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Gaynor G. Jones and Michael Musgrave

(b Wetzlar, Jan 6, 1807; d Berlin, Nov 25, 1883). German editor of folksongs, teacher, choral director and composer. He received his first musical training from his father, Adam Wilhelm Erk, who was Kantor, cathedral organist and teacher at Wetzlar. In 1813 the family moved to Dreieichenhain in Hesse-Darmstadt where Erk took piano, organ and violin lessons. After his father’s death in 1820, he went to Offenbach, where he entered J.B. Spiess’s educational institute (at which he taught from 1824). His music teachers at Offenbach were the composer Johann Anton André, the violinist C. Reinwald and the organist J.C.H. Rinck. In 1826 he was offered a temporary appointment at the teachers’ seminary at Moers on the lower Rhine; he founded and directed many music festivals in this area (including the Remscheid, Ruhrort and Duisburg festivals), and also performed as a piano soloist and in ensembles. He accepted a teaching appointment at the Royal Seminary in Berlin in ...


(b Burlada, Navarre, Oct 21, 1807; d Madrid, July 23, 1878). Spanish writer on music, editor, teacher and composer. He entered Pamplona Cathedral as a choirboy at the age of nine, and at 17 served as a violinist. He studied the piano, organ and violin with Julián Prieto and composition with Francisco Secanilla. In 1828 he became maestro de capilla at Burgo de Osma. In 1829 his appointment as maestro de capilla was frustrated at Seville Cathedral apparently by local intrigues, and at the royal chapel in Madrid by his youth. However, he was called to the post at Seville in 1832 and at the royal chapel in 1844. At Seville he took holy orders and soon met with ecclesiastical opposition to his secular operas. These three opere serie (all lost) were all written to Italian librettos and in the Italian style. Nevertheless, Eslava founded with Arrieta, Barbieri, Basili, Gaztambide, Salas and Saldoni La España Musical, a group whose aim was to foster Spanish opera. In ...


Harry Eskew

(b Virginia, 1828; d nr Nashville, TN, Sept 1875). American composer, teacher and tune book compiler. He and his brother L.C. Everett (b Virginia, 1818; d Elmira, NY, April 1867) studied music in Boston. After a brief period as a teacher in Virginia he went to Leipzig to study for a further four years. On his return he and his brother developed the ‘Everett System’ for elementary class instruction in music. R.M. McIntosh became associated with them in the L.C. Everett Company, which was located first in Richmond, Virginia, and later in Pennsylvania; before the Civil War the firm employed more than 50 teachers of vocal music in the southern and middle Atlantic states. A.B. Everett was assisted by another brother, Benjamin Holden Everett, in the compilation of his most significant collection; unlike most contemporary southern tune books, The Sceptre (New York, 1871) was published in round- rather than shape-note notation. A.B. Everett’s most popular tunes include those of the hymns ...


Richard Crawford

(b Stoughton, MA, July 15, 1754; d Simsbury, CT, May 1817). American composer, tunebook compiler, and singing master. He was an older brother of Edward French (1761–1845), a miller by trade, who was noted as a singer and also composed. Jacob was a member of a singing-school taught by William Billings at Stoughton in 1774. Between 1775 and 1781 he served in the Continental Army, and his military records describe him as a soldier, a Stoughton resident, and a “husbandman” (farmer). He presumably became a singing master after the Revolutionary War. He lived in Medway, Massachusetts, in 1789, and in July 1795 a legal document described him as a “Teacher of Musick” living in Uxbridge, Massachusetts. He is also known to have organized a singing-school in Providence (1795–6), and Genuchi reports (without documentation) that after the turn of the century he taught singing-schools in the wintertime (...


Robert Pascall

(b Frauental, Styria, May 5, 1842; d Vöslau, nr Vienna, Oct 5, 1899). Austrian conductor, teacher, editor and composer, brother of Robert Fuchs. He studied theory with Simon Sechter in Vienna and was appointed Kapellmeister of the Bratislava Opera in 1864. He then worked as an opera conductor in Brno (where his only opera, Zingara, was first produced in 1872), Kassel, Cologne, Hamburg, Leipzig and finally, from 1880, at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1873 he married the singer Anthonie Exner in Kassel. Fuchs became a professor of composition at the Vienna Conservatory in 1888 and succeeded Hellmesberger as its director in 1893; the next year he received the title of assistant Hofkapellmeister for his work at the court opera. He played an important part in preparing the Schubert Gesamtausgabe, editing the dramatic works and some of the orchestral music. He also edited operas by Handel, Gluck and Mozart and wrote songs and piano pieces....


