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Pavla Jonssonová

(‘Tooth and Nail’)

Czech rock group. Formed by university students in Prague in 1980 as Plyn (‘Gas’), with Marka Horáková (Míková; b 1959; piano, bass, vocals), Pavla Fediuková (Slabá, Jonssonová; b 1961; guitar, vocals), and Hana Kubíčková (Řepová; b 1961; drums, vocals). All of the members contributed songs in a punk, girl-band, dadaist fashion, playing college clubs and alternative music festivals. After Plyn was blacklisted, they re-formed under a new name as Dybbuk, and were joined by Kateřina Nejepsová (Jirčíková; b 1963) on the flute and saxophone, and Eva Trnková (b 1963) on the lead guitar. Their eponymous EP (Panton, 1987) was released during the communist era. Dybbuk disbanded in 1987.

In 1988 Míková started Zuby nehty with Slabá on the bass, Naďa Bilincová (1959−2011) on the guitar, and Tomáš Míka (b 1960) on the saxophone. In 1991 Dybbuk reunited to record their 1980s material on the album ...


Yelena Zin′kevich


(b Goloskovo, Nikolayev province, March 2, 1953). Ukrainian composer. He studied at the Gnesin Music College in Moscow (1969–71), then at Kiev Conservatory (the bayan with V.V. Besfail′ny, composition with Skoryk and conducting with Viktor Gnedash, graduating 1976–9). From 1976 he appeared in various countries as a bayan soloist, and later was president of the Ukrainian Association of Accordion Players (1988–95). He has also taught in the faculty of composition at the Kiev Conservatory (1990–94) of Kiev. He has won prizes in the Helsinki bayan and accordion competition (1975, first prize), the UNESCO composing competition ‘Young people for peace’ (Bydgoszcz, 1985, special prize and second prize), the Ivanna and Mar′yan Kots′ Competition (1991, third prize) and has been awarded the N. Ostrovsky Prize (1986), the N.V. Lysenko Prize (1994), and the title Honoured Representative of the Arts of Ukraine (...


Judith Tick

[Zuckermann, Augusta; Zuckermann, Gussie]

(b New York, NY, Dec 25, 1885; d Miami, FL, March 8, 1981). American composer and pianist. She changed her name to Mana Zucca in her teens and became a protégée of the pianist and teacher Alexander Lambert; according to her unpublished memoirs she performed with major orchestras in New York before the age of ten (although this and other claims in her memoirs have not been verified). In 1902 she played an arrangement of Liszt’s 14th Hungarian Rhapsody with Frank Damrosch as part of his concert series for young people at Carnegie Hall. In about 1907 she went to Europe, where she met several prominent musicians and gave successful concert tours with the Spanish violinist Juan Manon. Her lively descriptions of Teresa Carreño, Ferruccio Busoni, Leopold Godowsky, and the composition teacher Max Vogrich were published in American music magazines. She also performed as a singer, notably in Franz Lehár’s ...


(b Waldbröl, April 12, 1803; d Nachrodt, March 23, 1869). German music scholar, critic and poet of Italian and Dutch extraction. He was educated in Mülheim am Rhein and at the Carmelite Gymnasium in Cologne. After three years’ military service he entered the University of Heidelberg in 1826 to study civics and law. There he joined a circle around Thibaut which concerned itself with early church music and the preservation of folksong repertories, and with friends he founded a literary student club. He also interested himself at this time with the German language and its dialects, mythology, archaeology, history, astronomy and natural science. In 1829 he published with E. Baumstark his first folksong collection, Bardale, and in the same year ceased studying for financial reasons. After living in Cologne, Mülheim and Bouzonville, he became tutor to the only son of Prince Gorchakov of Warsaw in 1833. In Warsaw he met Ernemann, Elsner, Vieuxtemps and Henselt and wrote for periodicals, among them Schumann’s ...


Michael Talbot

(b Casalmaggiore, nr Cremona, Nov 10, 1704; d Casalmaggiore, May 3, 1792). Italian violinist and composer. He studied the violin first in his home town, later in Parma, Guastalla and Bologna, and finally in Cremona with Gasparo Visconti. Giuseppe Gonelli taught him counterpoint. In 1723 Zuccari arrived at Vienna in the suite of Count Pertusati. Having won favour at the imperial court, he travelled on to Olomouc, where he stayed for four years, and visited various German towns. In 1733 he married and in 1736 settled in Milan, where he founded a school. In 1741 he participated in the famous academy held at the Collegio dei Nobili under the direction of G.B. Sammartini, who was to call on his services as a violinist on several future occasions. During this period he acquired the nickname Zuccherino quoted in some contemporary sources. Around 1760 he was living in London, where he became a member of the Italian opera orchestra and had some violin compositions published, including his celebrated set of 12 adagios in dual plain and ornamented versions (...


