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(b Dresden, Jan 5, 1739; d Vienna, Jan 5, 1813). Austrian diarist , nephew of Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. A highly placed government official, he chronicled aristocratic life in Vienna and elsewhere in his diary, which he kept from the age of eight to his death. This diary, in 76 volumes, is in the Haus- Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna. The Tagebücher or diaries comprise volumes 6–57 and begin at the time of Zinzendorf's move to Vienna in 1761. Factual and reliable, they have long been consulted by music historians to establish what was performed when, where and for whom; only rarely, however, do they also provide performance details or critical commentary. Although Zinzendorf was a connoisseur of the theatre, he was not especially musical. He generally attended concerts, particularly of instrumental music, only if they were society events. His comment at a performance of Handel's Messiah on 7 April 1789...

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John R. Weinlick

(b Dresden, May 26, 1700; d Herrnhut, May 7, 1760). German religious leader . The founder in 1722 of the Renewed Moravian Church, he was from infancy subject to the ardent Pietism of both sides of his family, which was of noble lineage. Spener, the father of Lutheran Pietism, was his godfather. The early death of his father, and his mother's remarriage, left him under the care of his maternal grandmother on a country estate, where the precocious child acquired a deep sense of personal attachment to Christ. At the age of ten he went to Francke's school at Halle; his six years there were a time of difficult adjustment, but deepened his piety and zeal for future Christian service.

As a nobleman Zinzendorf could not become a pastor. Reluctantly he studied at Wittenberg for three years in preparation for state service, privately reading more theology than law. A grand tour of cultural centres following university introduced him to men of differing religious views; thereafter doctrine was of lesser importance to him than the ‘heart religion’ which united all Christians. His own preference was the Augsburg Confession. On this tour he saw a painting of the crucified Saviour in Düsseldorf which implanted in him a lifelong fixation on the sufferings of Christ, vividly expressed in his hymns and other writings....

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Robert Stevenson

(b Prato, 16/Oct 17, 1688; d Santa Catalina, nr Córdoba, Argentina, Jan 2, 1726). Italian organist and composer. He was the sixth child born to Sabatino Zipoli and Eugenia Varrochi. The Prato Cathedral organist-choirmasters in his youth were both Florentines: Ottavio Termini (from 1703) and Giovanni Francesco Beccatelli. On 12 September 1707 he petitioned Cosimo III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, for six scudi monthly so that he could study at Florence, where the cathedral organist from 1703 was Giovanni Maria Casini. On 2 February and 9 March 1708 he cooperated with Casini, Caldara, Gasparini and 20 others in composing an oratorio produced at Florence under the supervision of Orlandini by the Compagnia di S Marco, and later that year at the Oratorians’ church in a version with arias by Zipoli replacing those of Omodei Sequi. Supported by a further ducal charity grant, he moved to Naples in ...

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Kyle Gann

(b Chicago, 1959). American composer and clarinettist. He took the BA at Yale (1981) and the MA and doctorate at the University of California, Berkeley. His composition teachers included Bresnick, Imbrie, Grisey, Lewin, Schwantner, Felciano and Anthony Davis. He also studied the clarinet (with Keith Wilson), Balinese drumming and jazz performance. After graduating from Yale, Ziporyn spent a year in Bali studying under I Made Lebah. From 1990 he taught at the MIT, in 1993 he became director of the ensemble Gamelan Galak Tika (a group that has provided him with opportunity to explore combinations of Indonesian and Western instruments) and in 1997 he joined the staff at Yale. For several years he has been a prominent performer at the New York Bangon a Can festival.

Ziporyn's career embodies jazz clarinet playing, composition in a postmodernist vein and ethnomusicology. Not surprisingly, his music embraces the differences between music cultures. For instance, in ...

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E. Fred Flindell

(b Frankfurt, June 20, 1914; d Freiburg, Oct 7, 1997). German composer, teacher and organist. In 1933 he attended the Hoch Conservatory in Frankfurt, where he studied the organ with Walcha and composition with Sekles, and also studied at the university of Frankfurt. From 1934 to 1938 he continued his studies at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musikerziehung und Kirchenmusik in Berlin-Charlottenburg, where his teacher of composition was Armin Knab. Under Knab’s influence Zipp developed a keen and lasting interest in German and international folk music and particularly the treasury of old chorale tunes. He learnt to compose with the most archaic musical elements, convinced that they would best convey his personal musical expression. From 1938 until his war service (1941–5) he was active in Frankfurt as an organist and teacher. In 1947 he was appointed lecturer in composition at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Frankfurt, later becoming a professor (...