Milton Sutter

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Friuli, ?1770; d Venice, early 1830). Italian music lexicographer, teacher and composer. He studied music in Padua with Jacopo Agnola and then went to Venice, where he taught theory and composition. There, in 1801, he published his Dizionario della musica sacra e profana, the first music dictionary in Italian, which he described as modelled on the French works by Brossard and Rousseau, and Grammatica ragionata della musica, an introduction to the elements of music and musical instruments, which included an annotated bibliography of writers on the theory and practice of music from 1500 to the end of the 18th century. Second editions of both works, the Dizionario revised and much enlarged, appeared in 1820. A reprint of this edition of the Dizionario appeared in 1830 (called the third edition on its title-page). Although much of the material in both editions of the Dizionario is superficial and incorrect, a few of the entries are useful, providing information not easily found elsewhere. In ...


Noal Cohen

[Grice, George General; Qusim, Basheer]

(b Pensacola, FL, Nov 28, 1925; d Pensacola, FL, March 14, 1983). American jazz saxophonist, flutist, composer, arranger, music publisher, and teacher. Known more as a composer and arranger than as an instrumentalist, he was nonetheless an alto saxophonist out of the Charlie Parker tradition with a lyrical bent and a recognizable style and sound. He studied clarinet initially and after serving in the US Navy (1944–6) attended the Boston Conservatory (to 1952). His first exposure came through an encounter with the saxophonist Stan Getz in Boston who recorded several of Gryce’s compositions. After moving to New York in 1953, Gryce was soon a part of the city’s vibrant milieu, recording with the drummer Max Roach and the pianist Tadd Dameron. Throughout his career, Gryce collaborated with a number of noted trumpet players including Clifford Brown, Art Farmer, Donald Byrd, and Richard Williams. With Byrd, he co-led the Jazz Lab, which made a number of highly regarded recordings in ...


Andrew Thomson

(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, March 12, 1837; d Meudon, March 29, 1911). French organist, teacher, composer and editor. He was the son of Jean-Baptiste Guilmant, organist of St Nicolas, Boulogne, who was his first teacher; he also received harmony lessons from Gustav Carulli. Devoted to the organ from an early age, he set himself an unremitting regime of practice, composition and studying treatises. At 16 he had become organist of St Joseph, and two years later his first Messe solemnelle in F was performed at St Nicolas. Soon his musical activities broadened to include teaching solfège at the Ecole Communale de Musique, playing the viola in the Société Philharmonique, and establishing an Orphéon that won a number of prizes. In 1860 he went to Brussels to study with the organist J.N. Lemmens, purportedly the inheritor of the authentic tradition of J.S. Bach. Numerous opportunities to inaugurate new organs followed, above all those of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll in Paris at St Sulpice in ...


Franz Krautwurst

[Hellerus Leucopetraeus]

(b Weissenfels, c1518; d Eisleben, c1590). German mathematician, astronomer, teacher, printer, composer and poet. He studied at the University of Wittenberg from 1536. In 1543, on Melanchthon's recommendation, he succeeded Wilhelm Breitengraser as Rektor of the St Egidien grammar school, Nuremberg. In 1546 he also became professor of mathematics at the St Egidien Gymnasium. He frequently staged school comedies. From 1551 he ran his own printing works. He was forced to leave Nuremberg in 1563 because of his controversial religious activities. He subsequently worked as astronomer to the electorate of Saxony in central Germany, mainly at Mansfeld and Eisleben. Three bicinia by him are known, a song in praise of music (in RISM 154916) and two settings of hymns by Luther (in 155120; one of the latter in K. Ameln, ed.: Luthers Kirchenlieder in Tonsätzen seiner Zeit, Kassel, 1934). Two pieces signed ‘J.H.’ in Caspar Othmayr’s ...


Stephen A. Marini

(b Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, Oct 4, 1730; d Cashaway, SC, cAug 1771). American singing master, compiler, and composer. He was the compiler of The Cashaway Psalmody (1770), a South Carolina manuscript that is the earliest surviving collection of sacred music from the colonial South. Born into poverty and orphaned by the age of 10, Hills acquired enough education to become a schoolmaster in Newcastle before 1751. In that year he was arrested for stealing books, tried, and banished to South Carolina for a term of seven years. He settled in the province’s remote Pee Dee River country, where he worked as a secretary, accountant, and tutor for local indigo planters. Hills served in the Cherokee War of 1759 and was appointed clerk of St. David’s Anglican parish at Cheraw Hill ten years later.

Hills became a singing master during an extended visit to Newcastle in the mid-1760s. By ...