(b London, Jan 28, 1793; d Bologna, Feb 1879). Italian bass. The son of an Italian father and an English mother, he accompanied his family to Italy in 1803 and for a time studied painting. He eventually studied singing with Crescentini in Bologna, and in 1816 made his début at Ferrara, going in the same year to Munich, where he was engaged at the Hoftheater. In 1819 he sang in operas by Rossini and Guglielmi at the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna, returning to La Scala for Rossini’s La pietra del paragone, L’italiana in Algeri and La Cenerentola, in which Rossini thought him the best Don Magnifico he had heard. On 26 December 1820 Zucchelli sang in the Rome première of Pacini’s La gioventù di Enrico V. In 1821–2 he appeared in Trieste and in the following season he went to London, where he performed in the English première of Rossini’s ...


Adriano Mazzoletti

(b Spilimbergo, Italy, 1911; d Asti, Italy, c1977). Italian guitarist and leader. He played guitar from the age of six. In 1934 he recorded as an unaccompanied soloist and in 1938 formed a group that later became the Quintetto Ritmico di Milano; this was modeled after the Quintette du Hot Club de France and included three guitars (of which Zuccheri played the lead), a violin (from ...


(b Brescia, ?c1540 or ?c1560; d after 1615). Italian composer. He was a Benedictine monk; the dedication of his Promptuarium harmonicum (1616) establishes that he took holy orders in the monastery of S Giorgio Maggiore at Venice at the earliest possible age, probably when he was about 15. He may have been the ‘D.nus Gregorius de Brixia’ who professed on 29 June 1556, but it is possible, though less likely, that instead a similar entry (with the name ‘Georgius’) in the monastery’s records for 15 August 1575 refers to him. In 1600 he sought the permission of Pope Clement VIII to spend some time in the Roman monastery of S Paolo fuori le Mura, where he composed the masses and motets of his Harmonia sacra. He seems also to have stayed for a while at Praglia Abbey, near Padua.

Zucchini’s surviving music is exclusively sacred, and much of it is in the traditional style of functional church music for four to seven voices. His first publication, however, contains rich polychoral works for three and four choirs which indicate that he was one of the most important composers who emulated Giovanni Gabrieli. The four-choir mass, the 16-voice ...


Jay Weitz

(Ann )

(b Rochester, NY, July 28, 1946). American Music critic and journalist. Zuck was raised in Scottsville, New York, southwest of Rochester, where she studied piano and violin and played bagpipes in her high school band. She attended Middlebury College, beginning as a math major before switching to music; she graduated in 1968. During her four years at Middlebury, she sang alto in the Chapel Choir under directors James G. Chapman and Emory Fanning. Zuck attended Boston University briefly before transferring to the University of Michigan (PhD 1978), where she studied musicology with Louise Cuyler and Richard Crawford. Her thesis, Americanism and American Art Music, 1929–1945 (published as A History of Musical Americanism), was strongly influenced by her extensive interviews with Charles Seeger. Zuck has taught at Drew University, the University of Michigan, and Otterbein College. While teaching at Otterbein in 1978, she began reviewing music and dance for the daily ...


Wolfgang Suppan

(b Vienna, July 2, 1896; d Locarno, Switzerland, April 24, 1965). Austrian musicologist and conductor, active in the USA. Possibly a member of the Schenker's circle of students in Vienna as early as 1912, Zuckerkandl studied the piano with Richard Robert and after army service during World War I, was a free-lance conductor in Vienna, 1920–29. In 1927 he took the doctorate in musicology, with a dissertation on the methods of instrumentation in Mozart's works. (He also took art history and philosophy as secondary subjects.) He was a music critic for the Ullstein-Blätter, an editor for the publisher Bermann-Fischer (1927–33) and taught music theory at the Vienna Music Academy until 1938. After fleeing Austria, he taught at Wellesley College (1942) and then worked as a machinist in an arms factory in Boston. In 1946 he became a music theory teacher at the New School of Social Research, New York and in ...


Grigory L′vovich Golovinsky

(b Brailov, Ukraine, Oct 6, 1903; d Moscow, Sept 30, 1988). Russian musicologist and teacher. He graduated from the Kiev Conservatory, having studied the piano with Boleslav Yavorsky, Felix Blumenfeld and Grigory Kogan, and music theory with Yavorsky and A.A Al′shvang. From 1923 to 1926 he lectured on musicology at the Kiev Conservatory after which he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he was head of one of its music theory departments (1936–42) and professor from 1939. While teaching at the conservatory he obtained the Kandidat degree (1931) and the doctorate (1958). He was also active in the Union of Soviet Composers and was awarded the Order of the Red Labour Banner (1947), the Order of Lenin (1953) and the title of Honoured Worker of Art of the RSFSR (1966). He trained many prominent Russian musicologists, including I.A. Barsova and Grigor′yeva, and composers, such as Denisov, Eshpay and Peyko....


