57,261-57,280 of 57,475 results

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Malinda Britton Schantz

(b Moline, IL, Aug 7, 1926). American composer and musicologist. She studied at the University of Wisconsin, Madison (BM 1948), Columbia University Teachers College (MA 1949) and the University of Chicago. Her composition instructors included Karl Ahrendt and Alexander Tcherepnin. After teaching in the public schools, she joined the music department at Northeastern Illinois University (1961–6) and later taught at New England College (1967–82). She has also taught composition privately at St. Paul’s School (1972–92). Her many honours include fellowships from the MacDowell Colony and first prize in the Delius Composition Competition (1971) for Haiku.

Influenced primarily by the music of Bach, Bartók, Stravinsky, the synagogue and jazz, Ziffrin's style can best be described as postmodern. Expressive and vibrant, her music often includes clear melodic lines juxtaposed against complex rhythmic gestures. Dissonance and quartal harmonies dominate many pieces. Several of her works have been recorded. Her writings include the biography ...

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Andrew Lamb

(‘The Gypsy Baron’)

Operette in three acts by Johann Strauss to a libretto by Ignaz Schnitzer after the novel by Mór Jókai; Vienna, Theater an der Wien, 24 October 1885.

The action takes place in the mid-18th century. Sándor Barinkay (tenor) returns to his native Temesvár after 20 years’ exile due to his father’s associations with the former Turkish rulers. He has meanwhile followed a catalogue of unlikely occupations (‘Als flotter Geist’). The Royal Commissioner, Conte Carnero (baritone), calls the local pig-farmer Zsupán (tenor buffo) to witness the deed that will restore Barinkay’s lands to him, but Zsupán has been too busy with his pigs to learn to read or write (‘Ja, das Schreiben und das Lesen’). Zsupán is anyway none too pleased at Barinkay’s return, since he has been making free use of Barinkay’s land for farming. Still, in the interest of getting his hands on the treasure reputedly buried on the land, he is happy to encourage Barinkay’s interest in his daughter Arsena (soprano). Arsena nevertheless declares that she will marry nobody lower than a baron. Barinkay is now attracted by the singing of the gypsy girl Sáffi (soprano) (‘So elend und so treu’), and he is welcomed by a bunch of gypsies as their lost leader. When he thus presents himself to Arsena as a ‘gypsy baron’, she rejects him afresh, and he immediately pledges allegiance to Sáffi....

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(Ger.: ‘gypsy dance’)

A dance imitating ‘Gypsy’ [Roma-Sinti-Traveller] music. Several examples survive among colourful popular pieces by German composers, including Hans Neusidler’s ‘Der Zeuner tantz’ (Ein newes Lautenbüchlein, 1540) and Wolff Heckel’s ‘Der Züner tantz’ (Lautten Buch, 2/1562); both of these have an appended triple-time after-dance (‘Hupff auff’ or ‘Proportz’). Neusidler’s dance is characterized by a florid, improvisatory melody to be played in high positions on the top string of the lute, accompanied by a simple bass line played on the unstopped lower three courses, suggesting an imitation of the fiddle and bagpipe combination typical of Hungarian Gypsy dance music (...

Article

Richard Dyer

(b Paris, France, April 1, 1904; d Falmouth, MA, Sept 13, 1984). Harpist and pianist of French birth. He studied piano from the age of eight, and harp, principally under Marcel Tournier, from the age of 12. At 14 he was playing professionally in a French tango orchestra, and he later joined the orchestra of the Paris Opéra. In 1926 Sergey Koussevitzky brought him into the Boston SO, where he remained until his retirement in the summer of 1980. For 17 seasons he was also the orchestra’s staff pianist, in which post his responsibilities included assisting Koussevitzky in the preparation of new works. Between 1936 and 1942 he was active as a conductor and organized one of Boston’s first chamber orchestra series. Throughout his performing career and afterwards, Zighera was much sought after as a teacher of the harp. A master of his instrument, he produced a beautiful and unforced sound....

