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Article

Joanna C. Lee

revised by Edward Green

(b Yantai, China, July 28, 1923). Composer, scholar, and teacher of Chinese birth; naturalized American. As a young man, he was devoted to the study of the violin; however, in response to the Japanese invasion of his homeland, out of patriotism and a desire to help the war effort, he completed, during those tumultuous years, a full course of study as a civil engineer. Arriving in the United States (1946) to study architecture at Yale University, after just one week Chou changed his plans and enrolled at New England Conservatory, where he studied with Carl McKinley, nicolas Slonimsky , and others. In 1949 he moved to New York and took private lessons from bohuslav Martinů (1949) and edgard Varèse (1949–54), while completing his MA in composition (1954) at Columbia University—where he also studied with otto Luening . Between 1955 and 1957 he directed a research program at Columbia, with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, on classical Chinese music and drama. Working for many years as the assistant to Varèse, Chou was entrusted by the composer shortly before his death with his musical legacy. In that capacity, he completed ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Hennaard, 1926). Dutch musicologist. He studied musicology at Nijmegen University with Smijers and choral conducting at the Utrecht Conservatory. After emigrating to the USA, he was employed by San Diego State University to teach music history and conduct choirs. In 1961 he began studying for the PhD at Columbia University, which he gained in 1964 with a dissertation on trouvères chansons. He was appointed to the faculty of the Eastman School of Music of Rochester University, New York, where he remained until his retirement in 1996. His research has focussed on music pre-1300.

Chansons of the Trouvères: a Study in Rhythmic and Melodic Analysis (diss., Columbia U., 1964) ‘Recitative Melodies in Trouvère Chansons’, Festschrift für Walter Wiora, ed. L. Finscher and C.-H. Mahling (Kassel, 1967), 231–40 The Chansons of the Troubadours and Trouvères: a Study of the Melodies and their Relation to the Poems (Utrecht, 1972)...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Vienna, Aug 1, 1901; d New York, July 28, 1988). American musicologist of Austrian birth . He attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (graduated 1924) and the universities of Berlin, Graz, Göttingen, Prague and Vienna, simultaneously studying composition (with Busoni, Reitsch and Schreker), musicology (with Adler, Fischer, Lach, Ludwig, Sachs, Schünemann and Wolf) and Judaic studies. He took the doctorate in musicology (Strasbourg, 1928), with Théodore Gérold. Werner taught at Saarbrücken Conservatory (1926–33) and the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (1935–8).

In 1938 he fled the Nazi regime, emigrating to the USA where in 1939 he joined the faculty at Hebrew Union College (Cincinnati) as A.Z. Idelsohn’s successor. There he drew upon the magnificent Eduard Birnbaum collection for his early research on Jewish music. At Cincinnati he conceived the idea for a school of sacred music in New York to be linked with the Jewish Institute of Religion (founded in ...

Article

(b Zwickau, June 17, 1951). German musicologist. He completed his first degree in musicology in 1974 at the Humboldt University, Berlin, where he worked as an assistant and took the doctorate in 1980. In 1983 he founded the Forschungszentrum Populärer Musik at the Humboldt University and completed the DSc in 1986. In 1988 he joined the faculty of Carlton University, Ottawa as an adjunct professor and returned to the Humboldt University that same year to fill the post of chief research assistant in musicology. He was appointed lecturer at the university in 1990 and professor of popular music in 1993. He was a member of the editorial staff for Beiträge für Musikwissenschaft, 1974–84; other professional appointments include president (1985–93) and general secretary (1987–91) of the International Association for the Study of Popular Music, member of the editorial board of Popular Music (from 1990) and ...

Article

Clement A. Miller

[Jobst ]

(b Resel, Värmland, c1486; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Nov 12, 1552). German humanist, physician, writer and musician . The generally accepted birthdate for him is about 1486, but according to Pietzsch it is 1501. In 1516 he entered the University of Frankfurt an der Oder, where he probably studied music under Johann Volckmar. After graduating he taught music from 1522 to 1539. In 1524 Willich became professor of Greek and in 1540 professor of medicine. Although he retained his connection with the university until his death, he was frequently called to other countries (such as Poland and Hungary) because of his renown as a physician. He corresponded with Erasmus and was personally acquainted with Luther, Melanchthon and Glarean. More than 60 writings on philology, antiquity, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics and music, some of which remained current into the 18th century, gave Willich a position as one of the outstanding German humanists of his time. An ardent lutenist, he founded about ...

