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Croatia  

Stanislav Tuksar and Grozdana Marošević

Country in south-east Europe. Once the ancient Roman province of Illyricum, it was settled at the beginning of the 7th century by Slavs, who were converted to western Christianity by the end of the 8th century. Medieval principalities were quickly formed, and a kingdom of Croatia existed from 925 (the dynasty of Trpimirović) to the end of the 11th century. In 1102 Croatia entered into a personal royal union with Hungary; in 1527 it became part of the Habsburg Empire by electing Ferdinand King of Croatia. This political, cultural and social union with Hungary and Austria lasted until 1918. Between 1409 and 1797, however, the Croatian maritime provinces of Istria and Dalmatia were under Venetian control, and from 1526 to 1699 other parts (e.g. the continental province of Slavonia) were conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The region comprising the Republic of Dubrovnik claimed autonomy until 1808. During 1918–41 and 1945–91...

Article

Gerard Béhague and Robin Moore

(Sp. República de Cuba)

Island republic in the West Indies. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea between North and South America and near to the Tropic of Cancer. It comprises over 1600 cays (low coral banks) and the Isla de la Juventud. The capital city is Havana. Cuba became an independent republic in 1902, and was declared a socialist state in 1961.

Gerard Béhague

The history of art music in Cuba shows that it surpassed that of any other Caribbean island, although colonial music started much later there than in the larger Latin American countries. Musical activity during the 16th and 17th centuries was apparently limited. At that time sacred music was concentrated at Santiago Cathedral; the earliest reference to music indicates the presence there in 1544 of Miguel Velázquez, a native organist. The post of maestro de capilla was established in 1682, with limited means, by Bishop Juan García de Palacios, and was first held by Domingo de Flores....

Article

Cyprus  

Nicoletta Demetriou, Vasilis Kallis, Katy Romanou and Kenneth Owen Smith

Country in the eastern Mediterranean. With an area of 9251 km² it is the third largest island in the Mediterranean. In the common era, Cyprus – fully Hellenised under Ptolemaic rule – has been part of the Roman (from 58) and the East Roman Empire (from 395). Thereafter, Franks (from 1191), Venetians (from 1473), Ottomans (from 1571), and British (from 1878) occupied the island. In 1960 Cyprus became an independent state. Natives, occupiers, and continuously migrating populations from Europe, Asia, and Africa formed a multicultural environment, where languages, religions and dogmas, ethnic traditions, education, and living standards have been diverse, but in constant interaction and transformation.

Katy Romanou

While part of Byzantium, Cyprus was inhabited by Christian Orthodox Greeks and Syrians, and by Armenians, Nestorians, and Jews (whose synagogue services, at least in the 14th century, were said in Greek), as well as Venetian and Genovese merchants. It seems likely that Byzantine liturgical music had no distinct local character prior to the Venetian period. Furthermore, and this was true for all social classes, there would have been little or no perceived distinction between sacred and secular music, or between art music and what we now call ‘folk music’....

Article

John Clapham, Oldřich Pukl, L. Tyllner, Karel Vetterl, Marta Toncrová and Oskár Elschek

revised by Jan Smaczny

Country in central Europe. It was established in 1992 after the break-up of Czechoslovakia into two separate republics. Czechoslovakia had been created in 1918 out of the former Habsburg territories of Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. This reflects the composition of the 9th-century kingdom of Great Moravia. Slovakia fell to the Magyars in 906 (and remained part of Hungary and later the Habsburg Empire until 1918); Bohemia, with a strong line of Přemyslid princes and kings, became dominant and in 1029 formally incorported Moravia as a margravate. The teachings of Jan Hus gave the kingdom a largely Protestant character, eroded neither by five assaults by imperial and crusader armies (1419–31) nor by the election of a Habsburg as king in 1526. After the Battle of the White Mountain (1620), in which the Czech nobility were defeated by the Habsburgs, Bohemia and Moravia became virtual provinces of the Habsburg Empire and were forced to adopt its language and religion. Reaction to this culminated in the 19th-century national revival, which in turn led to independence and union with Slovakia in ...