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Gary W. Kennedy

(b New York, April 14, 1945). American drummer. He began playing drums while at school and later studied theory at the Mannes College of Music. After graduation from CCNY in 1969 he moved to California, where from 1970 he appeared as a freelance with, among others, Ron McClure, Steve Swallow, Art Lande, Mike Nock, and Mel Martin, and worked regularly with Vince Guaraldi. In 1974 he returned to New York and performed in the Persian Room at the Plaza Hotel. Zigmund played drums with Bill Evans (ii) from January 1975 through 1977, and occasionally afterwards until November 1978. During his tenure with Evans he worked in a short-lived trio with Eddie Gomez and Bennie Wallace and recorded under Gomez’s leadership (1976). He then joined Richard Beirach’s trio Eon and worked as a freelance in Jim Hall’s trio (alongside Harvie Swartz), as well as with Chet Baker, Stan Getz, and others. He toured Japan in Fred Hersch’s trio with Red Mitchell in ...

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Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Palermo, Dec 24, 1937). Italian musicologist, son of Ottavio Ziino . After studying with Aurelió Roncaglia and Luigi Ronga at Rome University and graduating in 1962, he taught history of music at Perugia Conservatory (1962–3). Subsequently he studied musicology at Freiburg University with Reinhold Hammerstein, at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra in Rome with Eugène Cardine and Higini Anglès and at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia Musicale in Cremona with Raffaello Monterosso and Federico Mompellio. He taught music history at Cremona, (1967–71), and later at the universities of Messina, Siena (1979–81), Naples (1981–95) and at the Tor Vergata University, Rome, in 1995. He was visiting professor at UCLA during 1986 and has also lectured at Certaldo.

His principal research interests are medieval Italian and French music, with particular reference to the lauda and the Ars Nova. He has identified a number of important manuscript sources, including the Turin manuscript T.III.2 at the Bibliotecà Nazionale Universitaria, and has also worked on subjects from later periods, such as Lorenzo il Magnifico, Palestrina and Tasso, Pietro della Valle, Francesco Lambardi, Stradella and the Roman Baroque cantata, the 18th-century ...

Article

Roberto Pagano

(b Palermo, Nov 11, 1909; d Rome, Feb 1, 1995). Italian composer, conductor and teacher. He was director of the conservatories of Palermo, Naples and Rome, and a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia. He was also director of two important musical institutions from the time of their foundation: the Teatro Lirico Sperimentale in Spoleto and the Orchestra Sinfonica Siciliana, with which he produced interesting series of concerts, of which the Giornate di Musica Contemporanea deserve special mention. In writing his Ricordi di un musicista (Palermo, 1994) at the end of his busy career, Ziino declared that compared with other aspects of his multiple artistic personality, he considered composition to be his main musical activity. A pupil of Antonio Savasta, an exceptional teacher who instilled in him a love of counterpoint, Ziino completed his studies under Pizzetti (composition) and Bernardino Molinari (conducting). He was an active, highly competent conductor, with a repertory which ranged from orchestral music of every period and style to opera; this repertory allowed him to assimilate contemporary idioms, which he did with discernment, never merely copying famous models. A prolific composer, his melodic style – while based on Sicilian folksong – avoids the explicit quotation of folk material; his pieces show a contrast between lively, rhythmic movements and spare-textured calm adagios. Among his most important works are the ...

Article

David Fanning

(b Moscow, April 19, 1965). Russian pianist. She studied with Ada Traub at the Gnesin Special Music School from 1971 to 1983, and then with Alexander Satz at the Gnesin Institute from 1983 to 1990. Her first prize in the Busoni Competition in 1987 led to a German début in ...

Article

Klaus Kirchberg

(Karl Josef)

(b Frankfurt, Aug 18, 1881; d Würzburg, Jan 1, 1948). German composer, pianist and conductor. Born into a family of musicians, he studied at the Hoch Conservatory in his home town and then embarked on a career as a pianist. In 1908 he joined the staff of the Munich Academy of Music, and from 1920 to 1944 he was principal of the Würzburg Conservatory, where he also conducted and played a large part in the Mozart festivals founded in 1922. As a composer he represented a current of south German traditionalism that was heavily dependent on Schumann and Brahms and sometimes inclined to a popular style. Zilcher employed Impressionist harmonies on occasion, and he also drew on Baroque music and on folksong. His large output (about 100 works were published) is not always strikingly individual, but his music gives an impression of vivid inventiveness, with convincing contrapuntal thematic development....

