(b Leštiny, bap. Nov 20, 1759; d Vienna, June 23, 1833). Hungarian composer . He arrived in Vienna in 1784 as secretary of the Hungarian Chancellery, a post he held until 1825. An amateur cellist, he became a close friend of Beethoven, who dedicated to him his String Quartet op.95; the Duet in E♭ for viola and cello ...
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(b Vienna, Jan 9, 1950; d Hanover, March 21, 1991). Austrian composer and percussionist. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik, where his teachers included Urbanner and Cerha, with Kotonski in Warsaw (1972–3), at Vienna University and at Humboldt University, Berlin (PhD musicology 1978). During this period, he worked at the Institut für Elektroakustik at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik (1969–72) and at the experimental studio of Polish Radio in Warsaw (1972–3). Active as a percussionist, he founded the improvisatory group Spiegelkabinett. In 1985 he served as visiting professor at the University of São Paolo, and from 1987 to 1991 he taught electro-acoustic music at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik. He was appointed president of the Austrian section of the ISCM in 1988.
Following an exploration of aleatory and postserial techniques, Zobl devoted himself to electro-acoustic composition. From his attempts to develop a new approach to tonality grew his work with animation and his collaboration with songwriters and amateur ensembles. Later, he became interested in ethnic music as a stimulus for integral rhythmic composition. He saw in this genre the possibility of overcoming an outmoded European conception of music on the one hand, and a chance to open music up to a variety of historical and cultural phenomena on the other. ‘Rhythmic composition,’ he explained, ‘means the conscious transformation and transposition of the cultural experiences that are deposited in rhythms, and is in no way a superficial borrowing from a foreign culture …’....
(b Gavalou, Mesolongi, Aug 8, 1940). Greek guitarist. She studied with Dēmētrēs Fampas at the National Conservatory of Athens (1953–60). Right after graduating, she won the first prize at the International Guitar Competition of Naples. She became the first Greek female professional classical guitarist as well as the first Greek guitarist to perform concertos with orchestra (transcr. of Vivaldi’s Mandoline Concerto in D major, RV93 (8 March 1958) and Castelnuovo-Tedesco’s Guitar Concerto no.1, op.99 (3 April 1960)). With her classmate, and subsequent life-partner, Euangelos Asēmakopoulos, they formed the first Greek classical guitar duo. After studying, under consecutive scholarships, with the famous guitar duo Presti Lagoya at the International Summer Guitar Academy of Nice (1964–7), and with Andrés Segovia at Santiago de Compostela (1967–9), Zōē and Asēmakopoulos embarked on an international career as a guitar duo that has recently celebrated its 50th anniversary. First introduced as ‘The Athenian Guitar Duo’ (...
revised by John Moran
[Marteau, Léon ]
(b Berlin, March 26, 1840; d London, July 13, 1889). German player of the viola d’amore, bandmaster and composer . At the Berlin Conservatory, Hubert Ries, W. Gärich and A.E. Grell taught him the violin, harmony and counterpoint respectively. He travelled in Germany with an Italian opera company, eventually settling in London in 1873. In 1879 he became bandmaster of the 7th (Queen’s Own) Hussars; in 1884 he was elected a member of the Accademia di S Cecilia, Rome, and in 1885 a similar honour was conferred on him by the Istituto Musicale of Florence.
Zoeller’s compositions include a comic operetta The Missing Heir, a lyric drama Mary Stuart of Fotheringay, church music, a scena for soprano and orchestra The Rhine King’s Daughter, four overtures and other orchestral pieces, a violin concerto, a string quartet and quintet and several songs. As a player of the viola d’amore he did much to revive interest in that instrument, to which purpose he wrote ...
(b Veles, March 29, 1934; d Skopje, Jan 14, 2000). Macedonian composer and educator. His compositions are among the first large-scale orchestral works (Sinfonietta in Es, Sinfonietta in Si, and Fantasia corale) which, in the 1950s and 1960s, moved Macedonian music toward the contemporary occidental music styles. Both his compositional and educational activities essentially influenced the developement of Macedonian music at the end of the 20th century.
His family was known for the fresco painting artisans (zograf) in the 19th century. He studied at Skopje Music School and Belgrade Music School and graduated from Milenko Zivković’s composition class at the Academy of Music in Belgrade in 1961. After working as a teacher at Skopje Music School and a music journalist for Radio Skopje, he became professor (1967) and dean (1970–71; 1977–9) of Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Faculty of Music....
