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James Chute

revised by Jonas Westover

(b Cambridge, MA, Sept 25, 1944). American Flutist. She studied English at Barnard College (1962–4) before attending the Juilliard School, where she studied flute with Julius Baker (1964–6). In 1968 she married the violinist Pinchas Zukerman (they divorced in 1985). Under the sponsorship of the Young Concert Artists Auditions, which she won in 1970, she made her Town Hall debut in 1971. Her most regular musical partner has been Zukerman, whom she has joined in concerts with the English Chamber Orchestra (among others), occasional recitals, and a number of recordings. In 1976 she collaborated with the flutist Jean-Pierre Rampal in a concert at Carnegie Hall. She has also performed with the Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center, the Spoleto Festival (Italy), the Mostly Mozart Festival (New York), the Edinburgh Festival, and a wide range of orchestras. She has served as the artistic director of the Vail Valley Music Festival since ...


Noël Goodwin

(b Tel-Aviv, July 16, 1948). Israeli violinist of Polish descent. His father, also a violinist, encouraged a childhood instinct for music, and at eight he entered the Tel-Aviv Academy of Music, where he studied with Ilona Feher, a pupil of Hubay. In 1961 he was heard by Isaac Stern and Pablo Casals, on whose recommendations he received scholarships enabling him to enter the Juilliard School of Music, New York, with Stern as his legal guardian. There Zukerman studied with Ivan Galamian and extended his interest to the viola, the better to participate in chamber ensembles. He appeared at the 1966 Spoleto Festival in Italy, and the next year was joint winner of the Leventritt Memorial Competition. The resulting solo engagements throughout North America were supplemented by deputizing for an indisposed Stern, and since Zukerman’s New York début at Lincoln Center in 1969 he has toured frequently in Europe. His British concert début was at the ...


Michael Steinberg

(b Brooklyn, NY, 22 Oct 1943; d Hong Kong, 6 June 2017). American violinist and conductor. He started music lessons when he was three and studying the violin at the age of four. Two years later he first played in public, and at seven became a student of Galamian. He made his first orchestral appearance in 1953 with the New Haven SO, and a formal début recital at Carnegie Hall in 1956. He specialized in 20th-century music and had complete command of new and traditional virtuoso techniques. He gave the premières of concertos by Sessions (for violin, cello, and orchestra), Wuorinen (for amplified violin and orchestra), and the Scottish composer Iain Hamilton, and of works by Babbitt, Carter, Crumb, Wuorinen, and others. From 1963 to 1976 he performed frequently with the pianist Gilbert Kalish, with whom he was associated in a repertory of over 300 works. One of the original Creative Associates at the Center for Creative and Performing Arts, SUNY, Buffalo, in ...


Jacques Aboucaya

[Z, Bojan ]

(b Belgrade, Feb 2, 1968). Serbian pianist and composer. He discovered jazz in 1984 and quickly became one of the busiest pianists in Belgrade. After gaining a scholarship to the University of Michigan (1986) he spent time with Clare Fischer, under whose influence he renewed his approach to the piano. In the course of his service in the Serbian army (1987) he directed an ethnic music orchestra, and this supplied further inspiration for his music making. In 1988 he settled in Paris, where in the early 1990s he played in Noël Akchoté’s groups Trash Corporation and Unit and in 1992 founded Quartet Z. He joined Henri Texier’s Azur Quartet (1992) and Sonjal Septet (1996), played in Sylvain Beuf’s quartet, formed an international group including, most notably, Julien Lourau, and appeared at the festival Banlieues Bleues (1997), where he presented ...


Zulu isithontolo (mouth-resonated musical bow)


Susana Friedmann

(b Cereté, July 18, 1945). Colombian composer. He completed his undergraduate studies in composition at the National University of Colombia (1970) and was granted a scholarship to study in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, where he twice won the Grand Prix de Composition (1971, 1973) and experimented with electronic techniques under the supervision of Pierre Schaeffer. He returned to Colombia (1973), then lived in New York (1978–80), working as a composer and arranger for Eddie Palmieri and his Fania All Stars Orchestra. After working from 1982–6 with the Bogotá PO, he was cultural attaché of the Colombian Embassy in Bonn (1986–90); during this period he travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, lecturing about his music and giving concerts. He returned to the USA in 1991.