Article

James Blades

revised by James Holland and James A. Strain

Cymbal makers, comprising the Avedis Zildjian Co. of Norwell, Massachusetts, and Sabian, Ltd, of Meductic, New Brunswick, Canada. The family traces its lineage back to Avedis Zildjian I, an alchemist in Constantinople (now Istanbul) who in 1623 discovered a process for treating alloys. He applied this process to the making of cymbals, an already flourishing craft in Turkey. The details of his secret were closely guarded and have been passed down through the family. From 1623 until 1975 (with the exception of a short period of political exile for Aram Zildjian) Zildjian cymbals were manufactured in Turkey, ending when the American company, being established in 1929 and having acquired all international trademarks in 1973, gradually moved all manufacturing to the United States and Canada with all distribution rights assumed in1983.

In 1928 Aram (b c1863; d c1930), living again in Constantinople, contemplated retirement and (being childless) passed the family secret to his nephew Avedis Zildjian III (...

Article

J.B. Steane

(bBussetto, June 3, 1906; d Milan, Feb 18, 1977). Italian tenor. He studied with Alfredo Cechi in Milan and in 1928 made his début there at the Dal Verme in Madama Butterfly. At Rome he sang in the première of Wolf-Ferrari’s La vedova scaltra (1931) and Mascagni’s Pinotta (1932). In that year he also made his début at La Scala, where he continued to appear until 1946. His roles there included Dmitry in Boris Godunov, Enzo in La Gioconda and Des Grieux in Manon Lescaut, in which he was widely considered to be the best of his generation. He made guest appearances at San Francisco in 1938 and travelled extensively in Europe. When Busoni’s Turandot had its Italian première in 1940 he sang the role of Calaf. He also appeared with Maria Callas in the revival of Rossini’s Armida at the Florence Festival of ...

Article

Elizabeth Forbes

(b Fagnano, Udine, Nov 11, 1864; d Havana, Jan 1901). Italian soprano . She made her début in 1887 at Ferrara as Paolina (Poliuto) and in 1889 first sang at La Scala as Camille (Zampa). There she created Alice Ford in Verdi’s Falstaff (1893...

Article

Gregory S. Dubinsky

(Petrus Ignatius)

(b Würzburg, April 1, 1905; d Hamburg, Dec 18, 1963). German composer and conductor. He studied with Schoenberg from 1925 to 1928, first privately in Vienna, then as a student at the Preussische Akademie der Künste in Berlin. He was an assistant of Kleiber’s at the Berlin Staatsoper (1927–8). He worked as a solo coach and conductor at the Staatstheater in Oldenburg (1928–32). There he helped mount one of the first performances of Berg’s Wozzeck outside a major opera house. Zillig held the post of conductor in Düsseldorf from 1932 to 1937 and in Essen from 1937 to 1940. He was then the principal musical director of the Reichsgautheater in occupied Poznań (1940–43). From 1947 to 1951 Zillig conducted at the Hessische Radio in Frankfurt, and from 1959 until his death he led the music division of NDR. As conductor and lecturer, he energetically promoted the music of Mahler, Schreker, Reger and Schoenberg, and was responsible for the first European performances of many works. Some of his radio programmes served as the basis for his survey of 20th-century music ...

Article

(b nr Kharkiv, 27 Sept/Oct 9, 1863; d New York, Dec 8, 1945). Ukrainian pianist and conductor . He studied the piano at the Moscow Conservatory with Zverev from 1871 and with Nikolay Rubinstein, Taneyev, Tchaikovsky and Hubert from 1875, graduating with a gold medal in 1881. He worked with Liszt in Weimar (1883–6), co-founded the Liszt-Verein in Leipzig, and made his professional début there in 1883. Returning in 1887, he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where his students included Goldenweiser, Maksimov and his cousin Rachmaninoff. In this period he began work as editor for Tchaikovsky, particularly on the first and second piano concertos. He left the conservatory in May 1891 and from 1892 to 1900 lived and toured in western Europe. He also toured New York, Boston, Cincinnati and Chicago in 1898. From 1901 to 1903 Ziloti directed the Moscow PO; from 1903 to 1917...

