Zulu isithontolo (mouth-resonated musical bow)
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(b Cereté, July 18, 1945). Colombian composer. He completed his undergraduate studies in composition at the National University of Colombia (1970) and was granted a scholarship to study in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, where he twice won the Grand Prix de Composition (1971, 1973) and experimented with electronic techniques under the supervision of Pierre Schaeffer. He returned to Colombia (1973), then lived in New York (1978–80), working as a composer and arranger for Eddie Palmieri and his Fania All Stars Orchestra. After working from 1982–6 with the Bogotá PO, he was cultural attaché of the Colombian Embassy in Bonn (1986–90); during this period he travelled extensively in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, lecturing about his music and giving concerts. He returned to the USA in 1991.
As a composer Zumaqué was committed to bridging the gap between erudite music and urban and traditional music. His first CD, ...
Craig H. Russell
(b c1678; d Antequerra, Valle de Oaxaca, Dec 21, 1755). Mexican composer and organist. He probably entered the service of Mexico City Cathedral in about 1690, and quickly established a reputation as a prodigy. His name first appears in a document dated 25 May 1694, when the cathedral chapter granted him financial assistance after his father’s untimely death and arranged for him to study the organ with the cathedral’s principal organist, José de Ydiáquez, and composition with the maestro de capilla, Antonio de Salazar.
In honour of the birth of Prince Luis, Zumaya wrote a play, Rodrigo, which was staged on 25 August 1707, possibly with music also by Zumaya. The following year he became second organist at the cathedral, and in 1710, despite protestations from the older and more experienced Francisco de Atienza, he was appointed interim maestro de capilla and took on some of the ailing Salazar’s teaching duties at the ...
(b Oppach, April 9, 1850; d Munich, Sept 4, 1903). German conductor and composer. Trained at the teachers’ seminary at Bautzen (where he also received a thorough musical education), Zumpe taught in the local school at Weigsdorf in 1870–71, then went as a teacher to Leipzig, where he furthered his musical studies with Tottmann. He turned to music completely when Wagner called him to Bayreuth in 1872 (an association which became the main influence in his development) to assist in the completion of the Ring score. As a conductor he travelled widely throughout Germany and held important positions in Stuttgart (1891), Schwerin (1897) and Munich (1895 and 1900). He also visited London (conducting Wagner at Covent Garden in 1898), Odessa, Madrid and St Petersburg. An energetic and intelligent conductor, he was regarded in his day, especially in Wagner’s music, as comparable to Richter, Mottl and Levi. As a composer he was strongly influenced by Wagner; his operas and operettas enjoyed a certain measure of success during his lifetime. At his death he left an unfinished opera, ...
[Johann Christoph ]
(b Fürth, nr Nuremburg, June 14, 1726; bur. London, Dec 5, 1790). English harpsichord and piano maker of German origin. He may have worked for the Silbermanns and was the most famous of the German keyboard instrument makers known as the ‘12 Apostles’, who emigrated to London about the time of the Seven Years War. Zumpe worked briefly for Burkat Shudi, and married Elizabeth Beeston on 3 December, 1760 before setting up his own shop ‘at the sign of the Golden Guittar’ in Princes Street, Hanover Square, in 1761. There he probably made a few harpsichords, before commencing his successful square piano business. Fétis (1851) wrote that his first lessons were on a Zumpe piano dated 1762. J.C. Bach probably acted as an agent for Zumpe pianos, which in 1771 cost 18 guineas each.
An early Zumpe square, dated 1766, is preserved in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum, Stuttgart. It has a compass ...
Zumpe-style single action from a 1775 square piano inscribed as by Jacob and Abraham Kirkman
Marcia J. Citron
(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.
Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...
