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See Picard family

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An unnamed Beneventan bishop credited in the 12th-century Calixtine manuscript ( E-SC ) with a conductus, Jacobe sancte tuum repetito, that appears in both monophonic and polyphonic settings. The attribution may be fictitious, particularly since the Beneventan see was an archbishopric from 969.

J. López-Calo...

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F. Alberto Gallo

(fl Padua, early 14th century). Italian poet and theorist. He was a judge in Padua between 1329 and 1337, and in 1332 wrote a treatise Summa artis rythimici (ed. R. Andrews, Bologna, 1977) which he dedicated to Alberto della Scala, ruler of the city. This is a work on metrics which describes, with examples, the main poetic forms of the 14th century (sonnet, ballata, ...

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Edward Booth and Sean Gallagher

(b Roccasecca, 1226; d Fossanova, March 7, 1274). Italian Dominican priest and theologian. He was described as ‘Doctor Angelicus’. He led a life of intense study, lecturing and writing at Cologne, Paris and Naples. His works form the most profound, comprehensive and ordered scholastic synthesis of the scriptures, patristic teaching and philosophy; his philosophical work consists primarily of a judicious interpretation of Aristotle and his Greek and Arab commentators, integrated with an often neglected element of Platonist thought (mostly derived through St Augustine and neo-Platonist intermediaries). He was canonized in ...

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Gordon A. Anderson and Thomas B. Payne

(b ?Cologne, c1130; d shortly after1165). Latin lyric poet. His real name is unknown. He was a German or French clerk of knightly birth whose patronage by Reinald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne and Archchancellor to Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa may have given rise to his pseudonym. He travelled throughout Germany and to Austria and Italy, where he was desperately ill in ...

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Robert Stevenson

(b ?Alcalá de Henares, c1283; d c 1350). Spanish poet and ecclesiastic. His Libro de buen amor (1330, enlarged 1343; ed. J. Corominas, Madrid, 1967/R; Eng. trans., 1970), written during an unjust imprisonment of 13 years, gives him a place in medieval Spanish literature comparable to that of Chaucer in English literature. He mentioned at least 37 instruments in his long poem (6912 lines), often with characterizations: the ...

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Theodore Karp

(fl c1170–1200). Provençal troubadour. He was apparently born at Mareuil-sur-Belle in the diocese of Périgord. According to his romanticized biography, he was by profession a scribe and notary, but abandoned his poorly paid duties in favour of a more enjoyable existence as troubadour; in the latter capacity he was first at the court of Roger II, Viscount of Béziers, and his wife Adelaide, and afterwards at the court of William VIII, Count of Montpellier. Of the 26 chansons attributed to him, six survive with music; 13 more works are ascribed to him in various sources, but are not likely to be his. In addition, he wrote both ...

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John Koster

(b Zwolle, late 14th or early 15th century; d Paris, Sept 6, 1466). Franco-Flemish physician, astrologer, astronomer and author of a treatise on musical instruments, of which he was presumably also a maker. Even if he did not, as has been assumed, study at the University of Paris, he would have become familiar with much of its curriculum through Jean Fusoris, whom Arnaut called his master. Fusoris, who had received degrees in theology, arts and medicine at the University, was a physician, astrologer, astronomer and prolific maker of astronomical and horological devices. By ...

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See Lantins, de family

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(bc1000; d before 1050). Benedictine writer and composer. He was a monk, and later prior, of St Emmeram in Regensburg and the author of a new plainchant Office for the patron saint of his monastery; he also wrote extensively about St Emmeram and on other matters. The Office, which survives in ...

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Christopher Page

(fl c1400). Writer on music. He was presumably from St Ghislain in Hainaut and was possibly a member of its Benedictine community. One work by him is known, the Tractatulus de differentiis et gradibus cantorum, found only in St Paul im Lavanttal (...

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Arrigo  

Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

(fl 2nd half of the 14th century). Italian composer. He is known only from a two-voice ballata, Il capo biondo (ed. in PMFC, x, 1977, p.71), which is transmitted F-Pn 568 (ff.96v–97; added to fill unused space in the manuscript) under the name Arrigo, and in ...

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David Hiley

(fl 1123–45). Ecclesiastic and composer. He was Bishop of Troyes from 1123 to 1145. He is credited with the composition of six polyphonic pieces for two voices in the Codex Calixtinus ( E-SC ; see Sources, MS, §IV ). They are a versus, Nostra phalanx plaudat leta...

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Theodore Karp

(fl 1190–1230). French trouvère. The dedication of two chansons (Amours, de cui j'esmuef and Pour travail) to Jehan de Nesle, castellan of Bruges, suggests that they were written before 1200, when Jehan joined the Fourth Crusade with Conon de Béthune. The interpolation of the first strophe of ...

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Jane Bellingham

(fl ?840–50). Frankish writer. His only known work, Musica disciplina, is generally regarded as the earliest extant medieval treatise on music. It is the sole source of evidence concerning Aurelian and his milieu; no other 9th-century writer mentions the text or quotes from it, and it is not listed in surviving Carolingian library catalogues. Palaeographical studies have enabled the earliest extant manuscript of the ...

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Maria V. Coldwell

( fl mid-12th century). Troubadour . According to her vida, Azalais was from the region of Montpellier, and the lover of Gui Guerrejat, brother of Guillaume VII of Montpellier. Only one of her poems, without music, is extant.

M. Bogin: The Women Troubadours (New York, 1976), 94–7, 166–7...

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Mary Berry

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255...

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Andrew Hughes

(fl late 13th century). Theorist. Only the content of his treatise (CoussemakerS, i, pp.292–6 and CSM, xxxiv (1987), 11–21) and the character of the manuscript containing it ( F-Pn lat.15128) point to the late 13th century. ‘Gaudent brevitate moderni’, the opening sentence, is a common beginning for treatises of the time, and the title ...

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Gianluca D’Agostino

(fl late 14th century). Italian ?composer. One three-voice Sanctus, with a partly isorhythmic tenor, is transmitted with this ascription in the Paduan fragment GB-Ob Can.pat.lat.229 (‘PadA’, f.37v; ed. in PMFC, xii, 1976, p.88). The word may refer to the Greek instrument shaped like a lyre, called a ‘barbitos’. That the work comes from northern Italy seems to be confirmed by the additional label ‘ambrosius’ written next to the second voice....

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Barlaam  

Andrew Hughes

(d 1350). Monk and Bishop of Gerace. Barlaam was his religious name. He was educated in Byzantine monasteries of southern Italy, and visited Constantinople in the 1330s. In 1339 the eastern emperor made him envoy to Pope Benedict XII at Avignon. He taught Greek to Petrarch, and under Petrarch’s influence became a convert to Latin Catholicism in ...