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Oliver Brockway

(b Vienna, April 11, 1908; d Vienna, Feb 2, 1962). Austrian horn player. He studied with his uncle, Karl Stiegler, whom he succeeded in 1932 as principal horn of the Vienna PO and professor at the Musik Akademie. For 30 years Freiberg's distinctive tone and generous portamento were inseparably associated with the orchestra's style. He personified the Vienna horn school, in particular through his adherence to the single F horn with twin-piston valves at a time when advances in instrument design, bringing greater technical facility and accuracy at the expense of the Vienna horn's unique tonal qualities, had been generally adopted elsewhere.

In 1943 he gave the first performance of Richard Strauss's Second Horn Concerto. During the war years Freiberg, who was partly Jewish, was able to survive in his post only through a dispensation from the Nazis; after the war, not needing de-Nazification, he was accepted by the occupying powers as president of the orchestra (...


Michael Steinberg


(b Boa Esperança, Oct 18, 1944). Brazilian pianist. He gave his first recital at the age of four, studied in Brazil with Nise Obino and Lucia Branco, and, after winning the International Competition in Rio de Janeiro at 13, with Bruno Seidlhofer in Vienna. In 1964 he won the Vianna da Motta Prize in Lisbon and the Dinu Lipatti Medal in London. He made his début in London and other European capitals in 1968, going to the USA in 1969 (playing with the New York PO and as a soloist with the RPO tour under Kempe), to Israel in 1970 and to Japan in 1971. He has subsequently performed much of the piano duo repertory with Martha Argerich, and has recorded with her works by Bartók and Ravel. His ample, unforced sound, the brilliance of his technique and the cleanness of his musical taste have made a strong impression, and he has developed a notable reputation as an interpreter of Chopin, whose complete Preludes he has recorded to acclaim....


George Gelles

(b Satu-Mare, Sept 9, 1946). Israeli violinist of Romanian birth. She studied at the Rabin Academy in Tel-Aviv, and then in the USA as a protégée of Isaac Stern. She also worked with Josef Gingold at Indiana University (1966–7), and with Ivan Galamian at the Juilliard School (1967–9). She won the 1968 Paganini International Competition at Genoa, and the 1971 Queen Elisabeth of Belgium Competition at Brussels. Her prizewinning performance of the Sibelius concerto on the latter occasion was subsequently issued as a recording, and was praised for a maturity of approach and vibrant expression reminiscent of Ginette Neveu. Her New York recital début was in 1969, and her British début was at Windsor Castle in 1971. In 1986 she joined the faculty of Indiana University, where she gave the first performance of Donald Erb's Together Forever: Three Poems (1988) and recorded his violin concerto. She has toured widely, and is admired for intelligent and perceptive musicianship as well as spirited brilliance of technique....


Efrim Fruchtman

revised by Valerie Walden

(b Neuberg, Feb 15, 1768; d Berlin, c1857). German cellist, baryton player and composer. A member of a musical family, he received his general musical education from Hofmusikus Simon. His first position was as a court musician in Mannheim, where he studied the cello with Peter Ritter. Friedl was equally respected as a baryton player, and following a performance at Schwetzingen was given by Prince Carl Theodore of Mannheim an inlaid and bejewelled instrument made by Joachim Tielke. In 1793, on returning from a concert tour in the Netherlands, he performed at Frankfurt for an audience which included Friedrich Wilhelm II, who then engaged him for the Royal Chapel in Berlin. He subsequently studied the cello with Jean-Louis Duport, to whom he dedicated his three cello sonatas op.1 (Offenbach, 1798). Friedl was pensioned in 1826; his name appeared in the Berlin Address Calendar until 1857.

Very little is known of Friedl's compositions. Eitner's ...


Birgitta Maria Schmid

(b Hamburg, Dec 30, 1888; d Detmold, Jan 22, 1986). German pianist and composer. She studied in Berlin, first at the Hochschule für Musik (1902–5), then at the Sternsches Konservatorium (1905–8) with James Kwast (piano) and Pfitzner (composition); from 1911 she studied at the Rheinische Musikschule in Cologne with Carl Friedberg (piano) and Fritz Steinbach (composition). As a pianist she promoted contemporary music from an early age and at 18 played Reger’s Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Bach, one of the first to do so. As a soloist with orchestra she performed with Nikisch, Abendroth, Furtwängler and Schoenberg. From 1933, during the Third Reich, she had to curtail her concert-giving because her husband was Jewish according to Nazi laws. From 1946 to 1959 she taught the piano at the Hochschule für Musik in Hamburg, and was professor there from 1957. In 1961...