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Joseph S.C. Lam

(b Yangzhou, 1899; d Tianjin, 1991). Chinese qin zither master . Born in the historical site of the Guangling school, Zhang studied qin as a teenager with Sun Shaotao. By his early twenties he was already an accomplished performer, though remaining true to the amateur ideal of the qin. In the 1930s Zhang moved to Shanghai, acquainting himself with the qin players Zha Fuxi and Peng Zhiqing; their regular meetings led in 1936 to the founding of the Jin Yu qinshe (Qin Society of Contemporary Yu Region) in Suzhou. After the founding of the People’s Republic, Zhang was enlisted to the state-sponsored Shanghai Folk Music Troupe (Shanghai minzu yuetuan), and in 1957 he was appointed a teacher of qin at the Shanghai Conservatory. Zhang promoted the Guangling style through his performances, teaching and publications. His distinctive style of rhapsodic rhythm and flexible phrasing can be heard in his recordings of pieces such as ...

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John Baily

[zerbghali]

Single-headed goblet drum of Afghanistan. It is usually made of pottery, and occasionally from a block of mulberry wood, carved or turned in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The single goatskin head, usually slightly narrower than the widest part of the body (which curves in at the top), is glued on and can be tuned by heating or wetting it. Sometimes the head bears a patch of black tuning paste. Some modern instruments have the head lapped on a ring with metal tuning rods. The drummer sits cross-legged on the floor with the drum resting on its side on the ground, or in the player’s lap. Drummers use a large variety of rhythmic patterns and special techniques such as the riz, a fast roll executed with the fingers of the right hand. The zirbaghali is regarded in Afghanistan as a folk instrument and is especially important in the north of the country. It is similar to the Iranian ...

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Andrew Lamb

(‘The Circus Princess’)

Operette in three acts by Emmerich Kálmán to a libretto by Julius Brammer and Alfred Grünwald ; Vienna, Theater an der Wien, 26 March 1926.

At the Stanislavsky Circus in St Petersburg, the mysterious, masked ‘Mister X’ (tenor) creates a sensation with his daredevil act. In the audience is Princess Fedora Palinska (soprano), who has recently rejected the attentions of Prince Sergius Vladimir (baritone). To avenge himself the Prince hires ‘Mister X’ to pose as an aristocrat and woo and marry her. ‘Mister X’ turns out to be Baron Korosov, a young hussar officer disinherited for falling in love with his uncle’s fiancée. The latter was none other than Fedora, and the two are only too happy to be reunited. First produced with Hubert Marischka and Betty Fischer in the leading roles, the work has as its principal numbers the tenor solo ‘Zwei Märchenaugen’ and the buffo song ‘Die kleinen Mäderln im Trikot’....

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Franz Krautwurst

[Cirlerus, Stephanus; Zyrlerus, Stephanus; Zierler, Steffan]

(b Rohr, Bavaria, c1518; d Heidelberg, end of July 1568). German composer. In 1529 or 1530 he was a chorister in the electoral court in Heidelberg, where he met Georg Forster, Caspar Othmayr and Jobst von Brandt and, like them, studied with Lorenz Lemlin. Forster later dedicated to Zirler the fourth part of his Frische teutsche Liedlein (Nuremberg, 1556) as a seal to the friendship formed in Heidelberg. In 1537 Zirler became a student at Heidelberg University, and then was made an official at the Palatine court in Heidelberg, eventually serving as personal secretary to Elector Friedrich III. In his religious belief Zirler inclined towards Calvinism. All except one of Zirler’s 23 songs were published in Forster’s Frische teutsche Liedlein. Most of them retain the principle of the tenor cantus firmus, though the tenor has largely lost the character of a leading voice, the texture being either imitative or chordal. These songs were popular in their day, and there are transcriptions for lute or organ in the collections of Ochsenkun, Jobin, Neusidler, Schmid and Paix. In ...

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Viorel Cosma

revised by Ruxandra Arzoiu

(b Roman, July 14, 1883; d Sibiu, March 23, 1946). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher. He was a Romantic composer and a representative of the national Romanian school (through language and ethos). He studied at the Iaşi Conservatory (1902–5) with G. Musicescu, T. Cerne (harmony), and E. Mezzetti (singing), and then took composition lessons with C. Gatti at the Milan Conservatory (1905–7, 1909–11), and became Magister in composition (1911). Returning to the Iaşi Conservatory to teach harmony (1907–9, 1911–25, 1931–40), he directed the institution from 1922 until 1924, and he was also professor of harmony and singing and director of the Cernăuţi Conservatory (1925–31, now Chernovtsy, Ukraine); in these appointments he established a reputation as a remarkable teacher.