Article

Marie McCarthy

(b Alton, IL, Oct 16, 1938). American music educator, scholar, librarian and archivist. He obtained degrees in music education from the University of Michigan (BM 1960, MM 1964, PhD 1973). He was hired by the University of Maryland, College Park in 1968 and served there until his retirement in 2004 as Librarian IV. He was assistant professor of music and curator of the Music Educators National Conference Historical Center (1968–79), curator of Special Collections in Music (1979–94), acting head of the Music Library (1994–5), and head of the Michelle Smith Performing Arts Library (1995–2004). As curator and archivist of Special Collections in Music, Wilson built a collection that encompassed a full spectrum of archival documentation for music education, performance, scholarship, and cultural history. Beginning in the mid-1990s, he led the transformation of the institution’s Music Library into the Michelle Smith Performing Arts Library, expanding the collections to incorporate the fields of dance and theatre. In his career as a librarian, he championed the development and maintenance of archival and special collections. In his professional and scholarly activity, he fostered the study of music education history, providing guidance and support for scholars in that field....

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Bregenz, Austria, June 20, 1907). German acoustician and musicologist . He studied acoustics and natural sciences at the Berlin Technische Hochschule from 1927 and then (1932–4) worked as a qualified engineer in a studio for experimental music that he had set up at the Berlin Musikhochschule. The direction of his subsequent researches was determined to a large extent by his further study at Berlin University with Walter Nernst (working on the Neo-Bechstein) and Carl Stumpf (on the structures of music and language). In 1950 he took the doctorate in engineering, and in 1951 he completed his Habilitation at Berlin Technical University with a dissertation on acoustics. In 1950 he joined the Technical University’s faculty of humanities, teaching communications science in music and language, and became supernumerary professor in 1957. In collaboration with Boris Blacher he set up a studio for experimental music and composition there (...

Article

Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Berlin, April 17, 1869; d Munich, May 25, 1947). German musicologist . In addition to his practical music studies at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, Wolf studied musicology (under Spitta and Heinrich Bellermann) and German literature at the University of Berlin. He took the doctorate under Riemann at Leipzig in 1893 with a dissertation on an anonymous music treatise of the 11th–12th centuries. After studying medieval music sources in France and Italy he completed the Habilitation in 1902 at Berlin University with a work on Florence and 14th-century music history, and lectured on early music history and church music. From 1899 to 1903 he was secretary of the new International Music Society. He became professor in 1907. From 1908 until 1927 he also taught at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik in Berlin. In 1915 he became director of the early music collection at the Prussian State Library, Berlin, and in ...

Article

Francisco J. Albo

(b Alzey, Rheinhessen, Germany, Dec 14, 1834; d Deal Beach, NJ, July 30, 1907). American pianist, teacher, conductor, and composer of German origin. He studied with Aloys Schmitt in Frankfurt, making his début there in 1848. Later he studied with Vincenz Lachner and toured Bavaria. After a two-year stay in London, he moved to the United States in 1854, settling in Philadelphia. A scholarly performer, for the next twenty years he gave annual series of chamber music concerts and piano recitals, introducing many classical works to American audiences. He gave recitals devoted entirely to the piano music of Chopin and Schumann, a rare feat at the time. In 1866–7 he performed the complete piano sonatas of Beethoven in a series of matinées in New York. In 1873 he moved to Chicago, where he gave momentum to the musical life of the city and founded the Beethoven Society choir. His goal being education through the works of the masters, he gave several “historical” recitals with programs designed chronologically, from Couperin to Brahms. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler was one of his pupils....

Article

Lev Ginzburg

revised by Lyudmila Korabel′nikova

(Markovich )

(b Kiev, 8/Nov 21, 1905; d Moscow, Sept 20, 1976). Russian musicologist, violinist and teacher . Son of the cellist Mark Il′ich Yampol′sky (1879–1951), he studied at the Moscow Conservatory and in 1930 graduated from the violin class of his uncle, Abram Il′ich Yampol′sky. He took the kandidat degree in 1940 with a dissertation on violin fingering. He taught the violin at the Music Academy (1931–58), the Central Secondary Music School (1931–46), and at the Moscow Conservatory (1934–49), where from 1939 he also lectured on the history and theory of the violin. He was appointed a senior lecturer at the conservatory in 1940. He held several important editorial posts and in 1953 became a music critic for the Soviet Information Bureau. Yampol′sky contributed more than 1000 articles to Russian and foreign journals. He was known particularly for his book on the history of violin playing in Russia, ...

