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Akayau  

K.A. Gourlay

revised by Jeremy Montagu

[akacau, caccakai, koroso]

Iron ankle rattle of the Hausa people of Nigeria. The Angas equivalent is the zye-zye. A piece of sheet iron is hammered to form a trough about 12 cm long, with the ends narrowed and folded back to form closed hooks into which iron rings are fitted. A string passed through two holes punched through the back of the trough enables two or three rattles to be strung together and worn on the ankles for dancing....

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Akbele  

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Long drum of the Alur people of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The single lizard-skin head is glued to the narrow wooden body and is beaten by hand. It is used in witchcraft ceremonies.

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Akidi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[akimbi]

Board zither of the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has a single string that passes five times back and forth along a board from notches carved in both ends, with a small stick at each end serving as a nut, and small movable wooden blocks under each length of string to tune them. The name ...

Article

Akiri  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Handheld bell of the Bandia of the Buta district, northern Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is made from the hard shell of borassus palm fruit. One end is sawn off and two short lengths of stick are hung inside as clappers. The bell is similar in shape and size to cowbells used elsewhere in the world. It is used in traditional dance music, together with ...

Article

Akofe  

Article

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[kpendimbe, kpendingbwa, kponingbo, padingbwa, pendibe]

Xylophone of the Bandia people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It has six to ten loose bars placed across two parallel tree (usually banana) trunks laid on the ground. Sometimes it is placed over a pit to increase the sonority. It is played only by men.

F.J. de Hen...

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Article

Akpossi  

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Akya  

Article

Samha El-Kholy

( b Cairo, May 6, 1916; d Cairo, May 14, 1993). Egyptian composer . He was educated at a French school in Cairo, the Collège des Frères, obtaining a diploma in commercial studies. There he played clarinet and horn in the school band, and sang in the choir. He also received private violin lessons from the German Joseph Aubervon, but after nine years an accident obliged him to give up the instrument, and he turned to composition. He took lessons in theory and composition with Aubervon, Minato and other European teachers resident in Cairo, and with the Russian Orlovitsky. After leaving school he worked for the Philips recording company. This period (the late 1940s and early 1950s) saw him composing patriotic and love songs for famous singers such as Shādia and Ragā’ ‘Abdū. In 1952 he became director of the newly founded Soviet cultural centre in Cairo. In the late 1950s he made his first trip to the USSR, where he studied with Khachaturian at the Moscow Conservatory. During that trip he acquainted himself with the music of Soviet composers from the eastern republics and their solutions of the problems of creating their national musical styles. There the Melodiya recording company recorded some of his early works, including the symphonic poem based on the popular song ...

Article

Alamoru  

Peter Cooke

End-blown flute of the Teso and Karamoja areas of Uganda, also reported in Kenya. It has two or four fingerholes and is blown obliquely. It is a pastoral instrument, presumably made of cane or bamboo, and in Teso there are two types: a short flute (50 cm) with fingerholes near the bottom end, which is cut at an angle, and a long one (117 cm) with four fingerholes near the middle and a small gourd bell about 5 cm in diameter....

Article

(bIsmâ’ ilîya, Egypt, June 8, 1931). Frenchsinger and pianist. He studied music in Paris and played piano with Don Byas (1955) and Stephane Grappelli (1957). He was a singer with the Blue Stars (1955–6), toured and recorded with the Double Six (1959–65), and took part in a session with Jon Hendricks and others (1965). Aldebert was married to the singer Monique Dozo (b Monaco, 5 May 1931; later known as Monique Aldebert-Guérin), who had sung with Bernard Peiffer (1947) and performed in Paris clubs with Byas, Django Reinhardt, Bobby Jasper, the Double Six (with which she recorded in 1959 and 1964), and Bill Coleman (1966). After moving to the USA (1967) the couple settled first in Las Vegas, where they appeared in revues, and then in Los Angeles (...

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Alele  

Article

Algaita  

Anthony King

revised by K. A. Gourlay and Jeremy Montagu

The most common name for a type of oboe of the savanna zone of West Africa, particularly southern Mali and Niger, northern Nigeria, southern Chad, and the adjoining areas of Cameroon. The Fulani instrument is called algaitaru, while in parts of northeastern Nigeria (e.g. Bauchi and among the Bolewa and Kilba peoples) it is called aligata; the Kanuri use the name alita and the Tiv agida. The instrument is an importation from the Maghrib and has carried with it not only the name ghayia but, in most cases, also the article ‘al’. It consists of a conical wooden body, sometimes made sectionally as a stepped cone, all covered in leather, and a cup-shaped bell which is sometimes also leather-covered and which can be integral with the body or a separate piece, the joint covered by the leather. The body is about 30 cm long, and the bell about 10 cm long. A narrow staple, at least 10 cm long, has a fixed flat, circular pirouette disc, both made of brass or tinplate, and carries a double reed made from stalks of wild grass (...

Article

(Arab. Jumhuriya al-Jazairiya ad-Dimuqratiya ash-Shabiya)

Country in North Africa. Algeria is the second-largest country in the African continent, with an area of 2,381,741 km² and a population of 31·6 million (2000). Its wide musical diversity reflects its geographic proximity to Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia and Western Sahara, as well as its physical and historical links with Europe. Sunni Islam is the state religion, and a regional form of Arabic is used, although French and Berber are also widely spoken. Most of the country's inhabitants live in the large cities of the Tell, the country's coastal plain, although significant populations occupy inland mountainous and desert regions. The country consists mainly of semi-arid plateaux and the Sahara, where isolated towns and oases serve the needs of transhumant tribes and the petrochemical industry. The 20th century's increased migration to northern cities, combined with recent technological developments, led to a closer overlapping, and in some circumstances mixing, of diverse musical and cultural practices....

Article

Aligogo  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Slit drum of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two kinds exist: a small zoomorphic form among the Mamvu people and a trapezoidal form among the Bari and Bangba of the northeastern DRC.

F.J. de Hen: Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Musikinstrumente aus Belgisch Kongo und Ruanda-Urundi (Tervuren, 1960), 49, 58....

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Alimba  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

Article

Alindi  

Ferdinand J. de Hen

[lukumbi]

Double-headed drum of the Komo and Lega peoples of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is conical, 40 to 50 cm tall, head diameter 25 to 30 cm, foot diameter 10 to 20 cm. The wild-goat-skin heads are laced together in a V pattern and the upper head is beaten with a stick in one hand and also by the other hand. It is used only to accompany dances....

Article

Allun  

[tagnza]

Frame drum of the Berber people, particularly of Morocco (the High Atlas). Its width varies from 40 to 75 cm and its depth from 8 to 15 cm. It is similar to the bendīr, but usually has no snares.

B. Lortat-Jacob: Musique et fêtes au Haut-Atlas (Paris, 1980).

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