(b Sachsenflur, nr Mergentheim, Jan 10, 1760; d Stuttgart, Jan 27, 1802). German composer and conductor. His father was in military service before becoming a personal servant of Duke Carl Eugen of Württemberg. After the early death of his mother, Zumsteeg received a good general education at the Carlsschule in Stuttgart, the military academy founded by the duke, where he became friendly with Schiller and the sculptor Johann Heinrich Dannecker (who made a bust of him). Zumsteeg was originally intended for a career as a sculptor, but his musical talent showed itself early. He studied the cello with the chamber virtuoso Eberhard Malterre and from 1775 with the cello soloist and court Kapellmeister, Agostino Poli, who also taught him composition. Zumsteeg’s first works, among them most of the ten surviving cello concertos, were composed during his student days. The most significant works of this period are the melodramatic setting of Klopstock’s ode ...
Sarah L. Martin
(b Hochdorf, Germany, Dec 10, 1815; d Cannstadt, Germany, July 1882). German organist and composer, active in the United States. Zundel received his first music education at the Royal Academy of Esslingen, Württemberg (1829–31). In 1833 he taught music at a seminary in Esslingen, at the same time studying violin with Molique, but gave up that instrument for the organ. In 1840 he moved to St Petersburg, Russia, where he was organist at St Anne’s Lutheran Church and Bandmaster of the Imperial Horse Guards. He came to the United States in 1847 and, after serving various churches briefly, he became organist at Henry Ward Beecher’s Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn (1850–78, with some interruptions). Zundel is probably best known for his hymn tune “Beecher” (sometimes called “Love Divine” or “Zundel”), written in 1870 and named for his popular preacher, Henry Ward Beecher. Zundel wrote many hymn tunes, composed music for the organ suitable for church services, wrote sacred and vocal music, and published instructional texts, including ...
(b Prague, June 21, 1840; d Prague, April 22, 1894). Czech translator and librettist. He made a living for himself through journalism and translating plays (over a hundred), operas and operettas (about 60). He also wrote original plays himself and some opera librettos, mostly adaptations of foreign sources. His best-known libretto, The Two Widows, was the most professional libretto Smetana ever set. It is basically trochaic (ideal for the polka metres used in the opera) with plenty of contrasting metrical variation. Züngel was poorly paid for his pains, though this did not stand in the way of his providing 28 more pages of additional text when Smetana turned the work into a continuously-sung opera.Dvěvdovy [The Two Widows], Smetana, 1874, rev. 1878, 1882; Natalie (after W. A. Gerle), J. Hartl, 1885; Cesta oknem [The Way through the Window], Kovařovic, 1886 ČSHS [lists further translations and bibliography]...
revised by Victoria Lindsay Levine
Native American tribe. With a population of more than 9000, it is the largest Pueblo group in the United States. In their own language, which is an isolate, the Zunis call themselves A:shiwi. Their pueblo is located in western New Mexico. Along with other Pueblo peoples, the Zunis are the descendants of Ancestral Puebloans, who settled in what is now the southwestern United States thousands of years ago. Zuni musical culture has been a topic of scholarly research since the late 1800s.
Zuni traditional music includes a large repertory of prayer chants, songs in stories, songs to accompany war and harvest dances, children’s game songs, and lullabies. However, their three major musical categories include songs to accompany corn grinding, medicine songs, and kachina dance songs. The repertory for each major musical category includes several distinct genres with hundreds of songs. Music theory is highly developed in Zuni culture; the Zuni language contains a rich musical nomenclature, such as terms for song and dance genres, vocal registers and ornaments, song sections, melodic contours, rhythmic figures, and musical instruments, as well as dance positions, steps, gestures, and performance cues....
Zuni musicians performing on wooden flute, pueblo cottonwood drum, and deer-toe rattles, Albuquerque.
Nativestock.com/Marilyn Angel Wynn
Alan R. Thrasher
(‘sitting chime’) [qing]
Bowl-shaped resting bell of the Han Chinese. The bell is hammered out of bronze and constructed in various sizes, medium-sized instruments ranging from 10 to 15 cm in diameter. The zuoqing rests on a cushion and is struck at the rim with a padded beater. A 9th-century Buddhist bell (24 cm in diameter, 19 cm deep) found in a Tang dynasty site is one of earliest of this type reported. The scholar Chen Yang, in his treatise Yueshu (c1100), called this type a bronze bowl (tongbo) but the name zuoqing (or qing) is now most common. Used in Buddhist temples, the bell is usually paired with a muyu (‘wooden fish’) of a similar size, and struck to punctuate the chanting of monks and nuns.Liu Dongsheng and others, eds.: Zhongguo yueqi tujian [Pictorial Guide to Chinese Instruments] (Ji’nan, 1992), 85 only.