Article

Jere T. Humphreys

(b Waycross, GA, Feb 8, 1940). American music educator and scholar. She received music education degrees from Stetson University (BME 1962) and Florida State University (MME 1968, PhD 1973). She was a high school choral director in Georgia (1962–70) and on the music education faculty at Syracuse University (1973–86). While at Louisiana State University (1986–2009, emerita 2009–), she was chair of the division of music education (1986–2000) and named a Distinguished Research Master of the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (2004). In 1996, she received the Senior Researcher Award from the Music Educators National Conference, and she served as editor of the Journal of Research in Music Education (2000–06). Yarbrough is co-author (with Clifford K. Madsen) of Competency-Based Music Education (Raleigh, 1985) and author of Introduction to Scholarship in Music (San Diego, 2008...

Article

Tat′yana S. Kyuregyan

(b Kharkov, 10/June 22, 1877; d Saratov, Nov 26, 1942). Russian musicologist, music educator and pianist of Polish descent . He graduated from the Kiev College of Music, having specialized in the piano with Pukhal′sky (1894–8); he also studied mathematics at Kiev University, 1897–8. He then attended the Moscow Conservatory (1898–1903), studying the piano (with N.Ya. Shishkin) and composition (with Ippolitov-Ivanov and Taneyev) and attending Smolensky's course in the history of Russian church music. From 1921 to 1931 he was a member of the State Academy of Artistic Studies (later the State Academy of Arts), and in 1941 he was awarded an honorary doctorate.

Yavorsky's career embraced an extremely wide variety of activities. From 1903 onwards he took an active role in the Music-Ethnography Commission, which promoted the collection, study and teaching of folksong. He took a special interest in music education: he was a founder of the Moscow (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(Fell )

(b Boston, Dec 14, 1924; d Oct 24, 2005). American musicologist . He was educated at Harvard, studying with Piston, Milhaud, Davison, Gombosi, A.T. Merritt and J.M. Ward; he received the AB in 1949, the AM in 1952 and the PhD in 1957. From 1958 to 1960 he taught and directed the glee club at Williams College. In 1961, after a year on the faculty of Ohio State University, he joined the music department of New York University.

A specialist in American music, Yellin researched musical activities in the colonial period, analysed the works of contemporary American composers and wrote surveys of the musical development of the USA; he also prepared the edition of Rayner Taylor's opera The Aethiop (New York, 1994). His other areas of scholarly activity included Romantic opera, and since his student days he maintained an interest in composition.

The Life and Operatic Works of George Whitefield Chadwick...

Article

Yosihiko Tokumaru

(b Tokyo, Oct 12, 1916). Japanese musicologist . After studying Japanese literature at the Imperial University of Tokyo (BA 1941) and completing military service, he began research on music. He joined the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties (1953), becoming research director of the music and dance section (1963) and director general of the performing arts department (1964). He worked at the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music as professor (1976–84) and was appointed director of the Research Institute of the Okinawa Prefectural University of Fine Arts and Music (1986). There he founded a music faculty and established it as the centre of research on Okinawan performing arts. He has pursued a wide range of research interests on Japanese traditional performing arts. He clarified the multi-layered structure of theatre in terms of dramatic, melodic and rhythmic aspects; undertook research on ...

Article

David Scott

(b Northwich, Cheshire, May 17, 1912; d York, May 9, 2004). English writer on music and music educationist . He was educated at Christ’s Hospital (1924–30) and read English, music and history as an organ scholar at Selwyn College, Cambridge (1930–34; MusB 1933). He was director of music at Stranmillis Teachers Training College, Belfast, from 1934 until 1937, when he took the MusD at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1937 to 1944 he was music adviser to the city of Stoke on Trent. In 1944 he became director of music at Wolverhampton College of Technology; there he also formed a choir which gave many performances, particularly of lesser-known works by Handel. Since 1970 he has been a visiting scholar and lecturer at numerous colleges in the USA.

Young was an exceptionally fluent and prolific writer. His books include short popular biographies and several volumes for younger readers. Many of his more substantial writings are based on a lively, fresh and industrious, if not always highly discriminating, examination of source material; these include original research on Elgar and useful surveys of the British choral tradition and British music generally. As a composer Young was equally prolific: his works include a Fugal Concerto for two pianos and strings (...

Article

(b Yaroslavl′, June 9, 1935). Russian musicologist, son of Vsevolod Petrovich Zaderatsky. He graduated from L′viv Conservatory in musicology (1958) and as a pianist (1959) and later undertook postgraduate studies at Moscow Conservatory, studying with V.V. Protopopov among others, gaining the Kandidat degree (1968) and the DSc with a book on Stravinsky (1980). He taught at the conservatories of L'viv (1959–61), Novosibirsk (1961–3, 1965–7) and at Kiev (1967–80), where he was professor and pro-rector. In 1980 he became professor in the composition department at Moscow Conservatory and was dean of the faculty of theory and composition (1980–88). He has been actively involved in the musicology section of the Union of Composers of the USSR as chairman (1980–87), and secretary of the Union of Composers of Russia (1990–95). He has participated in the organization of international conferences and music festivals; he was artistic director and consulting expert for the joint Soviet-German festivals (...

