Rudolf Hopfner

Austrian firm of woodwind instrument makers . Its founder, Johann Joseph Ziegler (b Komorn [now Komárom], Hungary, 1795; d Vienna, March 10, 1858 ), was granted a privilege to trade in Vienna in 1821. He made all kinds of woodwind instruments for orchestral use, as well as the csakan, an instrument which enjoyed great regional popularity during the early 19th century. Ziegler worked on improvements to instrument design, for instance introducing metal clarinet mouthpieces. In 1837 he sold six clarinets (two in A, two in B and two in C) and two bassoons to the Vienna Hofmusikkapelle. It says much for the efficiency of his firm and the quality of its instruments that it could meet extremely large orders: in 1845 Ziegler apparently supplied instruments to the bands of 30 Austrian regiments, and he had a flourishing export business. After Ziegler's death the firm was continued by his son Johann Baptist (...

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John H. Baron

(b Leipzig, Sept 15, 1621; d Wittenberg, April 17, 1690). German poet . From 1638 to 1654, when he was a law and theology student in Leipzig, Ziegler was active as an amateur poet. From 1654 until his death he was an important professor of law and eventually Rektor at the University of Wittenberg and a prominent civic official there, and had practically no more connection with the arts.

A friend of Rosenmüller and Schütz, he exerted some influence on both. His poetry, apparently mostly sacred, served for occasional music, and a few poems became chorale texts. More important, his treatise Von den Madrigalen (?Leipzig, 1653, enlarged 2/1685; ed. D. Glodny-Wiercinski, Frankfurt, 1971), written at Schütz's request, set forth rules for German madrigal poetry that were then observed until well into the 18th century. Hitherto German poets had not provided texts comparable to Italian madrigals, but after analysing the structure of the Italian poems, Ziegler adapted them to the peculiarities of German prosody. The German madrigal should consist of any number of lines, usually from seven to eleven and rarely fewer than five or more than sixteen; the lines should have seven or eleven syllables if the ending is feminine, six or ten syllables if it is masculine; a caesura is optional in lines of ten or eleven syllables; the rhyme scheme varies, but no more than three consecutive lines may pass without some rhyme; and only authentic rhymes are considered. As a relatively free, non-strophic poem the German madrigal is ideal for recitative and was so used, even by Bach....

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Dieter Härtwig

(b Pulsnitz, Saxony, March 25, 1702; d after 1760). German composer and theorist . He was a son of the Pulsnitz schoolmaster and organist, Johann Gottlieb Ziegler. He learnt music from his father until he was 13; in 1715 he studied at the Halle orphanage, and in 1720 embarked on three years of theological study at Halle University while continuing his musical studies with his uncle, Johann Gotthilf Ziegler. As a member of the Halle collegium musicum he composed, according to Gerber, several cantatas, overtures, concertos and trios and arranged their performance. In 1723 he was in Dresden, profiting from contact with J.D. Heinichen, S.L. Weiss, Christian Pezold and J.G. Pisendel, and above all learning from Heinichen and Pezold ‘much about music’ (according to Walther). In 1724 he returned to Halle and embarked on a three-year course in law; after that he went to Quedlinburg as court organist, becoming organist of St Benedikti in ...

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Joshua Rifkin

revised by Konrad Küster

(b Leipzig, bap. June 30, 1695; d Frankfurt an der Oder, May 1, 1760). German poet and cantata librettist . The daughter of a prominent Leipzig family, she began to pursue a professional literary career in her late twenties after she had been widowed twice and lost the children of both marriages. Johann Christoph Gottsched became her mentor and principal sponsor. She published her first collection of verse, Versuch in gebundener Schreib-Art, in 1728; a second volume followed a year later. In 1731 she brought out a collection of letters and became a member of the Deutsche Gesellschaft in Leipzig, whose prize for poetry she won in 1732 and 1734. In 1733, at Gottsched’s recommendation, the Faculty of Philosophy of Wittenberg University elected her imperial poet laureate. Ziegler’s last publication, Vermischte Schriften in gebundener und ungebundener Rede – probably a revised version of a lost collection announced in the Leipzig fair catalogue of ...

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Elizabeth Forbes

(b Atlanta, Sept 4, 1951). American mezzo-soprano. She took part in the Santa Fe Apprentice Program (1978–9), then sang Maddalena at St Louis and Meg Page at Washington, DC. She made her European début in 1981 at Bonn as Dorabella, then sang Octavian, Cherubino, Berlioz’s Marguerite and Adalgisa. In ...

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Dieter Härtwig

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Leubnitz, nr Dresden, March 25, 1688; d Halle, Sept 15, 1747). German organist and composer . A member of a large Saxon family of musicians, he had his first instruction from his father Daniel Ziegler, a schoolmaster and organist in Pulsnitz. He then studied under Pezold, organist of the Sophienkirche in Dresden, where he attracted attention as a child prodigy at the court of August II. Later he travelled around Germany, working with various orchestras including the collegium musicum in Halle; it was directed by the well-known pedagogue A.H. Francke, whose pupil he was for nearly three years. In 1710 he studied for six months with Zachow; he then read law and theology at Halle University for three years, and in 1715 studied with J.S. Bach in Weimar. According to Walther he was also a pupil of Johann Theile of Naumburg. In 1716 Kirchhoff, organist at the Liebfrauenkirche in Halle, certified his musical proficiency and he became assistant organist at the Ulrichskirche there, succeeding Meissner in ...