Ann Griffiths


( b Adelaide, May 9, 1961). Australian harpist . Having studied with the Salzedo method exponents June Loney (Sydney) and Alice Chalifoux (Cleveland, Ohio), she came to prominence as winner of the 1982 Israel Harp Contest. In 1994 she recorded a CD devoted to the solo harp music of Carlos Salzedo, and the same year was co-founder of ...


James Methuen-Campbell

(b Lemberg [now L′viv], April 16, 1906; d Los Angeles, March 12, 1989). American pianist and teacher of Polish birth. Having graduated from the Lwów (formerly Lemberg) Conservatory at the age of 15, he went to Vienna and became a pupil of Steuermann, also taking private lessons in composition from Berg. He made his Vienna début in 1923. Before World War II Gimpel toured with the violinists Erica Morini and Nathan Milstein, and also with his younger brother, Bronislav. He emigrated to the United States in 1939, settling in Los Angeles. One of the first pianists to record for the newly founded company Vox, he also made widely admired discs for Columbia. In 1954 he resumed playing in Europe. Gimpel gave concerts with the Palestine SO (later the Israel PO) from its inception and maintained a busy career until the time of his death. He taught at the California State University at Northridge from ...


William Y. Elias

(b Haifa, Aug 22, 1922). Israeli violinist. He began violin studies at the age of five with Karmy, and gave his first public concert when he was eight. At the age of ten he played to Huberman who sent him to study at the Ecole Normale de Musique, Paris, where three years later he won a premier prix. After graduating he studied with Enescu, Thibaud and Flesch. In the late 1930s he went to London and during the war he worked first in a munitions factory there and then for the army's entertainment service. After the war he made his débuts with the LPO, the BBC SO and other British orchestras. In 1951 he won the Thibaud Prize. The following year he returned to Israel and made his début there with the Israel PO and the radio orchestra. From the mid-1950s he toured widely and recorded the concertos of Tchaikovsky, Berg, Hindemith and Stravinsky, among others. He performed frequently in Paris, where he first appeared in ...


Tully Potter

( b Tel-Aviv, March 22, 1946). Israeli viola player . She learnt the violin with her mother, then at the Israel Academy of Music and finally with Oedoen Partos at Tel-Aviv University, also studying art and mathematics. Having switched to the viola, she played in the Tel-Aviv Chamber Orchestra in 1968 and in the Israel PO from 1969 to 1974, gradually building up a solo career as a 20th-century specialist. In 1974 she moved to Toronto, becoming a major force in Canadian contemporary music; and from the 1990s she has been based alternately in Toronto and London. Golani has a charismatic stage presence and the ability to hold an audience's attention even with the most complex new music. In addition to playing and recording the mainstream viola repertory, such as the Bach suites, Bloch's Suite hébraïque, Joachim's Variations, the viola concertos of Martinů, Serly, Bartók, Bax and Rubbra, Benjamin's Fantasy and the Tertis version of the Elgar Cello Concerto, she has given the premières of more than 200 works, including 33 concertos. A number have been recorded. Music associated with her includes ...


Richard Wang

[Benjamin] (David)

(b Chicago, May 30, 1909; d New York, June 13, 1986). American clarinettist, composer and bandleader.

Goodman received rudimentary musical training from 1919 at Chicago’s Kehelah Jacob Synagogue and, more importantly, two years of instruction from the classically trained clarinettist Franz Schoepp. He made his professional début in 1921. During his formative years he absorbed the music of the New Orleans musicians; he was particularly influenced by Leon Roppolo, the clarinettist with the New Orleans Rhythm Kings. In summer 1923 he met Bix Beiderbecke whose influence may be heard in Goodman’s on-the-beat attacks, careful choice of notes and across-the-bar phrasing on A Jazz Holiday (1928, Voc.) and Blue (1928, Bruns.) – especially on the latter, where Goodman played solos on both alto and baritone saxophone. In August 1925 Goodman left for Los Angeles to join Ben Pollack. Pollack’s band returned to Chicago in January 1926 and early in ...