(b Guadalajara, Mexico, May 8, 1962). American Composer. Zohn-Muldoon’s teenage years were devoted to training as a classical guitarist and to developing, performing with, and composing for a rock band that included composer Carlos Sánchez-Gutiérrez and other young musicians in Guadalajara. After pursuing a career in architecture, he decided to study music in the United States. He received an undergraduate degree from the University of California, San Diego, and a master’s and doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied under George Crumb. Zohn-Muldoon gained international recognition in 1991 as a finalist in the Gaudeamus International Competition. His renown grew as the recipient of numerous distinctions, such as the Mozart Medal from the Austrian Embassy in Mexico and fellowships from the Guggenheim, Camargo, and Fromm Foundations, from the Tanglewood Music Center, and from Mexico’s Sistema Nacional de Creadores de Arte. In 2011, he was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in Music for ...
(b Yerevan, Jan 29, 1945). Armenian composer. He studied composition at the Melikian Music College with Bagdasarian (1963–7) and then at the Yerevan Conservatory with Eghiazarian (1967–72). In 1972 he began to teach harmony at the Babadjanian Music College and in 1981 orchestration and composition at the Yerevan Conservatory. He became a member of the Armenian Composers' Union in 1973, and of the Association of Contemporary Music in 1990. In 1993 he was awarded the Khachaturian Prize for Parable for chamber orchestra. Zohrabian is one of the leading figures in late 20th-century new Armenian music, and his works have been regularly performed in Moscow, St Petersburg, Kiev, Minsk, the Baltic States and Transcaucasus as well as in festivals in Bratislava, Venice, Cologne (all 1987), Glasgow, London, Paris (all 1989), Seoul (1990), Zagreb, Duisburg (1991) and Zürich (1992...
Harry B. Lincoln
(b Rome, c1537; d Loreto, 1592). Italian composer and singer. He spent most of his life in Rome. After singing in the Cappella Giulia from 9 August 1558 until February 1561, he was maestro di cappella of S Luigi dei Francesi from 1561 to 1566. From 1567 to June 1570 he held a similar position at S Giovanni in Laterano, and during this period may also have been in the service of Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto. On 5 July 1570 he joined the choir of the Cappella Sistina as an alto but, according to an entry in the Diario sistino for August 1577, was obliged to resign because of ill-health in July 1577. On 25 October 1577 he and Palestrina were appointed by Pope Gregory XIII to prepare a corrected edition of the Roman Graduale; Zoilo worked on the Proprium sanctorum and the Antiphonale. Because of lack of funds the project was abandoned in autumn ...
Harry B. Lincoln
(b Rome, 1584; d ?Rome, after 1622). Italian composer, son of Annibale Zoilo. A letter from his father in 1585 refers to him as being then one year old. As a boy he sang in the choir of S Maria Maggiore, Rome. He was maestro of Santo Spirito in Sassia, Rome, from 1610 to 1621; between 1619 and 1622 he also served as maestro di cappella, particularly for occasional special services, at the church of S Tommaso di Canterbury of the Collegio Inglese, Rome. According to the dedication of his Madrigali, he had also served as a musician in the household of Paolo Giordano Orsini, Duke of Bracciano. He seems to have wished to remain faithful to the tradition of vocal polyphony, for in the preface to his Madrigali he explained that they were intended for unaccompanied voices but that he had added a continuo part to conform to current practice in some places of performing such works with only two singers; he added that it would have been in tablature had not printing problems made this impossible....
Richard Langham Smith
(b Paris, April 2, 1840; d Paris, Sept 29, 1902). French writer. Brought up in Aix-en-Provence, he became a leading man of letters in the latter years of the 19th century, having a profound effect on the arts reaching far beyond the boundaries of his own work. He is celebrated as the leading figure in French naturalisme. His many expositions of his aesthetic emphasize that his accurate observation of real-life events was not an end in itself but rather a scientific basis underlying the creative nature of his art. ‘J’observe pour créer, non pour copier’, he stressed, in the belief that he could penetrate the depths of human nature only by seeing man acting in the society in which he lived. His concept of a series of linked novels – the Rougon-Macquart novels – was his major literary contribution in this respect.
His credo affected not only much other writing, visual art and theatre but also opera, providing a French alternative to Italian ...
(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In 1980 she relocated to New York and continued her studies with Dianne McIntyre. Following her childhood bent for making up dances, she founded her own company, Urban Bush Women, in 1984, and began choreographic explorations of the history and culture of African American women in an urban, multi-ethnic environment. Blending modern and jazz dance, her works range in subject matter from Shelter (1988), a piercing study of homelessness, to Batty Moves (1995), a saucy celebration of the buttocks of black women. Some of Zollar’s dances are evening-length works performed to percussive sounds, a capella vocalizations, music by contemporary composers, and the spoken word, arising from librettos written by poets and novelists. Notable among these is ...