As a composer Zumaqué was committed to bridging the gap between erudite music and urban and traditional music. His first CD, ...


Craig H. Russell

(b c1678; d Antequerra, Valle de Oaxaca, Dec 21, 1755). Mexican composer and organist. He probably entered the service of Mexico City Cathedral in about 1690, and quickly established a reputation as a prodigy. His name first appears in a document dated 25 May 1694, when the cathedral chapter granted him financial assistance after his father’s untimely death and arranged for him to study the organ with the cathedral’s principal organist, José de Ydiáquez, and composition with the maestro de capilla, Antonio de Salazar.

In honour of the birth of Prince Luis, Zumaya wrote a play, Rodrigo, which was staged on 25 August 1707, possibly with music also by Zumaya. The following year he became second organist at the cathedral, and in 1710, despite protestations from the older and more experienced Francisco de Atienza, he was appointed interim maestro de capilla and took on some of the ailing Salazar’s teaching duties at the ...


Hans-Hubert Schönzeler

(b Oppach, April 9, 1850; d Munich, Sept 4, 1903). German conductor and composer. Trained at the teachers’ seminary at Bautzen (where he also received a thorough musical education), Zumpe taught in the local school at Weigsdorf in 1870–71, then went as a teacher to Leipzig, where he furthered his musical studies with Tottmann. He turned to music completely when Wagner called him to Bayreuth in 1872 (an association which became the main influence in his development) to assist in the completion of the Ring score. As a conductor he travelled widely throughout Germany and held important positions in Stuttgart (1891), Schwerin (1897) and Munich (1895 and 1900). He also visited London (conducting Wagner at Covent Garden in 1898), Odessa, Madrid and St Petersburg. An energetic and intelligent conductor, he was regarded in his day, especially in Wagner’s music, as comparable to Richter, Mottl and Levi. As a composer he was strongly influenced by Wagner; his operas and operettas enjoyed a certain measure of success during his lifetime. At his death he left an unfinished opera, ...


Margaret Cranmer

[Johann Christoph ]

(b Fürth, nr Nuremburg, June 14, 1726; bur. London, Dec 5, 1790). English harpsichord and piano maker of German origin. He may have worked for the Silbermanns and was the most famous of the German keyboard instrument makers known as the ‘12 Apostles’, who emigrated to London about the time of the Seven Years War. Zumpe worked briefly for Burkat Shudi, and married Elizabeth Beeston on 3 December, 1760 before setting up his own shop ‘at the sign of the Golden Guittar’ in Princes Street, Hanover Square, in 1761. There he probably made a few harpsichords, before commencing his successful square piano business. Fétis (1851) wrote that his first lessons were on a Zumpe piano dated 1762. J.C. Bach probably acted as an agent for Zumpe pianos, which in 1771 cost 18 guineas each.

An early Zumpe square, dated 1766, is preserved in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart. It has a compass ...


Zumpe-style single action from a 1775 square piano inscribed as by Jacob and Abraham Kirkman


Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...


(b Sachsenflur, nr Mergentheim, Jan 10, 1760; d Stuttgart, Jan 27, 1802). German composer and conductor. His father was in military service before becoming a personal servant of Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg. After the early death of his mother, Zumsteeg received a good general education at the Carlsschule in Stuttgart, the military academy founded by the duke, where he became friendly with Schiller and the sculptor Johann Heinrich Dannecker (who made a bust of him). Zumsteeg was originally intended for a career as a sculptor, but his musical talent showed itself early. He studied the cello with the chamber virtuoso Eberhard Malterre and from 1775 with the cello soloist and court Kapellmeister, Agostino Poli, who also taught him composition. Zumsteeg’s first works, among them most of the ten surviving cello concertos, were composed during his student days. The most significant works of this period are the melodramatic setting of Klopstock’s ode ...