Article

Danka Lajić-Mihajlović

(b Belgrade, Nov 16, 1960). Serbian ethnomusicologist. She was educated at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade, department of ethnomusicology, and has been employed there since 1990. Her graduate study, Diple Stare Crne Gore (Diple of Old Montenegro, [Belgrade, 1990]) was supported by the ‘Aleksandar Djordjević’ endowment. She received the MPhil degree with the thesis Instrumentalno i vokalno-instrumentalno nasleđe Zaplanja u svetlu tradicionalnog muzičkog mišljenja (Instrumental and vocal-instrumental heritage of the Zaplanje region in the light of traditional musical thinking, 1993), and the doctoral degree with the dissertation Obredne pesme zimskog polugođa: sistemi zvučnih znakova u tradiciji jugoistočne Srbije (Ceremonial songs of the winter season: systems of musical signs in the tradition of the southeastern Serbia, 2007, [Belgrade, 2009]). During her studies, she was awarded a one-year scholarship by the Republic of Serbia Commission for International Cooperation and specialized in the field of ethnoorganology at the Moscow State Conservatory ‘P.I. Tchaikovsky’. She revisited the region of southeastern Serbia multiple times during her long-term fieldwork research. Her interest in instrumental music, ritual music, and musical semiotics resulted in numerous articles. She has researched musical instruments in the Balkans from different perspectives, especially by providing complex analyses of text-context relations. Within ritual music, she is particularly interested in its communicational potential and diachronic changes. Her experience as a jury member became the basis for several studies on cultural policy regarding folk music competitions. As one of the founders and as chairman of the Serbian Ethnomusicological Society, she has been engaged in various cultural projects dedicated to the promotion and revitalization of traditional music....

Article

Othmar Wessely

revised by Walter Kreyszig

(b Innsbruck, ? after Oct 31, 1517; d Brunswick, April 5, 1587). Austrian theologian and music theorist . From 1523 or 1524 he was a chorister in King Lajos II of Hungary’s court chapel in Buda under the direction of Thomas Stoltzer. In 1526 he fled to Vienna with the widowed Queen Mary’s retinue and was accepted in Ferdinand I’s Hofkapelle in 1527. According to his own writings he received his musical training there from Heinrich Finck, Arnold von Bruck, Stephan Mahu and Johann Langkusch, and he also met Erasmus Lapicida. In August 1536 he entered the arts faculty of Vienna University; he continued his studies in Prague in 1540 and in the law faculty of Cologne University. After travelling through Germany and Brabant he returned to Innsbruck in 1542 as a tutor for the sons of noblemen. In the same year he moved to Wittenberg where he taught music at the university and studied Protestant theology there. In ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, June 28, 1939). American musicologist . He graduated from Harvard College with the BA in 1961, then began graduate studies at the Juilliard School, where he studied the flute and received the MS in 1963; he was also a flautist in the American Symphony Orchestra under Stokowski, 1962–5. He took further graduate courses at Columbia University, working with Lang and receiving the MA there in 1965 and the PhD in 1970. He then taught at the City College of CUNY from 1968 to 1970. He then joined the faculty at Cornell University, where he was made Herbert Gussman professor of music in 1995, and he was a member of the graduate faculty at Juilliard, 1988–91. In addition to his academic positions he was musicological advisor and scholar-in-residence of the Lincoln Center Festival celebration of the Mozart bicentennial, editor-in-chief of Current Musicology (1967–70) and book review editor of ...

Article

George Leotsakos

revised by Katerina Levidou

[George]

(b Cairo, Dec 17, 1947). Greek composer and musicologist. Born to Greek parents in Egypt, he settled in Athens in 1961, where he studied theory and piano at the Hellenic Conservatory (1975–7), and composition with Yannis Ioannidis (1977–81) as well as physics at the University of Athens. He then went to Paris, where he studied musicology and the aesthetics of music at the Sorbonne, Panthéon Paris 1, with Michel Guiomar and Daniel Charles, as well as ‘musique formelle’ with Xenakis. He also attended Boulez’s seminars at the Collège de France (1982–3) and spent time at IRCAM. He has taught musicology at the Athens University Faculty of Music Studies since 1995, where he is currently Permanent Assistant Professor.

Zervos is anything but a prolific composer. His work, late-romantic and expressionistic in style, reflects his musicological interest in the Second Viennese School. Meticulously conceived and elaborated, his atonal and 12-tone writing (with occasional tonal references, though), illustrated in such works as ...