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(a) Clay fipple flute, c500 ce (Museo de Tabasco, Villahermosa); (b) clay flute with goitre chamber, c500 ce (Museo Nacional de Antropología, Mexico City); (c) the same in cross-section; (d) clay trumpet in two sections, c500 CE (Museo de Tabasco, Villahermosa)

Photo Irmgard Groth Kimball/from Marti, Pre-Columbian Music. 2nd edition Mexico 1978: Ediciones Euroamericanas...

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(a) Cornet in B♭, with ‘Stölzel’ valves, by Laberte Humbert, Paris, c1850 (otherwise an unknown maker); (b) cornet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by Antoine Courtois, Paris, c1865 (marked ‘Koenig’s Model’); (c) cornet in B♭, with echo valve and rotary valves, by C. Schäfer, Hanover, 1903; (d) trumpet in B♭, with rotary valves, by Arno Windisch, Dresden, 1974; (e) trumpet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by the Vincent Bach Corporation, Elkhart, Indiana, 1976; (f) trumpet in C, with Périnet valves and an ascending whole-tone 4th valve, by Jérôme Thibouville-Lamy, Paris, 1921; (g) piccolo trumpet in B♭, with Périnet valves, by Henri Selmer, Paris, 1970; (a), (g) Trompetenmuseum, Bad Säckingen; (b)–(d), (f) E.H. Tarr Collection, Rheinfelden; (e) S. Schärr Collection, Cologne...

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(a) Diagram of a modern German bassoon showing the joints and position of the tone holes in the bore; (b) diagram of the five-key bassoon after an engraving in J.-B. de La Borde’s ‘Essai sur la musique’ (1780); (c) diagram of a dulcian (Choristfagott) after those shown in fig.5 below

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(a) Diagram of a sitār: A gourd, B shoulder, C soundtable, D leaves, E neck proper, F fingerboard, G string-guider, H nut, I peg area with main pegs, J main bridge, K string holder, L fine-tuning beads, M frets, N bindings, O punctuating strings, cikārī, P cikārī posts, Q pegs and holes for sympathetic strings (strings not shown), R small bridge, S second gourd; (b) side view of shell; (c) sitār plectrum (mizrāb)...

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(a) Earliest known trombone, a tenor in B♭ by Erasmus Schnitzer, Nuremberg, 1551 (Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg); (b) Contrabass trombone in B♭ by G.N. Oller, Stockholm, 1639 (Musikhistoriska Museet, Stockholm); (c) bass trombone in E♭ (with tuning slide in bell joint) by Wolf Wilhelm Hass, Nuremberg, first half of the 18th century (Musikinstrumenten-Museum, Berlin)...

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(a) Geometrical construction used to determine the plane of a reflector in (c) and (d); (b) paths of direct sound, and several reflected sound waves in a 19th-century concert hall with traditional horizontal floor and ceiling and parallel side walls (the diagram illustrates the different types of reflection which aid listening in a concert hall; after Beranek, 1962); (c) plan of the seating (shaded) and stage, showing the complexity of the calculations necessary to determine the wall reflectors of a small auditorium; (d) shape of the floor and ceiling of same, showing the calculation for the ceiling reflectors (after Bagenal and Wood, 1931)...

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(a) Long-necked lute on a Mesopotamian cylinder seal, Akkadian period, c2370–2110 BCE (British Museum, London); (b) Long-necked lute and arched harp: detail from a painting in the tomb of Djeserkare‘sonb, Thebes, from the time of Tuthmosis IV (reigned 1425–1417 BCE); (c) Short-necked lute: terracotta figurine (3rd century BCE) from Tanagra (Musée du Louvre, Paris)...