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(b Vienna, Sept 14, 1722; d Vienna, Oct 18, 1767). Austrian violinist and composer. After teaching the violin at the Jesuit seminary in Vienna, he became a cathedral musician at the Stephansdom and played at the court chapel. About 1753 he gave violin lessons to Dittersdorf, who later spoke of him as ‘a very fine violinist and a skilful and worthy composer of chamber music. He took great pains with me’. Through Ziegler's recommendation Dittersdorf gained his first musical appointment. Ziegler's chamber and sacred compositions were highly esteemed in Vienna and he was also respected as a virtuoso; Albrechtsberger and Joseph and Michael Haydn praised his playing.

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Siegmund Levarie

(b Erfurt, Germany, Jan 20, 1845; d Chicago, Sept 8, 1912). German-American music theorist . After settling in 1868 in Chicago, he taught mathematics, German and music at the German Lutheran School (1868–71) before establishing himself as a private music teacher. His independent and original views were greatly admired by Hans von Bülow, Hugo Kaun, Leopold Godowsky, Ferruccio Busoni, George P. Upton and others. Ziehn’s critical essays are mostly polemic, whether championing (Theodore Thomas, Anton Bruckner) or condemning (Hugo Riemann, Eduard Hanslick, Philipp Spitta). His system of exercises for pianists led him to the realization that passages beginning on D or A♭ yield upward and downward an exact symmetry of tones and of fingering – a principle of ‘symmetric inversion’ he subsequently applied to music theory. His textbooks on harmony and composition are distinguished by a minimum of rules and explanations and a wealth of music examples (from Schütz and Rameau to Bruckner and Boito). While still structuring chords by 3rds, he strongly rejected Riemann’s functional harmony and proceeded from accepting and interpreting literally the equally tempered division of the octave. The result is a chromatic and enharmonic system, occasionally complicated in its terminology, but pointing to the later language of Skryabin and Schoenberg. His ‘enharmonic law’ affirms that ‘every chord tone may become the fundamental’....

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John E. Diamond

(b Vienna, May 2, 1843; d Vienna, Nov 14, 1922). Austrian bandmaster and composer. His father financed his musical education at the Vienna Conservatory in return for a contract giving Carl Haslinger publishing rights. In 1863 Haslinger launched Ziehrer with an orchestra at the Dianasaal following financial disagreement with Johann Strauss II. Competition from the Strauss's probably led Ziehrer to three years as bandmaster to the 55th Infantry Regiment from 1870. He then formed an orchestra for the 1873 Vienna Weltausstellung and in 1874 founded the musical journal Deutsche Musik-Zeitung. While he was bandmaster of the 76th Infantry Regiment (1875–7) he changed his publisher to Doblinger. Later, he hired many of Eduard Strauss's musicians, naming them the Former Eduard Strauss Orchestra which led to an unpopular lawsuit; self-banishment took him through Eastern Europe and Germany with a reconstituted orchestra. He met his wife, Marianne Edelmann, an operetta singer, in Berlin in ...

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[Hinrich]

(bap. Plön, Feb 22, 1741; d Copenhagen, June 13, 1802). German composer and flautist. He learnt to play the flute from his father. In 1757, after he had spent some time in Lübeck, Duke Friedrich Carl of Plön financed his studies in Hamburg, where he took composition lessons with Telemann and flute lessons with F.H. Graf. After the duke’s death, the Duchy of Plön was annexed by Denmark in 1761 and the Hofkapelle was dissolved. Zielche first went with other Plön court musicians to Hamburg, where he organized performances and sold tickets to concerts. In 1770, together with other musicians from Plön, he joined the royal orchestra in Copenhagen; he was solo flautist under J.G. Naumann from 1785, and was also court organist. Around 1780 he married the singer Anna Elizabeth Maria Franziska Almerigi. For a time Zielche was the most highly paid court musician in Copenhagen. He retired in ...

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(fl 1611). Polish composer and organist. From his publication of 1611, dedicated to Wojciech Baranowski, Archbishop of Gniezno and primate of Poland from 1608, it is known that he was organist and director of music to the archbishop. Dunicz showed that this position applied to the primate’s private chapel and residence at Łowicz; it is not known whether it also applied to Gniezno Cathedral (see Podejko). In dedicating his work Zieleński affirmed that Baranowski had ‘cultivated’ his talent, that his work originated ‘through [his] recommendation and in [his] service’, that it appeared in print thanks to his ‘liberality and generosity’, was ‘accomplished for the first time by a Pole in a new way’ and was the fruit of ‘no new zeal’ on his part in the archbishop’s service. Also in 1611 he took part in a court case at Łowicz.

Zieleński’s Offertoria/Communiones totius anni of 1611, his only known music, comprises two separate cycles for the church’s year – liturgically rather free and incomplete – as well as additional motets and sacred symphonies. The two parts have separate title-pages but share a common dedication and list of contents. Among the 56 compositions in the ...

