(b Canterbury, bap. March 27, 1709; d Canterbury, Jan 5, 1798). English composer and music collector. A son of John Flackton, bricklayer and cathedral contractor, he was a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral under William Raylton from 1716 to 1725. During this time he was also apprenticed to Edward Burgess, bookseller, stationer and cathedral lay clerk. In the Kentish Post (December 1727) he announced his return from London and his setting up as a bookseller. He was joined in this business between 1747 and about 1767 by his brother John, a singer and horn player, in which latter connection John is said to be pictured in the painting reproduced as pl. xlix of Karl Geiringer’s Instruments in the History of Western Music (London, 1943, 3/1978); William Flackton’s song The Chace has a prominent horn part in its instrumental accompaniment. Between 1735 and 1752 Flackton was organist of St Mary of Charity, Faversham, where he presented an anthem of his composition at the installation of a new organ in ...
revised by Robert Ford
Gordon E. Smith
(b Rivière-du-Loup-en-haut [now Louiseville], Lower Canada [PQ], Nov 7, 1834; d Quebec City, Sept 15, 1915). Canadian composer, organist, teacher and folksong collector. After completing the classical studies programme at the Collège Joliette, he spent three years studying music in Montreal. In 1853 he was appointed organist at St Jean-Baptiste in Quebec City, and from 1864 to 1876 he was organist of the Quebec City Basilica. During the first of two European trips (1857–8 and 1873) Gagnon studied the piano at the Paris Conservatoire with Alexandre Edouard Goria and Henri Herz, and harmony and counterpoint with Auguste Durand.
An exponent of the Louis Niedermeyer method of plainchant accompaniment, Gagnon published in 1903 a large book of accompaniments for use in Quebec parishes (L'accompagnement d'orgue des chants liturgiques). He also composed some church music, as well as several salon-type pieces for solo piano. He was a founder of one of the first regulatory musical institutions in Canada in ...
Israel J. Katz
(b Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Logroño, May 14, 1898; d Madrid, Dec 22, 1964). Spanish folklorist and composer. He received his early musical education in Burgos, where, influenced by the musicologist Nemesio Otaño, he became deeply interested in traditional folk music. He qualified as a military bandmaster in 1923 and served as bandmaster for the Spanish army until 1960. In 1926 he founded the Conservatory of Music at Badajoz, where he was the director and an instructor for 20 years. As an active collaborator with the Centro de Estudios Extremeños (1926–46) and the Spanish Institute of Musicology (from 1944) he participated in many field trips throughout the provinces of Extremadura (1924–31), La Rioja (1944–5), Granada (1946, 1960), Ciudad Real (1947), Toledo (1949), Cádiz (1957), Badajoz (1958) and Ávila (1959...
Malcolm Gillies and David Pear
(b Brighton, Victoria, July 8, 1882; d White Plains, NY, Feb 20, 1961). Australian-American composer, pianist and folksong collector. Best known for his settings of British folk music, he was also an innovative composer of original works and ‘free music’, and an accomplished performer.
Grainger spent the first 13 years of his life in Melbourne, where he was educated at home under the guidance of his mother, Rose. She instilled in him a love of the arts and an heroic outlook on life, reinforced by his study of Classical legends and Icelandic sagas. He also received occasional tutorials in languages, art, drama, elocution and the piano (with Louis Pabst, 1892–4). Following his Melbourne début as a pianist in 1894, funds were raised to support further musical training in Frankfurt, where he studied at the Hoch Conservatory (1895–1901) with James Kwast (piano), Iwan Knorr (composition, theory) and others. There he formed lifelong friendships with Cyril Scott, Henry Balfour Gardiner and Roger Quilter, who, with Norman O'Neill, became known as the Frankfurt Group. During these years he was strongly influenced by the writings of Rudyard Kipling (he would compose many Kipling settings, ...
(b London, Dec 26, 1716; d Cambridge, July 30, 1771). English music collector, poet and amateur musician. He was educated at Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge. After touring Italy with Horace Walpole during the period 1739–41, he divided his time between London, Stoke Poges (where his mother had retired) and Cambridge, where he was first a fellow of Peterhouse and then of Pembroke College. As well as being one of the greatest poets of his time, Gray had a fine connoisseur’s taste in painting, architecture, natural history, and music. While in Italy he began to assemble a remarkable library of Italian music, largely consisting of operatic arias in score. He was especially fond of Pergolesi, but also admired older composers including Palestrina; he had no great love of Handel. He was an accomplished harpsichord player and kept Viscount Fitzwilliam’s instrument in his rooms at Peterhouse; later, perhaps under the influence of his friend ...
