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William Kirk Bares

(b New York, NY, May 18, 1930; d Paris, France, April 2, 2010). American Jazz trombonist, bass trumpeter, and author. He is most widely known in musical circles for his work in Miles Davis’s Birth of the Cool band in 1948. Zwerin is better known to readers as a jazz contributor to Esquire, Playboy, Rolling Stone, Vogue, and Elle, and also as America’s preeminent European jazz correspondent. After a stint as a jazz critic for New York’s Village Voice (1964–9), he became the publication’s European editor (1969–71). In 1979 Zwerin became the Paris-based jazz critic for the International Herald Tribune, and in 2005 for Bloomberg News. His expatriate experiences are detailed with wit and candor in the autobiographical The Parisian Jazz Chronicles: an Improvisational Memoir (New Haven, 2005). His books La Tristesse de Saint Louis: Jazz under the Nazis (1987, reprinted as ...

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Karl Pfannhauser

[Johann Nepomuk Felix ]

(b Weitra, Lower Austria, bap. June 5, 1759; d Vienna, Aug 30, 1826). Austrian composer . He was a choirboy at the Schottenkloster in Vienna, studied humanities at Krems an der Donau and completed a philosophy course in Vienna. In 1778 he entered the Schottenkloster and in 1783 became a Benedictine priest; he was a priest (1786–1802) at the Laurenzkirche in the parish of Schottenfeld, Vienna, and parish administrator (1802–7) at the Ägydkirche in the Viennese suburb of Gumpendorf, where Haydn was also living. From 18 July 1807 until his death Zwetler was a prior and parish administrator at the Schottenkloster. He did much to improve its music, particularly during the period of peace (1815–48) that followed the Vienna Congress. Under him J.L. Eybler was the choir director, followed in 1824 by Ignaz Assmayr (1790–1862), and Franz Volkert (1778–1845) was the organist. During his administration the abbey’s archive and repertory were enriched by many works of the Classical masters, and Joseph Frühwald (...

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Victor H. Mattfeld

(b Konstanz, c1496; d Bischofszell, Oct 23, 1542). Swiss reformer, poet and hymnographer . In 1509 he entered Freiburg University to study law, where he met and became a friend of the humanist Bonifacius Amerbach. In 1518 he was ordained and, with his brother, matriculated at Bologna University, later going to study law at Siena University. In 1521 he became instructor in jurisprudence at Basle University and continued his studies in theology. At about this time he became a follower of Luther and eschewed humanism. In 1522 he married and took a parish at Riedlingen. Because of his Reformation activities he was ordered to appear in Rome in September 1524, but when he ignored this it was not pursued. However, because the peasants considered him a member of their party in the Peasants' War of 1525, he was expelled from Riedlingen. Later in the same year he assumed a pastorate in Konstanz where, with his brother Konrad and the brothers Ambrosius and Thomas Blarer, he was to become a leader of the reform movement....

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Zwickau  

Martin Schoppe

City in eastern Germany, dating from about 1200. The cathedral (St Marien) was consecrated in 1118, and in 1291 a city school was founded; its pupils provided music for the cathedral, but by 1470 the latter had appointed its own precentor. Typical of many medieval cities, it held performances of mystery plays and Latin comedies, and, in the early 16th century, Protestant plays at the school. The school day began and ended with choral singing; its library, established in 1537, contains some valuable manuscripts, including two volumes of music in a 15-volume original manuscript of Hans Sachs. The city was also a centre for itinerant musicians, a tradition which continued until 1846. On public occasions music was usually provided by the guild of Stadtpfeifers, employed by the city from the mid-15th century; by the mid-16th century there is evidence of an official Stadtpfeiferei. 16th-century precentors at the cathedral included Simon Cellarius, Cornelius Freundt and Johann Stolle. Zwickau's cultural life suffered during the Thirty Years War and as a result of the plagues of ...