Article

Denmark  

Niels Martin Jensen, Louis K. Christensen and Svend Nielsen

(Dan. Danmark)

Country in Scandinavia.

Niels Martin Jensen

Danish art music in the Middle Ages was largely restricted to the church, the court and the aristocracy. After the first, only partially successful, attempts to convert Denmark to Christianity (9th century), the power of Church and king increased from the 11th century. The bishoprics of Schleswig, Ribe and Århus were established before 948 and five others in the 11th century. Lund in particular seems to have played an important role in the development of church music (see Malmö). Links with the archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen were strong until Lund became the archbishopric of Scandinavia in 1104, and cultural contacts with France and Italy developed during the 12th and 13th centuries; the liturgies for the first Danish saints, King Knud the Saint and Duke Knud Lavard, also indicate a link with English Benedictine monasteries.

Gregorian chant in the monasteries and churches was the responsibility of cantors. Little source material survives: three sequences in the ...

Article

Christian Poché

Country located in the Horn of Africa. Djibouti came under French rule in 1863 as Côte Française des Somalis and later as Territoire Français des Afars et des Issas. It became independent in 1977 and has since been a member of the League of Arab States. The population is approximately 590,000, consisting primarily of Afars (also called Danakils by Arabs), a nomadic people who live in the northern part of the country, with the town of Tadjoura as their main centre; of Somalis, also nomads, previously known as Issas, who are scattered in the southern part of the country; and of Arabs of Yemenite descent who settled in the urban coastal towns, mostly in the capital, Djibouti. Islam is the official religion.

The musical activities of the peoples of Djibouti, mostly nomadic and living in the desert, did not attract much attention in the past. Before the establishment of French authority in the port of Djibouti in the 1860s, the country was regarded as only a road linking the coast to the interior. Observations on musical activity can be found in the writings of the British traveller Richard Burton, mostly on dances (...

Article

Martha Ellen Davis and Paul Austerlitz

[formerly Santo Domingo] (Sp. República Dominicana)

Country in the West Indies. It occupies the eastern two-thirds of the Greater Antillean island of Hispaniola (La Española), today shared with Haiti. Hispaniola was called ‘Quisqueya’ by the original Amerindian inhabitants, the Taínos (subgroup of Arawak, one of the four major language families of the greater Amazon region), who numbered at least one million at the time of European contact in 1492. The island became the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo and thus the first European colony in the New World (1492). The modern Dominican Republic reflects its cultural heritage. Its vernacular musical culture is of Spanish and West and Central African heritage.

Martha Ellen Davis

The Taínos were virtually decimated by disease, warfare and suicide within the first 40 years of conquest. African slaves were introduced as a substitute labour force as early as 1502. However, the island was abondoned by Spain after the exhaustion of gold and the discovery of greater riches on the mainland (Mexico, ...

Article

Ecuador  

Gerard Béhague and John M. Schechter

Country in South America.

Gerard Béhague

There is substantial documentary evidence of relatively important musical activity in colonial Ecuador, but no polyphonic work by musicians active in Quito, Cuenca and Guayaquil has yet been found. In view of the splendid development of colonial architecture, painting and sculpture related to the church, it is likely that there were similar accomplishments in music.

The transplanting of European music to Ecuador began with the establishment in Quito in 1535 of a Flemish Franciscan order (by the monks Josse de Rycke of Mechelen and Pierre Gosseal of Leuven) in which the teaching of music was important. Amerindians were taught plainchant, mensural notation and performance on the main families of European instruments, particularly at their Colegio de S Andrés (founded 1555), where the standard was such that by 1570 even Francisco Guerrero’s difficult four- and five-part motets could be performed. The mestizo Diego Lobato (...