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Adrian Thomas

(b Poznań, Oct 9, 1953). Polish composer. While attending Koszewski's composition class at the Poznań Academy she was a violinist with the Duczmal Chamber Orchestra (1972–4) and the Poznań PO (1972–8). In 1983 she was appointed to the staff of the academy. She has worked in electronic studios in Poland and abroad, conducted multimedia and educational projects, especially as a founder-member of the group House of World Rhythms, and in 1990 co-founded Brevis, the first independent music publishers in post-communist Poland. From 1989 to 1992 she was artistic director of the Poznań Spring festival of contemporary music. She is the recipient of many national and international prizes.

Her compositional interests are wide-ranging: in addition to her concert music, she has created a number of performance-art pieces and worked in theatre and radio (the luminous Cascando after Beckett brings a number of these threads together). Her music is impressionistic, pulsating and unpredictable in its expression: background frequently becomes foreground; dance and folk materials merge into oscillating groups of notes; underlying pentatonism or diatonism in her music is distorted, for example by glissandos and oboe multiphonics in ...

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Jerzy Morawski

(b Lubocza Królewska, March 31, 1847; d Santa Barbara, CA, July 25, 1922). Polish pianist and composer . He graduated from secondary school in Lemberg, having studied music under F. Guniewicz and Mikuli while still at school. He continued his studies in Berlin and Vienna with Schulhoff and Frey, and in Milan with Ceruti. In Vienna he also graduated from the Theresianum Imperial Military Institute. After the failure of the January uprising he left in 1864 for the USA, where he settled permanently and fought in the Civil War; he left the army in 1865 and started giving concerts. In 1869 he went to live in Michigan, first at Grand Rapids, later in Detroit, and in 1878 became director of the music department at Fairmount College, Tennessee. From 1888 to 1910 he lived in Buffalo, giving frequent concert performances in different states of the USA. He organized a music department at the University of Bailey Springs, Alabama, in ...

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Rosario Marciano

(b Vienna, March 10, 1899; d Berlin, Nov 26, 2001). Austrian composer and pianist. She studied at the Graz music school (1912–17) with Hugo Kroemer (piano) and Mojsisovics (composition). In 1917 she moved to Berlin and continued her studies with Martin Krause (piano) and Rudolf Maria Breithaupt. From 1919 she taught at the Stern Conservatory. She began to attract notice as a composer in 1921 with the first performance of her Japanese songs for soprano and piano. In 1926 she went to the Berlin Hochschule für Musik to continue her composition studies with Schreker, and it was through him that she forged a strongly individual style. In 1928 she was awarded the Mendelssohn Prize for composition as well as the Schubert Grant from the Columbia Phonograph Company. She was the first woman to receive the title of honorary professor from the Austrian president (1958); later honours included the Austrian Ehrenkreuz für Wissenschaft und Kunst (...

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Jerzy Gołos

(b1752; d1829). Polish organ builder. Active in Kraków and its environs, he seems to have specialized in large structures, building organs for Wawel Cathedral (1785), St Mary (1800) and the Franciscan and Dominican churches. The Dominican church organ perished in the great fire of ...

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Alan Blyth

(b Hofheim am Taunus, Feb 9, 1963). German soprano . She studied with Christoph Prégardien at the Musikhochschule in Frankfurt and with Elsa Cavelti. She made her début as Valencienne in Die lustige Witwe in Heidelberg in 1988, and then worked at the Deutsche Oper am Rhein (1990–91). Her first international engagement was as Pamina with Solti at the 1991 Salzburg Festival. She later sang the role at La Scala, the Staatsoper in Munich, Dresden's Sächsische Staatsoper and the Vienna Staatsoper. She made her début at the Opéra Bastille in Paris as Susanna in 1993, followed by Sophie in 1998, and first appeared at Covent Garden in 1997 as Ighino (Palestrina). Her other roles include Ilia, Aenchen (Der Freischütz) and Countess Almaviva, which she sang to acclaim at Glyndebourne and in Zürich in 2003. Ziesak is also an accomplished soloist in concert works; she won first prize at the lieder competition at 's-Hertogenbosch, and following her Viennese recital début in ...

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Razia Sultanova

(b Fergana Basin, Feb 1, 1956). Uzbek dutār player. From 1970 to 1974 she attended the Fergana College of Art. From 1974 to 1979 she studied the dutār with Fakhriddin Sadyqov at the Tashkent State Conservatory, learning many pieces from the traditional classical repertory including well-known makom melodies such as Shafoat, Chohorgoh and Chully Iroq. In 1979 she began working with the Uzbek State Radio naqam ensemble founded by Yunus Rajabi. During the next two decades many of her performances were recorded for the archives of Uzbek State Radio, and in 1987 she received a Golden Gramophone award from the Melodiya recording company. Her use of ornamentation in performance has been acclaimed. She was appointed to teach at the Tashkent State Conservatory in 1991 and founded an ensemble of female dutār players in 1993, maintaining the tradition of the Fergana area where the dutār is especially associated with women....