revised by Géza Gábor Simon and Barry Kernfeld
(b Visegrad, nr Budapest, June 13, 1927; d Townshend, VT, Jan 26, 1998). Hungarian guitarist. He grew up in a musical family and first studied violin and trumpet; he changed to guitar when he decided to make music his career. After playing in Budapest with Mihály Tabányi’s Pinocchio Ensemble (1946–8) he performed and recorded in Vienna, where he had spent a brief period as a double bass player in a pit orchestra, with Vera Auer (1948–54). In Frankfurt he played bop with Jutta Hipp (1954–5), whose group also included Auer. He followed Hipp to the USA early in 1956, but soon returned to Germany, where he worked with Hans Koller (April 1956–1959) and visiting American musicians, notably Oscar Pettiford (he occasionally played double bass while Pettiford played cello). In 1959 he was awarded a scholarship to the Lenox School of Jazz and moved to the USA. Following a short period with Chico Hamilton (...
revised by Peter Schmelz
(b Höhr, Westerwald, Aug 24, 1928; d Berlin, July 29, 2005). German flautist . He trained at the Musikhochschule in Frankfurt and at the Northwest German Music Academy in Detmold. While still a student he won first prize in the 1947 competition sponsored by German radio in Frankfurt. After completing his studies in 1950, he became a much sought-after recitalist and chamber musician. From 1960 to 1969 he was solo flautist of the Berlin PO, and during this period also taught at the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin. He became a member of the Berlin Philharmonic Soloists at its inception. In 1968 the critics of Germany honoured him for his outstanding work. In 1969 he left the orchestra and became professor at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Hamburg. He rejoined the Berlin PO in 1977. Zöller had continued to tour as a recitalist and soloist, and gave the first performances of concertos by Ligeti, Isang Yun and Manfred Trojahn....
(b St Gallen, July 1707; d St Gallen, Aug 12, 1779). Swiss composer . He came from a St Gallen family whose history can be traced back to the 15th century. In 1728 he completed his theological education, and from that time he was active in the service of the church and school in his native city. He was often involved in disputes with the clerical authorities; in 1734 he was obliged to justify himself before the town council, and he was several times suspended from his post. In 1737 Zollikofer became deacon of St Leonhard in St Gallen, and in 1741 became Wednesday and Sunday evening preacher. After further misunderstandings he took up schoolteaching and in 1746 became Latin preceptor at the St Gallen Gymnasium. He returned to church work in 1761 and in 1773 obtained one of the five regular pastorships in St Gallen, becoming fourth city pastor in ...
Deane L. Root
revised by Michael Musgrave
(b Mittelhausen, Thuringia, May 17, 1800; d Leipzig, Sept 25, 1860). German choral director and composer. He was first taught music by his father, a schoolteacher, and in Leipzig from 1814 he studied music at the Thomasschule with J.G. Schicht, through whose influence he was appointed singing teacher at the Ratsfreischule (1820). In 1822 with Hemleben he established a private music institute for weekly choral rehearsals, and in 1833 founded in Leipzig a Liedertafel known as the Zöllnerverein, a male choral society modelled on Zelter’s Berlin organization, which became the model for many later groups. He formed new male choruses at Leipzig in 1840 and 1845, and in 1851 became director of the Künstlerverein. In 1854 he organized a weekly singing group from the Leipzig Kunst- und Gewerbeverein and in 1857 formed another male chorus, which (with those founded in 1845 and 1854) was to become the Zöllnerbund. By ...
Deane L. Root
(b Leipzig, July 4, 1854; d Freiburg, May 8, 1941). German conductor and composer, son of Carl Friedrich Zöllner. He studied music at the Leipzig Conservatory (1875–7) under Reinecke, Jadassohn and E.F. Richter, and in 1878 was appointed director of music at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia). In 1885 he became a staff member of the Cologne Conservatory, and began directing the male choral society. From 1890 to 1898 he lived in the USA, where he conducted the Deutscher Liederkranz in New York; his festival cantata Die neue Welt was awarded a prize at the 1892 Cleveland Sängerfest. On his return to Leipzig, he succeeded Kretzschmar as director of music at the university and conducted the Paulus male choir; in 1902 he was Reinecke’s successor as professor of composition at the conservatory, and from 1903 music editor of the Leipziger Tageblatt. He resigned his Leipzig positions in ...
(b Taganrog, 24 Feb/March 7, 1872 (?1873); d Moscow, May 25, 1964). Russian composer and teacher. He was the son of an employee from the Taganrog Tobacco Factory. In Rostov-on-Don in 1883 he was elected by the commission for the Court Cappella Choristers to sing in the boys’ choir. He studied with Balakirev and Lyadov at the court chapel in St Petersburg, where his gifts as a composer became apparent (under the influence of Balakirev, with whom he studied composition from 1883 to 1887, he wrote a symphony, completed 70 years later in 1962; he dedicated it to the memory of Balakirev and Rimsky-Korsakov). He continued his musical education with Rimsky-Korsakov at the St Petersburg Conservatory (1898–1900), where he won the Rubinstein Prize for his cantata Ray i Peri (‘Paradise and Peri’), which was presented as his graduation work. In 1902 he wrote his ...