Article

Robert Anderson, Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco and Virginia Danielson

(Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiya)

Country in North Africa at the south-eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, with its capital at Cairo. Although its total area is close to one million km², its cultivated and settled area, which includes the Nile valley and delta and the oases, is only about 35,500 km². The two main districts are Lower Egypt (around the delta region) and Upper Egypt. Of its total population of about 68 million (2000 estimate), about 85% are Muslim, with Christians of various sects the largest minority. Most of the population is now at least partly of Arab descent, but there are some distinct ethnic minorities, notably the Nubians in southern Egypt and the nomadic Berbers in the desert areas.

The art music of Egypt since contact with Islam has been part of the mainstream of Arab music in the Middle East and is discussed along with other aspects of Middle Eastern art music in ...

Article

T.M. Scruggs

(Sp. República de El Salvador)

Country in Central America. El Salvador, with over six million inhabitants in an area of 21,200 sq.km., has both the smallest national territory in the mainland Americas and the highest population density. The small number of Africans brought in during the colonial period have been thoroughly subsumed into the majority ladino or mestizo population, a mixture of indigenous American and European peoples and cultures. A significant indigenous presence still persists, especially in the western region, where up to 40% of the population of the Sonsonante department can be identified as Nahuat, and along the northern zone bordering Honduras, where the Lenca make up 15% of the northern part of the San Miguel department.

The first record of a school dedicated to musical instruction dates from the late 1700s in the western city of Sonsonante. The first music school in the capital, San Salvador, was founded in 1846 by Escolástico Andrino (...

Article

Stephen Banfield and Ian Russell

Country on the north-western periphery of Europe. Although its borders and some of its institutions have changed little in a millennium, England nevertheless finds its identity, cultural as much as political, subject to an ever-shifting network of contributing peoples and governances. Some consideration to the terms and relationships that define England within Britain are given here.

Geographically, England is the largest, southernmost part of Great Britain, itself the larger of the two main land masses constituting the British Isles. Wales and Scotland are the other units of Great Britain, together with certain offshore islands long incorporated, namely the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man, both Crown dependencies of largely English culture, although they have their own laws, coins and assemblies. Politically, Britain – the United Kingdom, a democratic constitutional monarchy – has since 1922 included Ulster (Northern Ireland) and excluded Eire (southern Ireland), which became independent at that date; previously, the whole of Ireland was a possession of the British crown, colonial until political union in ...

Article

Eritrea  

Cynthia Tse Kimberlin

Country in East Africa. With an area of 93,679 km² and a population of 6,086,495 million (2011 estimate), it borders the Red Sea to the north and east, Ethiopia to the south and Sudan to the West. There are nine major ethnic groups: Tigrinya-speaking Tigré, Tigré, Saho, Afar, Hadareb (Hedareb), Bilen, Kunama, Nara and Rashaida. The majority are Christian and Muslim and the official language is Tigrinya, but Arabic, Afar and Somali are also spoken. Approximately one million Eritrean refugees live in the Sudan, Ethiopia, Canada, the USA, Sweden, Italy, Saudi Arabia, the UK and Australia. Eritrea achieved independence from Ethiopia in 1993. Both countries retain close cultural ties, sharing similar musical traditions.

The Rashaida people are Muslims who live a nomadic life in the Sahel desert. Men and women celebrate life-cycle events separately and privately. However, some celebrations marking the end of Ramadan and Eritrea’s independence are performed in the public domain. These songs and dances, accompanied by a one-sided bowl-shaped drum, are performed in a group. Songs are responsorial and antiphonal, and dances are arranged in a large semicircle where women alternate two at a time dancing in the centre while men and other women clap and sing in parallel 4ths and 5ths, interspersed with women’s ululation. J. Jenkins recorded brief examples of Rashaida, Bedawi (Beni Amer), Nara (Baria), Tigré, Afar (Danakil), Asa’orta (Assaorta), Bilen and Kunama music (...

Article

Estonia  

Urve Lippus and Ingrid Rüütel

Country in Europe. The area south of the Finnish Gulf has been inhabited by the Estonians since about 3000 bce. Like other Baltic states, Estonia has spent most of its history ruled by neighbouring countries, except for a short period of independence between 1918 and 1940, and since 1991.