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Thomas Turino

Country in southern Africa. It has an area of 390,759 km². The most vibrant forms of contemporary Zimbabwean music draw on indigenous traditions of the Shona, Ndebele and various minority linguistic groups; syncretic genres that emerged during the colonial period; music of Christian churches; and a variety of urban popular styles. European classical music has a relatively small presence, mainly among the white élite and the post-independence black élite. Chishona (Shona) is the mother tongue for approximately 71% and Sindebele (Ndebele) for 16% of a population of 12·39 million (2000 estimate). Many people also speak English, the former colonial language and now an official language. Europeans and Asians, the two largest foreign groups, comprise no more than 2% of the population. The majority of Zimbabweans live as agriculturalists/herders and farm labourers in rural areas, and 20% of the population live in Harare and Bulawayo, Zimbabwe’s two largest cities. For the black working class, there is much movement between urban townships and rural homesteads; both indigenous music styles and urban popular traditions are performed in the townships and countryside. There is a major collection of audio and video recordings of indigenous and urban popular music and dance in the National Archives of Zimbabwe in Harare....

Article

Boris Schwarz

(Alexandrovich )

(b Rostov-na-Donu, April 9, 1890; d Reno, NV, Feb 22, 1985). American violinist, composer and teacher of Russian birth . His father, a professional violinist and conductor of the Rostov Opera, taught him for the first few years. In 1901 Zimbalist joined Auer's class at the St Petersburg Conservatory, and received the Gold Medal and the Rubinstein Prize on his graduation in 1907. That year he made his débuts in Berlin (7 November) and London (9 December). He made a memorable appearance at the Leipzig Gewandhaus on 1 January 1910 under Nikisch, playing the Tchaikovsky Concerto. At his American début in Boston on 27 October 1911 Zimbalist introduced Glazunov’s Concerto. His success made him decide to settle in the USA. He married twice, in 1914 the singer Alma Gluck with whom he frequently appeared in joint recitals as a violinist and also as an expert accompanist, and in 1943...

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Bryce Morrison

(b Zabrze, Dec 5, 1956). Polish pianist . He studied with Andrzeij Jasinski, first privately and then at the Katowice Conservatory. He gave his first recital at the age of six and in 1975 became the youngest-ever winner of the International Chopin Competition in Warsaw. Feeling the need to expand his horizons, Zimerman worked intensively with Rubinstein, one of his greatest musical heroes, in 1976. In 1980 he curtailed his flourishing career and took a 14-month sabbatical in London. On his return to the concert platform his playing was marked by even greater freshness and vitality, which he attributes to his refusal to give more than 50 or 60 concerts a year. Among the finest pianists of his generation, he has made numerous recordings, including the Lutosławski Concerto (written for him and first performed by him in 1988), the complete Beethoven and Brahms concertos (the latter with Bernstein), much Chopin and an imaginative coupling of Liszt’s B minor Sonata with several of his later, prophetic works, including ...

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Durrell Bowman

(b Frankfurt, 12 Sept 1957). German film composer, keyboardist, and producer. He moved to London in his teens and later wrote jingles there for commercials. He briefly played synthesizers with the British New Wave rock band the Buggles (appearing in the video for Video Killed the Radio Star in 1979), the Italian electronic-pop group Krisma (playing synthesizer on its 1980 album Cathode Mamma), and New Zealand singer Zaine Griff. He also co-formed the band Helden (1980–83, known for two singles and a bootleg album) and worked with the Spanish synth-pop band Mecano (1983–5). While apprenticing from 1982 to 1985 with the British film composer Stanley Myers, Zimmer combined his ’synthetic’ work as a popular music synthesizer player and songwriter with more traditional, orchestral film sounds. Zimmer’s collaborations with Myers included Moonlighting (1982), Insignificance (1985), and My Beautiful Laundrette (...