Howard Schott

revised by Edward L. Kottick

[Wallace ]

(b Berlin, Oct 11, 1922). Harpsichord maker and developer of the kit harpsichord, of German birth. He came to the United States in 1938, studied psychology at Queens College, New York (BA 1949), and continued with postgraduate work. But his musical interests led him to study piano technology. He was never apprenticed to a harpsichord builder, but, having to deal with harpsichords in the course of his work as a piano technician, he determined in 1954 to build one for his own use in amateur chamber music playing. It was a somewhat simplified one-manual model with little claim to historical authenticity. He continued to produce similar harpsichords, which found a ready market. In 1960 he introduced a kit version in response to the evident demand for a basic inexpensive harpsichord. The kit was designed for production on a small industrial scale, and by the end of 1969...


Sergio Durante

( fl 1678–85). Italian soprano . She sang in Venice in 1678 in Carlo Pallavicino’s Vespasiano for the opening of the Teatro S Giovanni Grisostomo. Thereafter her name appears only in librettos of Neapolitan productions, including the first performances of Alessandro Scarlatti’s Aldimiro, o vero Favor per favore and Psiche, o vero Amore innamorato...



J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Anthony C. Baines and Mary Térey-Smith

[chiufolo, ciufolo] (It.)

In Italy a name for any small duct flute or whistle. It was first described in the 14th century (Marcuse, 1964) as having two front finger-holes and a rear thumb-hole (it thus falls into the normal pattern for three-hole pipes; see Pipe and tabor). It was traditionally carved from boxwood and had a conical bore. The narrow compass obtainable from the three finger-holes could be extended to over two octaves by stopping and half-stopping the bell with the palm of the hand, and by overblowing. In Sicily the term applies to a larger duct flute with a wide-beak mouthpiece and six finger-holes.

A larger, much improved zuffolo (lowest note c′′) appeared during the early 17th century. According to Van der Meer this ‘was also called flautino and flauto piccolo in works by Monteverdi, Praetorius, Schütz, Schein and Telemann; Keiser alone maintains the original name’. The Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, houses a few three-hole duct flutes, some with ...


Zug (i)  

William Drabkin

(Ger.: ‘pull’, ‘draught’, ‘stress’, ‘procession’, ‘progression’)

In Schenkerian analysis (see Analysis, §II, 4), a conjunct diatonic succession of notes, encompassing a certain interval, by which movement from one pitch, register or part to another is established; hence one of the chief methods of Prolongation of a basic musical structure. As a technical term, Zug is usually translated as ‘progression’ or, more precisely, as ‘linear progression’. In identifying these progressions in Schenkerian analyses, the interval forms part of the name, thus Terzzug, Quartzug, Quintzug, Sextzug, Septzug, Oktavzug (‘3rd-progression’, ‘4th-progression’, ‘5th-progression’ etc.).

At the most basic level of an analysis, the background Layer, the function of a Zug is to connect the fundamental upper voice ( Urlinie) with an inner voice. In ex.1, for instance, the Terzzug d″–c″–b′ delays the completion of the Urlinie movement to c″. Because this progression prolongs a note in the Urlinie itself, it is called a Terzzug erster Ordnung (‘3rd-progression of the highest order’)....



Zug ‘pull’ ‘draught’ ‘stress’ ‘procession’ ‘progression’: Ex.1


Zug ‘pull’ ‘draught’ ‘stress’ ‘procession’ ‘progression’: Ex.2



Frans van Rossum

(b Gouda, Sept 23, 1964). Dutch composer. He studied at the Rotterdam Conservatory with Philippe Boesmans and Klaas de Vries, and in Tanglewood with Knussen and Foss. In 1989 he won the Koussevitzky Composition Prize with Fishbone, which launched his international career. While being trained as a classical pianist, he played the guitar in punk bands, and his chameleon-like musical output reflects a natural affinity with the complex compositional procedures of serious music and the simple directness of rock music. Though Zuidam uses a multiplicity of genres and styles, both Western and non-Western, he alludes to his models rather than borrowing from them literally. In his music, which is vigorous and entertaining, rhythm plays a paramount role because ‘it forges the link between reason and emotion’. The communicative simplicity and formal transparency of his music stems from a desire for clear musical argument but involves elaborate transformational techniques. These facilitate the music’s change of perspective by shifting quickly but smoothly between disparate elements and emotions. Zuidam’s talents for twisting the obvious and predictable are considerable. In a way, his music reflects on ordinary perceptions. It is a critique in disguise, seriously humorous and biting, even as it pretends to be sentimental or downright vulgar. His opera ...