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Claude Conyers

(b Kansas City, MO, Dec 21, 1950). American modern dancer, choreographer, and company director. She was trained in various styles of show dancing by Joseph Stevenson, who had been a student of the famed dance anthropologist Katherine Dunham. Zollar followed in Dunham’s scholarly footsteps, eventually earning a master’s degree in fine arts at Florida State University, where she also studied ballet and modern dance. In ...

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David Flanagan, Géza Gábor Simon and Barry Kernfeld

(b Visegrad, nr Budapest, June 13, 1927; d Townshend, VT, Jan 26, 1998). Hungarian guitarist. He grew up in a musical family and first studied violin and trumpet; he changed to guitar when he decided to make music his career. After playing in Budapest with Mihály Tabányi’s Pinocchio Ensemble (...

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George Gelles and Peter Schmelz

(b Höhr, Westerwald, Aug 24, 1928; d Berlin, July 29, 2005). German flautist . He trained at the Musikhochschule in Frankfurt and at the Northwest German Music Academy in Detmold. While still a student he won first prize in the 1947 competition sponsored by German radio in Frankfurt. After completing his studies in ...

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(b St Gallen, July 1707; d St Gallen, Aug 12, 1779). Swiss composer . He came from a St Gallen family whose history can be traced back to the 15th century. In 1728 he completed his theological education, and from that time he was active in the service of the church and school in his native city. He was often involved in disputes with the clerical authorities; in ...

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Deane L. Root and Michael Musgrave

(b Mittelhausen, Thuringia, May 17, 1800; d Leipzig, Sept 25, 1860). German choral director and composer. He was first taught music by his father, a schoolteacher, and in Leipzig from 1814 he studied music at the Thomasschule with J.G. Schicht, through whose influence he was appointed singing teacher at the Ratsfreischule (...

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Deane L. Root

(b Leipzig, July 4, 1854; d Freiburg, May 8, 1941). German conductor and composer, son of Carl Friedrich Zöllner. He studied music at the Leipzig Conservatory (1875–7) under Reinecke, Jadassohn and E.F. Richter, and in 1878 was appointed director of music at the University of Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia). In ...

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Lyudmila Kovnatskaya

(b Taganrog, 24 Feb/March 7, 1872 (?1873); d Moscow, May 25, 1964). Russian composer and teacher. He was the son of an employee from the Taganrog Tobacco Factory. In Rostov-on-Don in 1883 he was elected by the commission for the Court Cappella Choristers to sing in the boys’ choir. He studied with Balakirev and Lyadov at the court chapel in St Petersburg, where his gifts as a composer became apparent (under the influence of Balakirev, with whom he studied composition from ...

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Opera by N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov; see Golden Cockerel, The .

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Virko Baley

Opera-drama in four acts by Borys Mykolayovych Lyatoshyns’ky to a libretto by Yakiv Mamontov after Ivan Franko’s novel Zakhar Berkut; Odessa, 28 March 1930 (revised version, L’viv, 29 April 1970).

The opera is set in the Carpathian mountains, where the Tukholtsi live. The son Maxym (tenor) of their leader Zakhar Berkut (bass) rescues, during a hunting expedition, Myroslava (soprano), daughter of the boyar Tuhar Vovk (baritone). The two fall in love. Vovk attempts to take over some public lands and is condemned and banished by the Tukholtsi; he sides with an invading Tatar horde, but is drowned when the Tukholtsi destroy a river barrier and cause a flood. Maxym, their prisoner at the time, perishes too, but is acclaimed as a hero for sacrificing his life for his country....

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Péter Balassa

(b Gyula, March 6, 1928). Hungarian philosopher and writer on the aesthetics of music. He studied under Georg Lukács at Budapest University, where he took the CSc in philosophy. He was principal research fellow at the Institute of Philosophy of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences until ...

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Péter P. Várnai and Noël Goodwin

In 

See Peskó family

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Péter P. Várnai and Noël Goodwin

In 

See Peskó family

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István Lakatos and Octavian Cosma

(b Mărtiniş, May 31, 1929; d Tîrgu-Mureş, July 9, 1978). Romanian composer of Hungarian descent. He studied with Gábor (composition) and Ciolan (conducting) at the Cluj Academy (1946–53), where he also served as assistant lecturer in harmony (1950–56). In Tîrgu-Mureş, he edited the journal ...

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(b Brescia, 1728; d Gámbara, nr Brescia, 1809). Italian bass . He was a successful singer in Italian opera houses from 1757, and in London, 1761–2. In 1763 he was hired by the Mannheim court of Elector Carl Theodor, where he particularly excelled in serious roles and also sang successfully in ...

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Robert Münster

(b Brescia, 1715; d Munich, Jan 4, 1772). Italian bass and composer active in Germany. After philosophical and theological studies he was ordained a priest, but then dedicated himself to music. On 22 April 1752 he was hired as a bass singer in the Munich Hofkapelle. In ...

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Howard Rye

Record label. It was founded in 1899 by Frank Seamon and was continued by Victor after that company took over Seamon’s National Gramophone Corporation. After 1910 the name was not used in the USA, but it remained in use in Britain (and was later also adopted in Australia) as the Gramophone Company’s cheap label. Much of the repertory was recorded in Britain and includes some of the most highly regarded British hot dance music of the 1920s; the catalogue also contained American material recorded by Victor. Following the setting up of EMI, Zonophone was merged in ...

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Laurence Libin

Imitation or representation of animal forms in instrument design. Included under this heading is anthropomorphism, referring to human body forms. Zoomorphism appears in all areas of material culture, but sound adds an important dimension to the practice. Musical instruments of many kinds can be made to resemble animals or humans, or parts of them. These forms serve decorative, symbolic, magical, acoustical, structural, and other purposes. Worldwide since prehistory, many instruments, especially those used in rituals, have been constructed of animal parts or whole animals, or made in the shapes of animals, deities, or monsters whose ‘voices’ and powers the instruments evoke. Animal components such as hollowed horns, bones, and shells lend themselves readily to instrument fabrication, so it is not surprising that recognizable cattle and goat horns (the latter for the ...

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Christopher Fifield

(b Glogau [now Głogów], Silesia, June 1, 1826; d Leipzig, July 12, 1883). German critic and composer . At his father’s wish he studied agriculture in Breslau and Berlin, and only after the successful performance of an overture in 1850 did he decide to make music his career. He studied with A.B. Marx and Theodor Kullak at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin, where he later joined the staff to teach music theory. In Berlin he also founded an opera academy and an orchestra, but he moved to Leipzig in ...

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A term applied to a rhythm in which the second quaver in a bar of 2/4 time is accentuated, typical of some Hungarian dances, and of American ragtime.

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Geoffrey Norris

(b Venice, c1715; d ?Venice, after 1781). Italian musician. In 1739 his opera Lucio Papirio dittatore was performed in Graz by Pietro Mingotti’s Italian opera company. On 21 November 1745 he was appointed deputy Kapellmeister to the Bonn court of Archbishop Clemens August of Cologne. He held this post until ...