(b Schrötten, nr Hengsberg, July 27, 1734; d Kamnik, April 11, 1810). Slovenian composer. In 1749 he was mentioned in the register of the Jesuit University in Graz. In 1757 he went to Kamnik near Ljubljana as a music teacher and by 1773 he was referred to as Civis chori regens. He is likely to have taken part in the activities of the Accademische Confoederation Sanctae Caeciliae, a church music society which existed at Kamnik between 1731 and 1784. Some time during the 1780s he wrote the opera Belin, which would make it the first opera of its kind in Slovene, and among the first to be written in any Slavonic language. Zupan’s surviving works show that he was close to the style of the mid-18th-century South German School of church music.
all extant works pubd in MAMS, xxxvi–xxxviii (Ljubljana, 2000)
revised by Vjera Katalinic
(b Šibenik, Croatia, July 21, 1925; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 18, 2004). Croatian musicologist and composer . He studied romance and Slavonic languages at the University of Zagreb, graduating in 1950, and musicology at the Academy of Music in Zagreb, where he graduated in 1953. In 1965 he was awarded the doctorate at the University of Ljubljana with a dissertation on Vatroslav Lisinski. He also studied composition in Ljubljana under L.M. Škerjanc (graduated in 1971). He taught in schools in Zagreb (1950–61) and at the Zagreb Pedagogic Academy (1961–78); from 1978 until his retirement in 1990, he taught in the department of musicology at the Zagreb Academy of Music. From 1971 he was a full member of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts. In his early career his main interest was Croatian Romantic music, and later he concentrated on Croatian music of the 16th and 17th centuries. He has been awarded the Prize of the City of Zagreb for his extensive study of the life and works of Lisinski, several prizes by the Varaždin Baroque Evenings Festival for his musicological work, and by the town of Šibenik for his entire output (...
Barbara A. Peterson
revised by Theresa Koenig
(b Pittsburgh, PA, Nov 14, 1932). American Composer. He studied with Vincent Persichetti at the Juilliard School (BS 1956, BM 1957). He received a Fulbright grant that enabled him to study with Karl Schiske at the Vienna Academy of Music (1958–9) and with Michael Gottfried Koenig at the University of Utrecht, spending a total of five years in Europe. Additionally, he studied with Aaron Copland, with Otto Luening, and at Columbia University, where he learned about electronic music. Zupko was a Ford Foundation/MENC composer-in-residence in Lubbock, Texas (1961–2), and then in Joliet, Illinois (1966–7). After these residencies ended, Zupko taught theory and founded the first Electronic Music Studio in Chicago at the Chicago Musical College at Roosevelt University (1967–71). From 1971 to 1997, he was a member of the faculty at Western Michigan University, where he taught composition and theory and founded and directed the Studio for Electronic and Computer Music. Zupko’s music first came to international prominence when his Violin Concerto won first prize in the Premio Città di Trieste in ...
Ferdinand J. de Hen
Jonathan P.J. Stock
(b Beijing, July 24, 1927). Chinese composer. His career is representative of those of a generation of Chinese composers and performers. Displaced several times during the war with the Japanese, he was educated in Beijing, Wuhan and Chongqing; he graduated from the Nanjing National Music College in 1947 and the Central Conservatory in 1950. After briefly teaching composition at the Central Conservatory (1952–3), Wu won a scholarship to study with Y. Messner at the Tchaikovsky Conservatory in Moscow. He returned to the Central Conservatory in Beijing in 1958, becoming its head in 1982. During the Cultural Revolution he was chief music critic for the daily newspaper Guangming ribao (1970–73) and head of the composition team attached to the Central Philharmonia (1972–4). He contributed to the composition of the small number of works approved by the Gang of Four. His theoretical writings include ...