Urve Lippus

There is evidence from about the turn of the millennium of the influence of Christianity, both Eastern and Western, in the culture of peoples living in Estonia, but it was the crusade of the Teutonic Order in the 13th century that brought present-day Estonia into the north German cultural area. Churches, monasteries, and later towns became centres of art music. Though Denmark conquered considerable parts of the country in the 13th century, and later also Swedes, Poles and Russians ruled, the language and culture of the upper classes was German until the end of the 19th century. The Estonian-speaking population mostly was peasantry, but formed also the lowest stratum of townspeople. Those who gained some education and social advancement, merged with the German-speaking community without essentially altering the ethnic opposition between upper and lower classes that remained an important feature of local cultural history up to the 1930s. By the end of the 19th century the Estonian national revival had led to the rise of an Estonian-speaking middle class, and the competition between the two communities was reflected in musical and theatrical life. The Baltic-German population was deported to Germany after the Molotov-Ribbentrop treaty of ...

Article

Kay Kaufman Shelemay and Cynthia Tse Kimberlin

Country in East Africa. Located in the northern highland plateau of the horn of Africa, it has an area of 1,104,300 km², and in July 2011 its population was estimated at 90,873,739 million.

Ethiopia was first mentioned by classical writers in the 2nd century ce as the kingdom of Aksum. The absence of written sources obscures historical events during the first millennium of the empire, but indigenous royal chronicles provide details from the 13th century onwards and trace periods of geographical expansion and consolidation. A distinctive aspect of Ethiopian history in the broader African context is its independent, non-colonial past, being occupied only briefly by Italy during World War II. (For the history and musical traditions of Eritrea, which was colonized by the Italians from the late 19th century and which achieved full sovereignty in 1993, see Eritrea.)

Ethiopia has always been a multi-ethnic empire with numerous languages, a range of belief systems and diverse cultural traditions. However, there has also been considerable contact between ethnic and religious groups. Christianity was established as the state religion in about 332 ...

Article

Richard Crawford, Philip V. Bohlman, Chris Goertzen, D.K. Wilgus, Julien Olivier, Bill C. Malone, Barry Jean Ancelet, Mick Moloney, Marcello Sorce Keller, Stephen Erdely, Şahan Arzruni, Christina Jaremko, Mark Levy, Robert C. Metil, Michael G. Kaloyanides, Janice E. Kleeman, Timothy J. Cooley, Kenneth A. Thigpen, Margaret H. Beissinger, Margarita Mazo, Mark Forry, Robert B. Klymasz, Portia K. Maultsby, Gerard Béhague, Charlotte Heth, Beverley A. Cavanagh, Nazir A. Jairazbhoy, Zhang Weihua, Susan M. Asai, Youyoung Kang, George Ruckert, Amy R. Catlin and Ricardo D. Trimillos

In 

Article

Finland  

Ilkka Oramo and Ilkka Kolehmainen

[Suomi]

Country in northern Europe.

Ilkka Oramo

Christian influence had begun to infiltrate the provinces north of the Baltic during the late Viking era, before 1000. It was not until the second half of the 12th century, however, that these parts became a mission area of the Roman Church, and St Erik and his successors on the Swedish throne began to enforce Christianity on the pagan Finns. The first such crusade, during which Bishop Henry of Uppsala suffered martyrdom, is believed to have taken place in 1155 or 1157. From that date the south-western and southern parts of modern Finland gradually became integrated into the kingdom of Sweden. Churches were built, spiritual life took ordered forms, and Latin chant was introduced. The Roman faith spread to the borders of Karelia, whose people were under the rule of Novgorod and therefore Orthodox. The first frontier between Sweden and the mighty eastern power was drawn at Pähkinäsaari in ...

Article

France  

François Lesure, Claudie Marcel-Dubois and Denis Laborde

(Fr. Republique Francaise)

Country in Europe.

