561-580 of 57,944 results

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(fl 16th century). Italian ecclesiastic. He invented the Phagotum.

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Africa  

Gerhard Kubik

Continent with several climate zones and a population of over 800 million (2000 estimate). The extremely diversified languages within Africa are as much the result of long-term separation of local communities during the continent's remote history as it is of borrowing and processes of transculturation triggered by trade contact, migration and economic symbiosis. These formative factors have shaped the continent's expressive forms in music, dance, art, games, theatre, and oral and written literature. These forms of expressive culture should be viewed, therefore, within the context of African historicity as configurations that have been continuously changing for thousands of years. Thus, testimony is given to the immense African resources for innovation, invention, re-invention, resilience and adaptation. This dynamic picture of African cultural history clearly makes earlier notions of ‘traditional’ societies and cultures obsolete (Kubik, ...

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Africa 2. Historical sources and research history. 3. Musical structures and cognition. (ii) Principles of timing.: Ex.3 Alo (àlọ́) Yoruba story-song (Kubik, 1960)

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Africa 2. Historical sources and research history.: Ex.2 Circular representation of call-and-response form in the Zulu work-song ‘We majola’ (Rycroft, 1967, p.91)

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Africa 3. Musical structures and cognition. (v) Multipart singing, instrumental polyphony and illusory effects.: Ex.4. Simultaneous harmonic sounds produced in Xhosa music (South Africa) and Nkhumbi/Handa (Angola) musics by application of the skipping process to a scale derived from harmonics over two fundamentals a whole tone apart: (a) Columns of partials (b) Resultant scalar layout (c) Harmonic sounds obtained by the skipping process...

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Steven Huebner

Grand opera in five acts by giacomo Meyerbeer to a libretto by eugène Scribe ; Paris, Opéra, 28 April 1865.

The genesis of L’Africaine is more complex than that of any other Meyerbeer opera. A first contract between Meyerbeer and Scribe for the production of the libretto was signed in ...

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Guthrie P. Ramsey

A term applied to distinct configurations of sound organization linked historically and socially to people of African descent living within the United States. While scholarship has identified a shared body of conceptual approaches to sound among the numerous idioms of African American music, musicians have employed them across various functional divides in American culture such as written and oral, sacred and secular, art and popular. Although African American people have been the primary innovators among these idioms, due to mass mediation, the contiguous nature of culture sharing among American ethnic groups, an ever developing and sophisticated global market system, technological advances, and music’s ability to absorb the different meanings ascribed to it, people of all backgrounds have shaped, contributed to, and excelled in this fluid yet distinct body of music making. In addition, many historians of African American music have included the activities of blacks that participated as performers and composers in the Eurological concert tradition under this rubric....

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See United States of America

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Nickname of Earl Turbinton.

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Birgitta J. Johnson

The oldest and largest black Methodist denomination in the world, with approximately four million members in the United States and abroad. The first independent African American Christian denomination, it was founded by Richard Allen and other former members of St. George’s Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Allen and Absalom Jones had formed the Free African Society in ...

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The second-largest black Methodist denomination, with 1.4 million members in the United States and abroad. The first AMEZ congregation was organized in New York in 1796. Its members were African Americans who left the John Street Methodist Episcopal Church due to rising racial discrimination, especially in worship, from the predominantly white members of the congregation. Similar circumstances had previously led Richard Allen and the black Methodists in Philadelphia to found the ...

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A congress instituted in 1970 by the International Music Council.

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Gregory F. Barz

The now defunct African Music Society was founded in 1948 by Hugh Tracey and anthropologist Winifred Hoernle, whose principal objective was to encourage research in traditional and popular musics in Africa. The society emphasized the importance of recordings to document the range and character of African indigenous music, much of which has been extremely localized due to barriers of distance and language, and through dependence on oral tradition. The society also encouraged the dissemination of musical styles through education and radio programmes. It developed into the ...

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David Toop and Margaret Jackson

(b New York, April 10, 1960). American hip-hop DJ. DJ Afrika Bambaataa’s musical eclecticism and his vision of African American unity helped to shape rap music’s early sound, and he is often credited with lending the burgeoning musical style, and the larger culture from which it emerged, the name “hip-hop.”...

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Afrika Bambaataa, 2006.

CHIP EAST/Reuters /Landov

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Val Wilmer

(b Cape Town, Oct 18, 1950). South African pianist, composer, and arranger. He grew up in the District Six area of Cape Town with the guitarist Russell Herman, studied music at the University of Cape Town, and played in various groups with Herman, including Oswietie, with which they toured South Africa and Angola. After joining Sipho Gumede in the funk-jazz group Spirits Rejoice he traveled along Africa’s west coast as far as Gabon, then in ...

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Peter Manuel

The field of Afro-Caribbean music comprises a vast and heterogeneous corpus of genres and practices, with most forms of Caribbean music evolving as syncretic products of diverse African- and European-derived elements. Many of these genres have established substantial presences in or influences on music culture in the mainland United States, whether through the activities of diasporic communities or via cross-cultural interactions....

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Gunther Schuller

A jazz style. It was created from a fusion of bop with traditional Cuban elements, that arose in the 1940s, primarily in the work of Dizzy Gillespie; it is distinguished from the more general Latin jazz by the specific influence of Cuban dance, folk and popular idioms. Although a Latin-American or Caribbean influence (Jelly Roll Morton called it the ‘Latin tinge’) is discernible in jazz from the late 19th century, the earliest use of Cuban elements is traceable only to Alberto Socarras and Mario Bauzá in the late 1930s. Afro-Cuban jazz became a clearly defined style and acquired an international following only when Gillespie, who had been influenced by Bauzá, began to collaborate with the outstanding Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo. For Gillespie, Bauzá, and others, the main impulse for the Afro-Cuban movements came from their feeling that American jazz of the 1930s and 1940s, being essentially monorhythmic, needed the kind of enrichment that an infusion of Afro-Cuban polyrhythms would provide....

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Wolfgang Bender

A style of African popular music. The term was coined in 1967 by Fela Kuti, who was known as ‘the king of Afrobeat’. Fela played Highlife music while studying music at Trinity College of Music, London (1958–63). Upon his return to Nigeria he referred to the style as ‘highlife jazz’. Geraldo Pino from Sierra Leone visited Lagos around ...

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AFRS  

Howard Rye

Broadcasting and recording organization and record label. The organization was established in 1942 as the Radio Section of the Special Service Division of the US War Department; this title appears in full on the earliest discs issued on the label, made before the name AFRS was adopted late in ...