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K. Robert Schwarz

(b Miami, April 30, 1939). American composer and violinist. She studied with John Boda at Florida State University (BM 1960, MM 1962), then moved to New York to study the violin with Galamian. As a member of the American SO under Stokowski, she acquired invaluable training in performance and orchestration. Eventually, she enrolled at the Juilliard School, where she studied with Carter and Sessions and, in 1975, became the first woman to take the DMA in composition. Meanwhile, performances of her music began occurring with increasing frequency: Symposium for orchestra (1973) was conducted by Boulez, the String Quartet 1974 was played at the ISCM World Music Days in Boston and the Sonata in Three Movements (1973–4) was performed by her husband, the violinist Joseph Zwilich. Symphony no.1, first performed in 1982 by the American Composers Orchestra under Schuller, brought her international renown in ...

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Elizabeth Norman McKay

(‘The Twin Brothers’)

Posse in one act by Franz Schubert to a libretto by Georg von Hofmann after a French vaudeville Les deux Valentins; Vienna, Kärntnertortheater, 14 June 1820.

Schubert received this, his first theatrical commission, at the end of 1818 and completed the work in January 1819. The naive plot is a love story in a pastoral setting complicated by problems of mistaken identity: twin brothers, Franz and Friedrich (played by the one baritone soloist), return separately to their village, the first of them expecting to marry Lieschen (soprano), who is already betrothed to Anton (tenor). Schubert was surely incapable of composing the simple, tuneful melodies and light accompaniments customary in the artless verse patterns of plays of this type. He adopted instead the romantic Singspiel style of such composers as Weigl and Gyrowetz, responding more to the love interest than to the farcical element, thus creating an imbalance between text and music. The rhapsodical sentiments of the young lovers drew him to add new if not entirely appropriate dimensions to the play: tender, lyrical melodies, fine tone-painting which includes nature imagery of great charm, and ensembles in which he used some of the techniques of Rossini, whose operas were becoming increasingly popular in Vienna. The finest music comes in Lieschen’s aria (no.3) ‘Der Vater mag wohl immer Kind mich nennen’, in the brilliant little quartet (no.5) ‘Zu rechter Zeit bin ich gekommen’, and in the energetic quintet with chorus (no.9) ‘Packt ihn, führt ihn vor Gericht’....

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Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, May 7, 1955). German pianist, brother of Torsten Zwingenberger. He studied classical piano from the age of six and adopted the boogie-woogie style in 1973. From 1974 he performed at numerous boogie-woogie, blues, and jazz festivals and broadcast frequently on television and radio throughout Europe, and between 1983 and 1991 he made regular appearances on the television program “ZDF-Teleillustrierte.” In addition he toured with Monty Sunshine and Max Collie (both 1978) and Alexis Korner (March 1979), recorded in Los Angeles with Joe Turner (ii) (May 1978, 1981), and toured and recorded with Lionel Hampton (April–May 1980, 1982, 1983) and the blues singer Champion Jack Dupree (October 1980, 1988, 1990). From the early 1980s Zwingenberger toured in the shows Stars of Boogie Woogie and Hot Jazz Meeting, and he made tours of East Asia (1981), Indonesia and Malaysia (...

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Gary W. Kennedy

(b Hamburg, Germany, Jan 12, 1959). German drummer, brother of Axel Zwingenberger. From the mid-1970s he led his own groups and performed and recorded regularly with his brother; in 1978 the two recorded in Los Angeles as accompanists to Joe Turner (ii). In 1983 Zwingenberger made the album Buddy Tate Meets Torsten Zwingenberger (Moustache Music 120159) and formed the Swingburger Quintet, and in the 1990s he led a quartet. He recorded again as a leader in 1989 (with Plas Johnson as his guest soloist) and in 1993 (the album Open Sunroof, Blackbird 41012) and as an unaccompanied soloist in 1991. In November 1992 he played in New York in a hard-bop trio with Peter Bernstein and the double bass player Ari Roland.

ReclamsJ “Jazz News,” JP, 32/7 (1983), 37 A. Geyer: “Buddy Tate und Torsten Zwingenberger Band,” JP, 37/1 (1988), 35 C. Hasenmaile: “Moderner geworden: Torsten Zwingenberger,” JP...