François Lesure

At the end of the 9th century, after the decline of Gallican chant, France was divided both linguistically and on the question of musical notation: the area in which the langue d’Oc was spoken used Aquitanian notation, while further north the notations of Brittany and Lorraine were employed (see Notation, §III, 1). So a Romanized liturgy was imposed, with the aim of standardizing the heterogeneous usages of Provence, Aquitaine and Burgundy. Based at the cathedrals, clerics and scholares united under the same rule to ensure the provision of singers for the Offices of the church and liturgical chant; choir schools were attached to these centres. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the focal point of the Carolingian renaissance shifted from Tours to Reims, together with the Capetian kings who regarded themselves as heirs to the Empire. Aquitaine resisted this pressure: south of the Loire there was unwillingness to accept Carolingian dominance, the episcopal schools and the merging of spiritual and temporal influences: and something of its regional character, and of the courtly art cultivated there, persisted in this area (...

Article

Jean-Michel Beaudet

South American country that is administratively an Overseas Department of France. It has a total area of 85,534 km², over 90% of which is covered by the great Amazonian forest, and a population of 173,000 (2000 estimate). The first inhabitants were Amerindians who today number 4200 and are demographically on the increase. The largest population group in the country consists of Creoles, the local term for the descendants of slaves brought from Africa and not freed until 1848. The Creole culture is similar to that of neighbouring Guyana, Suriname, Republic of. and the West Indies. The Maroons, the third important group, are descendants of slaves who managed to escape in the 17th and 18th centuries and formed their own cultures with a very strong African component. Finally, this ethnically mixed society includes people of French, Asian, Lebanese, Haitian and Brazilian origin. The demographic mixture resembles that of Suriname, although there is a much more marked tendency in French Guiana for people to stay in their respective groups. There is little exchange between the different cultures (Amerindian, Creole, Maroon etc.), and they relate to tradition in different ways. However, Creole music of the West Indies and popular African music have become a kind of ‘common music’ among the younger generation of all cultural groups, due primarily to the influence of the media....

Article

Gabon  

Pierre Sallée

(Fr. République Gabonaise)

Country in West Africa. With an area of 267,667 km², it is a relatively homogeneous cultural unit, despite the great ethnic and linguistic diversity of its population of 1·23 million (2000 estimate). The last waves of Central African migration converged on the Atlantic front of the equatorial forest. With the exception of the ‘pygmies’, all the present-day peoples of Gabon thus originated in regions outside the equatorial forest that they now inhabit.

The music of the ‘pygmies’ has features in common with that of other hunter-food-gatherer peoples in Africa. These include the use of a pentatonic tonal system incorporating tetratonic forms; the use of alternately ascending and descending intervals of 5ths, 6ths, 4ths and 7ths in songs that combine a yodelling technique with polyphonic imitation; musical development based on a series of distinct melodic and rhythmic cycles, in a kind of canon particularly suited to the resonances of the forest canopy; and a constant use of polyrhythm within ternary structures. The ‘pygmies’ of northern Gabon conclude each polyphonic sequence with a sustained solo note that turns into a glissando, imperceptible at first. This is amplified by the maximum vocal resonance, and accompanied by a specific gesture that consists of folding back the lobe of the ear by passing the opposite arm over the top of the head....

Article

Roderic C. Knight

Country in West Africa. With an area of only 11,295 km², it is the smallest country on the continent.

The 2000 population estimate was 1·24 million, of which 42% are Mandinka, 18% Fula (Fulani, Fulbe or Peul), 16% Wolof, 10% Jola (Diola or Dyola) and 9% Serahuli (Soninke), with other groups comprising less than 4%, and non-Gambians 1%. The population is 90% Muslim, 9% Christian, and 1% follow traditional religions. English is the official language.

Most Gambians are agriculturalists, though the Wolof and Mandinka also have a strong mercantile tradition. The Fula, now sedentary, were at one time cattle nomads, and they still keep herds of cows. With the exception of the Jola, all Gambian ethnic groups have some degree of hierarchical social organization, one of the marks of which is that certain skilled crafts, including music, are practised primarily by hereditary professionals. The generic term griot generally refers to specialists in music, praise-oratory and oral history in West Africa, but each ethnic group has an individual term for this profession....