As a composer he was above all attracted to the theatre. Most of his six stage works are based on episodes in Romanian history, and all attest to his supreme handling of the dramatic-lyrical genre of which (together with Caudella, Drăgoi, Nottara, and Stephănescu) he was an originator. His greatest achievements in this manner were the opera ...

Article

Ziryāb  

Eckhard Neubauer

[Abū ’l-Ḥasan ‘Alī ibn Nāfi‘ ]

(b Iraq; d Córdoba, Spain, Aug 852). Arab musician . A mawlā (‘freedman’) of Caliph al-Mahdī (775–85) at Baghdad, he was a pupil of Ibrāhīm al-Mawṣilī and a rival of Isḥāq al-Mawṣilī at the court of Hārūn al-Rashīd (786–809). He left Baghdad for Syria, served the Aghlabid ruler Ziyādat Allāh (817–38) in Qairawan (Tunisia), and later received a generous welcome from ‘Abd al-Raḥmān II (822–52) in Córdoba. His influence there as a court musician and companion (nadīm) must have been exceptional: customs in clothing and eating that he had brought from Baghdad became fashionable, and the tradition of his school of music was maintained by his descendants at least two generations after his death. Like his contemporary al-Kindī he seems to have known the musical theory of late antiquity and to have reconciled it with the teachings of his masters in Baghdad. Details of his vocal training techniques are described by Ibn Ḥayyān (...

Article

Kurt Markstrom

(‘The Lovers on the Galley’)

Commedia per musica in three acts by Leonardo Vinci to a libretto by Bernardo Saddumene; Naples, Teatro dei Fiorentini, 3 January 1722.

Carlo (soprano) has deserted Belluccia (soprano) in Sorrento and run off to Naples, where he has fallen in love with Ciomma (soprano). Belluccia disguises herself as a man and goes to Naples in search of Carlo. Her disguise is so successful that both Ciomma and Meneca (tenor) fall in love with her. The capa y spada intrigue (Saddumene’s phrase for ‘cloak and dagger’) develops at length until it is resolved with the appearance of the galley captain Federico Mariano (bass), Belluccia’s father, who threatens to kill Carlo for betraying his daughter. Tragedy is prevented only by the magnanimous intercession of Belluccia. The appearance of Federico, a serious character who speaks in standard Tuscan, is typical of second-generation commedia per musica, which saw a gradual introduction of serious characters and Tuscan speech into the Neapolitan dialect comedy....

Article

Alena Němcová

(b Prague, 9 Sept 1890; d Prague, 11 Aug 1956). Czech bass. He was apprenticed and worked as a mechanic; at 18 he joined a choral society, then entered Pivoda’s school of singing as a pupil of Alois Vávra (1909–11). In 1912 he joined the Prague National Theatre, at first in small parts; he also performed in plays and ballets. In the 1920s and 30s he was the company’s leading member and was given many opportunities by Otakar Ostrčil, then head of opera, with whom Zítek maintained a close friendship and who greatly valued him as an artist. Zítek studied with Giovanni Binetti in Milan in 1925 and then took short engagements in Turin, Copenhagen, Milan, Stockholm, Paris, Berlin, Florence, Yugoslavia and the USSR. He was the first Czech singer to be made National Artist (1946); his career was cut short by a heart attack in ...

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Zither  

Mark Lindley, Andreas Michel and Alan R. Thrasher

A term having two main senses in modern organology. The first denotes (in both English and German) a large category of string instruments also known as ‘simple chordophone’ (defined in §1 below); the second, more limited and perhaps more familiar sense refers to a small group of Alpine folk and popular instruments. From the late 15th century the term ‘zither’ was used exclusively to denote chordophones with necks, of the cittern type. It was only from the early 19th century that the name began to be used for descendants of the north European Scheitholt type of instrument (see §§2 and 3 below), which had no neck and frets placed directly on the box. From the Scheitholt evolved the modern Alpine instrument still known as the zither (Fr. cithare; Ger. Zither; It. cetra da tavola); other types of fretted zither are found elsewhere in Europe.

Mark Lindley

According to the classification system of Hornbostel and Sachs (...