Jean Mary Allan
revised by Emily Lyle
(b Parkhill, Aberdeenshire, Feb 10, 1856; d Whitehill, Aberdeenshire, Aug 31, 1914). Scottish folksong collector, author and composer. He took the MA at Aberdeen University in 1876 and became a teacher; in 1879 he was appointed headmaster of Whitehill School and he retained this position until his death. On his mother’s side he was related to James Burness, Robert Burns’s great-grandfather, and like Burns he was keenly interested in collecting folksongs. It is by his extensive work in this field that he is known. He had a sound knowledge of the theory and practice of music, being able to take down songs while they were being sung and to harmonize them. He made the fullest single statement of his findings in a substantial article ‘Folk Song in Buchan’; he also wrote a column called ‘Folk-Song of the North-East’ in the Buchan Observer for a number of years and collected his contributions into two volumes with the same title....
(b Wilster, Holstein, Oct 15, 1761; d Copenhagen, Dec 30, 1825). Danish folklorist, teacher and composer of German birth. After studying in Kiel (1782–5), where he came to know C.F. Cramer, Grønland took up a post as an official of the German chancellery in Copenhagen. Though he remained a civil servant all his life, his musical activities covered a wide field: he was the teacher of C.E.F. Weyse and acted as correspondent for a number of German and Danish music periodicals. His most important work, however, was concerned with the preservation of Scandinavian folksongs. In about 1810 work on a wide scale had begun in Denmark to rescue extant traditions from the oblivion threatened by the development of communications, especially roads. A valuable outcome of this work was the recording of folksongs, both texts and tunes, and particularly their publication in five volumes (1812–14) by Abrahamson, Nyerup and Rahbek. This newly aroused interest in folksong further resulted in a number of piano arrangements of folktunes. Grønland’s contributions include two manuscript collections, in the Royal Library of Copenhagen, and his publication (...
(b Ansbach, 1493; d Heilsbronn, Oct 15, 1554). German music collector and composer. He studied at the University of Leipzig from 1511, and in 1514 took the bachelor's degree. Even before he matriculated he seems to have known the university deacon Nikolas Apel, whose love of music may have stimulated Hartung's interest in collecting musical works. He was one of Luther's early adherents and from 1517 was the lawyer and imperial notary of the Cistercian monastery at Heilsbronn which had embraced the Reformed faith; in 1523 he became its chief magistrate and first secular official. Between 1538 and 1548 he compiled the seven volumes known as the Heilsbronner Chorbücher (the four surviving volumes are now in D-ERu 473, 1–4) which contained the complete repertory of an early Lutheran church choir. Although nearly four-fifths of the contents are from contemporary printed volumes, the four surviving volumes constitute the unique or primary source of a large number of compositions; for this reason they are among the most important south German sources of the Reformation period. In ...
(bap. Aldersgate, London, Feb 26, 1724; d London, April 15, 1764). English amateur musician. ‘In his younger days he was a great beau’, said Hawkins, who is the chief source of information about Immyns. ‘He had been guilty of some indiscretions, which proved an effectual bar to success in his profession, and reduced him to the necessity of becoming a clerk to an attorney in the city’. He cultivated music assiduously, playing the flute, viola da gamba and harpsichord, and had a ‘cracked counter-tenor voice’. As a member of the Academy of Ancient Music, and as a student and copyist to Pepusch, he became familiar with much old music, which he preferred to that of his own day. In 1741 he founded the Madrigal Society, which began as a small group of mechanics and tradesmen experienced in psalmody, meeting at a tavern in Fleet Street. Immyns was ‘both their president and instructor’, and in preparation for the meetings he copied out some 200 madrigals and canons: his MS survives at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The music was confined to madrigals and other old music, by such composers as Ruffo, Lassus, Marenzio, Vecchi and Gesualdo; the English madrigalists were also explored. Immyns copied seven Palestrina motets for the society's use. From these modest beginnings sprang what is now the oldest musical association in existence....
(b 1163; d Jan 27, 1225). French chronicler of St Martial of Limoges and monk. Received as a boy scholar at St Martial in 1177, Itier held a succession of important offices, culminating in appointments as librarian (1204) and precentor (by 1211), posts he evidently held concurrently. Annotations in Itier's hand, scattered through surviving remnants of the St Martial library, testify to his interest in preserving the monastery books. One manuscript that he had bound includes a collection of early polyphonic music. Other musical manuscripts from the St Martial collection very probably owe their survival to his care.
Although not himself a professional scribe, Itier had charge of the monastery scriptorium and knew how to notate music. One composition in his hand, a Parisian motet based on the duplum of Perotinus's four-voice organum Sederunt ( F-Pn lat.2208, f.1), shows a musical connection between Paris and St Martial in Itier’s lifetime. The chronicle written by Itier is a central source of information on the monastery....