Article

Robin A. Leaver

[Huldreich ]

(b Wildhaus, Jan 1, 1484; d Cappel, Oct 11, 1531). Swiss humanist and church reformer . Of all the reformers of the 16th century he was the most musically gifted and yet the most antagonistic towards the use of music in public worship. He was educated first in Basle, then in Berne where he came under the influence of the poet, composer and humanist scholar Wölflin. While in Berne, at the age of 12 Zwingli entered the chapel choir of the local monastery simply to further his musical ambitions. Many of his contemporaries (e.g. Bullinger and Myconius) commented on his extraordinary musical gifts. Wyss (see Finsler, 1901) wrote:

I have never heard about anyone who, in the musical arts – that is, in singing and all the instruments of music, such as lute, harp, large viol, small viol, pipes, German flute … the trumpet, dulcimer, cornett, and waldhorn, and whatever else of such like had been invented … could take it to hand as quickly as he....

Article

Michael Tilmouth

(Ger.: ‘interlude’)

An interlude or intermezzo. The term has been applied to musical interludes that serve simply to entertain between the acts of operatic works of the 19th and 20th centuries, although ‘entr’acte’ or ‘Entrakt’ has often been preferred even in German-speaking countries. It has also been used of those interludes that contribute to the essential dramatic structure of the whole, e.g. the Zwischenspiel between Acts 1 and 2 of Schoenberg’s Moses und Aron; ‘Siegfrieds Rheinfahrt’ is described as a Zwischenspiel in some editions of Götterdämmerung, though it is doubtful whether Wagner himself so described it.

In writings about music the word is commonly used of the episodes in a fugue or rondo, the orchestral tuttis of a concerto, the purely instrumental interludes in a song accompaniment, organ interludes between the stanzas of a congregational hymn or the passages between statements of the chorale tune in a chorale prelude and, rather loosely, of the ...

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Article

Luise Marretta-Schär

(Johann Josef Maria )

(b Bauen, canton of Uri, Nov 17, 1808; d Mehrerau, nr Bregenz, Nov 19, 1854). Swiss composer . He is best remembered for Trittst im Morgenrot daher, now the Swiss national anthem. At the age of 12 he entered the school of Wettingen Abbey. There he studied the piano, organ, violin and guitar, the last-named remaining his favourite instrument. He took his final vows as a Cistercian monk in 1827 and was ordained priest in 1832. He became secretary to the abbot, a music teacher and an organ specialist, but his main post was that of Kapellmeister; he contributed to the abbey's reputation as a distinguished centre of the arts.

In 1841 the radicals resolved to abolish the Aargau monasteries and the monks were dispersed; Zwyssig was offered several outstanding positions, which he declined, preferring to remain in attendance on his abbot. A nomadic existence followed, during which they stayed in St Karl (near Zug) for some time; there Zwyssig composed ...

Article

Zydeco  

Mark F. DeWitt

Regional accordion-based music for partner dancing, originating from traditional music of Afro-French Creoles of rural southwest Louisiana and influenced by Cajun music and African American popular music genres such as urban blues, rhythm-and-blues, and hip hop.

In the context of zydeco, “Creole” as an ethnic term refers to persons of African descent with francophone family histories that may also include French, Spanish, Native American, and other backgrounds. This usage of the contested term Creole varies somewhat in New Orleans, on the opposite (east) side of the Atchafalaya Basin. Cajun music and zydeco developed in parallel in the same region of the United States, borrowed extensively from each other, and took advantage of the same regional recording industry. (See also Creole music and European American music: French American music .)

The terms “Creole music,” “French music,” and la-la are often used to refer more specifically to an older style of Creole dance music with Afro-Caribbean elements that predates zydeco. A dance held in someone’s home was known as a ...

Article

Lothar Knessl

(b Vienna, April 29, 1935). Austrian composer and pianist. He studied at the Vienna Music Academy, where his teachers included Karl Schiske (composition), Bruno Seidlhofer and Josef Dichler (piano). He also attended the Darmstadt summer courses (1958, 1964–6), winning the Kranichstein Music Prize of the international piano competition on his first visit. In 1965, with Kurt Schwertsik and H.K. Gruber, he founded the neo-tonal and ironically intended Salonkonzerte, through which he hoped to counter a view of ‘music as a substitute religion’. After 1967 the group developed into the MOBart & toneART ensemble, whose productions, linking performance, music and language, related to the ‘instrumental theatre’ movement. Zykan's most characteristic works are his ‘total art productions’, in which processes of permutation extend to movement, sounds and linguistic elements alike, sometimes producing compromise and sometimes distortion, and often reducing critical comment to the absurd. As his creative work has been conceived entirely in relation to the present, a number of his works exist only in a sketch-like draft form. He has mostly dispensed with publication, since the majority of his works depend on his personal interpretation. As a result, a number of compositions have been lost. He has also created TV advertisements for well-known firms....