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Zither 2. The modern Alpine zither.: Table 1

Article

Gregg Miner

Musical instrument. Generic term for an American or European zither that has only nonfretted (open) strings, as opposed to a concert or “Alpine” zither, which utilizes a fretted fingerboard. (See also Zither, fretted .) Fretless zithers were commercially developed and widely distributed in many forms beginning in the late 19th century, especially in the United States. The earliest such invention is the Autoharp , patented in the United States in 1882 by the German immigrant Charles F. Zimmermann, but built upon the better mechanical design of a different Volkszither patent by Karl August Gütter of Markneukirchen, Germany in 1883 or 1884. Its strings are strummed by one hand while the other hand operates a series of damper bars, which mute notes not of the desired chords. It was followed by the guitar-zither patented in the United States in 1894 by Friederich Menzenhauer (1858–1937). Its 15 diatonic melody strings are accompanied by four groups of four open strings, each group sounding a chord (tonic, 3rd, 5th, sometimes dominant 7th or octave). Variant types were produced in great numbers by several dozen manufacturers, from the late 1890s onward. Some of these (e.g. the marxophone) include mechanical attachments that strike or pluck the strings. The ukelin and related types have bowed melody strings. Others have only melody strings or strings configured into chord groups, sometimes with a melody playable from the chords. The most prominent American manufacturers were Menzenhauer (later Menzenhauer & Schmidt and Oscar Schmidt, Jersey City, New Jersey), The Phonoharp Co. (Boston), and H.C. Marx/Marxochime Colony (New Troy, Michigan). Inexpensive fretless zithers were mass-produced and intended for amateurs or nonmusicians. Often, a decal with staff notation or names of the strings was affixed to the soundboard, beneath the strings. Paper song sheets, with notation or diagrams of notes to be played, could be placed under the strings as a guide. Thousands of pieces were published for these “numerical instruments” from their first appearance to about ...

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David J. Kyger

Musical string instrument. The fretted zither is a resonating body with strings extending across the width of the instrument. A modern zither has five fretboard strings and up to 37 open strings. It is placed on a flat surface with the player seated behind the instrument. Frets are set into the fretboard, indicating where the fingers of the left hand need to stop the strings in order to play melodies. A ring with a projecting thorn is placed on the tip of the right-hand thumb to strike the fretboard strings, while the remaining fingers act upon the open strings for the accompaniment.

The zither was widely introduced to the American public by Joseph Hauser of the Hauser Family, a group of Tyrolean singers, in the late 1840s. Numerous songs performed by the family were published by Oliver Ditson in Boston. Sheet music selections published by the company feature a lithograph of the performers, with Joseph Hauser holding a zither....

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Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(b Moscow, May 25, 1921; d Moscow, May 30, 1994). Russian composer. He graduated in 1947 from the Moscow Conservatory (where he studied composition with Kabalevsky), having taught theory at the music college attached to the conservatory since 1944. His output is chiefly associated with the stage, cinema and television. He worked for the Sovremennik, MKhAT and Chekhov theatres, and his scores were all performed in theatres in either Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk or other Russian cities. He wrote the scores for more than 40 films, including Ballada o soldate (‘Ballad about a Soldier’) and Chistoye nebo (‘A Clear Sky’) which were both directed by G. Chukhrayem and which were popular during the Krushchyov thaw. Ziv also wrote the music for more than 20 cartoons and television films. His style is oriented towards the aesthetics and vocabulary of socialist realism; his music is marked by sincerity, vivid melodic content, emotionalism and a capacity for direct communication. He wrote a number of articles about Galïnina, Kabalevsky and Shchedrin....

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Stana Duric-Klajn

(b Belgrade, May 25, 1901; d Belgrade, June 29, 1964). Serbian composer, musicologist, teacher and conductor. He studied at the Stanković Music School in Belgrade, where he also graduated in law in 1924; his composition studies were continued with Grabner at the Leipzig Conservatory (1925–9) and with d’Indy at the Schola Cantorum (1929–31). He directed the Stanković Music School (1937–47) and taught at the Belgrade Academy of Music (1937–64), where he was professor of composition, rector (1951–7) and dean (1957–60). At the latter institution he was responsible for the training of many who later became leading composers. In 1958 he was elected to corresponding membership of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. His compositions treat folk elements in a modern harmonic style, and his treatise on harmony is an original contribution.

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Melita Milin

(b Split, 3 May 1935). Serbian composer. She studied composition with Rajičić at the Belgrade Academy of Music (graduation, 1964) and later studied with Messiaen and Boulanger in Paris (1967–8). She was appointed professor of theory at Belgrade, and has published essays on harmony and counterpoint as well as analytical studies of works by 20th-century Serbian composers. Her early compositions include neo-Baroque features, though their atonal language is also to some extent Expressionist. Later works, such as Zaboravljeni kontrapunkt (‘Forgotten Counterpoint’, 1980), show a greater economy of means and speak more directly.

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