Sarah L. Martin

(b Hochdorf, Germany, Dec 10, 1815; d Cannstadt, Germany, July 1882). German organist and composer, active in the United States. Zundel received his first music education at the Royal Academy of Esslingen, Württemberg (1829–31). In 1833 he taught music at a seminary in Esslingen, at the same time studying violin with Molique, but gave up that instrument for the organ. In 1840 he moved to St Petersburg, Russia, where he was organist at St Anne’s Lutheran Church and Bandmaster of the Imperial Horse Guards. He came to the United States in 1847 and, after serving various churches briefly, he became organist at Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn (1850–78, with some interruptions). Zundel is probably best known for his hymn tune “Beecher” (sometimes called “Love Divine” or “Zundel”), written in 1870 and named for his popular preacher, Henry Ward Beecher. Zundel wrote many hymn tunes, composed music for the organ suitable for church services, wrote sacred and vocal music, and published instructional texts, including ...




John Tyrrell


(b Prague, June 21, 1840; d Prague, April 22, 1894). Czech translator and librettist. He made a living for himself through journalism and translating plays (over a hundred), operas and operettas (about 60). He also wrote original plays himself and some opera librettos, mostly adaptations of foreign sources. His best-known libretto, The Two Widows, was the most professional libretto Smetana ever set. It is basically trochaic (ideal for the polka metres used in the opera) with plenty of contrasting metrical variation. Züngel was poorly paid for his pains, though this did not stand in the way of his providing 28 more pages of additional text when Smetana turned the work into a continuously-sung opera.

Dvěvdovy [The Two Widows], Smetana, 1874, rev. 1878, 1882; Natalie (after W. A. Gerle), J. Hartl, 1885; Cesta oknem [The Way through the Window], Kovařovic, 1886 ČSHS [lists further translations and bibliography]...



Barbara Tedlock

revised by Victoria Lindsay Levine

(Zuni A:shiwi)

Native American tribe. With a population of more than 9000, it is the largest Pueblo group in the United States. In their own language, which is an isolate, the Zunis call themselves A:shiwi. Their pueblo is located in western New Mexico. Along with other Pueblo peoples, the Zunis are the descendants of Ancestral Puebloans, who settled in what is now the southwestern United States thousands of years ago. Zuni musical culture has been a topic of scholarly research since the late 1800s.

Zuni traditional music includes a large repertory of prayer chants, songs in stories, songs to accompany war and harvest dances, children’s game songs, and lullabies. However, their three major musical categories include songs to accompany corn grinding, medicine songs, and kachina dance songs. The repertory for each major musical category includes several distinct genres with hundreds of songs. Music theory is highly developed in Zuni culture; the Zuni language contains a rich musical nomenclature, such as terms for song and dance genres, vocal registers and ornaments, song sections, melodic contours, rhythmic figures, and musical instruments, as well as dance positions, steps, gestures, and performance cues....


Zuni musicians performing on wooden flute, pueblo cottonwood drum, and deer-toe rattles, Albuquerque. Angel Wynn



Alan R. Thrasher

(‘sitting chime’) [qing]

Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.

Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.

See also...


Bojan Bujic

(b Schrötten, nr Hengsberg, July 27, 1734; d Kamnik, April 11, 1810). Slovenian composer. In 1749 he was mentioned in the register of the Jesuit University in Graz. In 1757 he went to Kamnik near Ljubljana as a music teacher and by 1773 he was referred to as Civis chori regens. He is likely to have taken part in the activities of the Accademische Confoederation Sanctae Caeciliae, a church music society which existed at Kamnik between 1731 and 1784. Some time during the 1780s he wrote the opera Belin, which would make it the first opera of its kind in Slovene, and among the first to be written in any Slavonic language. Zupan’s surviving works show that he was close to the style of the mid-18th-century South German School of church music.

all extant works pubd in MAMS, xxxvi–xxxviii (Ljubljana, 2000)