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Irena Poniatowska

(b Żary or Laskowiec, Feb 13, 1796 or 1793; d Warsaw, June 19, 1867). Polish tenor and conductor . He studied the violin and then made his début as a singer in Paisiello’s La frascatana at Minsk (1814). He sang at Vilnius (1815–23, 1838 and 1851...

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Alan Blyth

(b Landvarov, nr Vilnius, Jan 23, 1935). Polish soprano . She studied at Łódź and made her début in 1957 at Kraków as Halka. After winning the 1960 Munich radio prize she sang at Oberhausen, Dortmund (1962) and Düsseldorf (1965–70). She appeared as Octavian at Glyndebourne (1965), made her Covent Garden début in 1968 as Violetta, then sang Countess Almaviva, Donna Elvira and Desdemona, a role she took to La Scala in 1977. She made her Metropolitan début in 1968 as Donna Elvira; later roles there included Tatyana, Suor Angelica, Fiordiligi, Elsa (Lohengrin), Elisabeth (Tannhäuser), Marguerite, the Marschallin, Mimì, Tosca, Butterfly and Manon Lescaut. She sang throughout Europe and the USA, her repertory including Adriana Lecouvreur, Amelia (Un ballo in maschera), Leonora (Il trovatore), Liù, Lisa (The Queen of Spades), Maddalena de Coigny, and both the Composer and Ariadne. Zylis-Gara was also admired as a concert singer and recitalist. She was a dignified yet impassioned actress, and had a fresh, lyric voice, notable for its smoothness of production. Among her recordings are a radiant Composer under Kempe....

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Jacqueline Avila

(b Mexico City, June 21, 1956). American composer and professor, born in Mexico. Zyman began his training in Mexico City, where he studied with flutist Héctor Jaramillo and pianist José Calatayud. He later studied piano and conducting at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música del INBA and composition with Humberto Hernández Medrano, earning a diploma in piano performance in 1980. He continued his musical studies in New York at the Juilliard School (MM 1984, DMA 1987) under the guidance of Stanley Wolfe, Roger Sessions, and David Diamond. Since 1987 Zyman has been on the Juilliard faculty in the department of Literature and Materials of Music. His musical works include two symphonies; concertos for piano, guitar, and harp; several symphonic pieces and chamber works; pieces for voice; and a sonata for solo guitar. Zyman also composed an original symphonic score to the film La otra conquista (The other conquest, ...

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Zofia Chechlińska

[Živný; Vojtěch, Zhyvny, Ziwny, Żiwny, Zwiny]

(b Bohemia, May 13, 1756; d Warsaw, Feb 21, 1842). Polish piano teacher and composer of Bohemian origin. He studied the violin, the piano, harmony and counterpoint with Jan Kuchař in Bohemia, where his earliest compositions were also written. After a probable stay in Stuttgart and Zweibrücken, he arrived in Poland some time during the reign of Stanisław August (1764–95). For three years he worked at the court of Prince Kazimierz Sapieha; he then moved to Warsaw, where within a short time he became one of the most successful piano teachers. Of the large number of pianists who studied with Żywny, the most famous was Chopin, whom Żywny taught from 1816 until 1822. Chopin thought highly of him, saying that, ‘with Żywny and Elsner the greatest ass would learn’; and the greatness of the pupil helped to spread the fame of the teacher. It was Żywny who eventually decided to discontinue Chopin’s lessons, feeling that there was nothing further he could teach him. Żywny wrote a number of works for the piano, including sonatas, preludes and polonaises, as well as lieder and overtures. None of his works were published and nearly all are lost. (...