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Article

Robert Stevenson

(d Granada, July 4, 1580). Spanish composer. He was appointed maestro de capilla of Granada Cathedral on 19 November 1557 despite the opposition of his predecessor, Luis de Cózar, who intended his own nephew to succeed him. After an unsuccessful appeal to the archbishop, Cózar was forced to hand over the charge of the choirboys to Aliseda in May 1558. Aliseda had already begun to search for better singers, but was hindered by the poor salaries which the Granada Cathedral chapter offered.

Throughout his 23 years as maestro de capilla Aliseda won praise from the chapter for his diligent teaching, his punctuality and particularly for his care of the choirboys. In 1579, in appreciation of his merits, the chapter recommended him to Philip II for a prebend, and on 14 May 1580 voted him a gift of 12 ducats to aid him in his illness.

Aliseda's six-part motet ...

Article

Diana Poulton

revised by Warwick Edwards

(b ?1560–70; d ?before 1610). English composer. He referred in the dedication of his Psalmes to the late Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick (died 1589/90) as ‘my good Lord and Master’. Allison is represented by 13 compositions in a set of consort books (dated 1588), from the household of Sir Francis Walsingham. Ten four-part settings by him appeared in Thomas East's Whole Booke of Psalms (RISM 15927), and he contributed a dedicatory poem to Giles Farnaby's Canzonets to Fowre Voyces (1598). In 1599 he published his own Psalmes of David in Meter, giving his London address as Dukes Place, near Aldgate, and describing himself as a ‘gentleman’ and a ‘practitioner’ of music. This print also includes his coat of arms, providing much information about his family. In the same year seven of his instrumental works appeared without attribution in Morley's ...

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Alonso  

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(fl 16th century). English composer. At the end of his six-voice Mass ‘Praise him praiseworthy’ (ed. in EECM, i, 1963) in the Forrest-Heyther Partbooks ( GB-Ob Mus. Sch.E.376–81), John Baldwin, who copied the last pages of 381, described him as ‘Mr. Alwood, priest’. Alwood's In Nomine in the Mulliner Book (ed. in MB, i, ...

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Thomas W. Bridges

(fl Venice, 1572–1621). Italian printer. In February 1572 he witnessed a codicil to the will of Girolamo Scotto, in which he is described as a printer, not a bookseller, suggesting that he may have worked in Scotto’s shop in Venice at the time. After a brief attempt in printing music on his own in 1579, he resumed as a partner of Giacomo Vincenti, with whom he printed, between 1583 and 1586, about 80 books. A few were reprints of popular volumes by Arcadelt, Lassus, Marenzio, Palestrina, and Bernardino Lupacchino and Gioan Maria Tasso, but most were first editions of works by some 33 composers, of whom the best known are Asola, Bassano, Caimo, Gioseffo Guami, Marenzio, Stivori and Virchi, as well as anthologies. For their printer’s mark Vincenti & Amadino used a woodcut of a pine-cone, with the motto ‘Aeque bonum atque tutum’. When they began to print separately (from ...

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Sabine Trebinjac

(b Yarkand area, ?1533; d Yarkand, ?1567). Uighur musician. As much a mythical as a historical figure, she was the 17th and final musician discussed in the 1854 Tävarixi musiqiyun (Histories of musicians); the dozen pages devoted to her deserve summary here.

The sultan AbdurräÒid travelled to the desert anonymously accompanied by his escort to inspect his functionaries suspected of subversion. One day he lodged with a butcher in the Taklamakan desert, whose daughter, Mälikäi Amannsaxenim, then aged 13, transpired to be a fine musician, a singer, poet and composer with a perfect command of the drum. Charmed by the young musician, the sultan revealed his true identity, put on his royal turban, prepared ten sheep, as well as tea and silk, and accompanied by 40 of his functionaries returned to the house of the butcher formally to request the hand of his daughter.

After their wedding, Mälikäi wrote several books, one on poetry, one on music and finally one on calligraphy. She also composed a ...

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Roger Bowers

(fl c1520–45). English composer. A brief and undistinguished canon (two-in-one) attributed to him is in GB-Lbl Roy.App.58. Och 1034A contains a longer and more accomplished keyboard work, remarkable for its period in observing a free-composed fantasia form (ed. in MB, lxvi, 1995). The composer may be identifiable with the John Ambrose who became a clerk of the choir of the collegiate church of St Anthony, London (St Anthony’s Hospital), in ...

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(b Heilbronn, c1535; d after 1575). German composer, Kantor and organist. He studied at Heidelberg in 1553 and at Tübingen in 1554, gaining the BA in 1555. He was Kantor at Mergentheim in Franconia in 1555 and from about 1560 to 1564 was organist at Feuchtwangen. In 1565 he was probably a court musician at Ansbach. In 1557 he applied for the post of Kantor at Hipoltstein, and in 1563–4 he applied unsuccessfully for the positions of organist at Windsheim and court musician in Württemberg. From 1569 to 1575 he was Kapellmeister and organist to Landgrave Philipp the Younger of Hesse at Schloss Rheinfels and organist at St Goar, south of Koblenz. However, he lost these posts over a dispute with the citizens of St Goar and was imprisoned. In an autobiographical threnody, Bis in den Himmel clage ich über Tyrannei (in A-Wn ), he complained to the emperor of his unjust treatment by Margrave Georg Friedrich of Ansbach-Brandenburg and Landgrave Philipp of Hesse. He composed ...

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John Kmetz

(b Basle, Oct 11, 1495; d Basle, April 1562). Swiss humanist, musician and lawyer. The son of the printer Johannes Amerbach, he began studying the classics in Engental (near Basle) as the private pupil of Conrad Leontorius, who in 1507 described him as ‘both talented and lazy’. Between 1507 and 1509 he continued his education in Schlettstadt at the distinguished humanist school run by Hieronymus Gebwiler and by 1510 had matriculated at the University of Basle. In 1513 he was awarded the degree of baccalaureus artium, and upon graduation moved to Freiburg im Breisgau, where as a candidate for the degree of magister artium he specialized in ethics, physics and grammar. While in Freiburg he also began studying law under Ulrich Zasius and later continued these studies with Andrea Alciati in Avignon where, in 1525, he was awarded the degree of doctor juris. It was during his student days that Amerbach’s close relationship with Erasmus began; when the Dutch humanist died in Basle in ...

Article

Lavern J. Wagner

revised by Mitchell Brauner

(b Oirschot, Brabant, c1534; d Rome, Nov 20, 1605). Flemish singer and composer. After studying with his uncle, who was a singer at Antwerp Cathedral, he went to Rome, and by 1 March 1564 was a tenor in the papal chapel. He was released from this appointment on 31 August 1565, with 13 other musicians. On 10 March 1569 he was appointed a singer in the Cappella Paulina, made a canon, and given the prebend recently vacated by the death of Simon Sauvage. Returning to the papal chapel, he became abbot on 2 January 1572 and punctator (responsible for choir attendances) in 1573. In 1593 and 1594 he was named head of the singers’ society, and in 1596 he retired from his singing duties and was pensioned. The last significant Flemish musician in the papal chapel, Ameyden was highly regarded by his fellow chapel members. He is buried in S Maria dell’Anima, Rome. ...

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Clyde William Young

(b Naumburg, c1530; d Leipzig, bur. Jan 29, 1597). German organist and keyboard music arranger. In the foreword of his 1571 tablature Ammerbach stated that he had ‘from childhood on, even from birth, a singular desire and love, charm and inclination’ towards music so that he ‘proceeded to eminent masters in foreign lands, to probe, bear, and endure much for it’. He enrolled for half a year at the University of Leipzig in 1548–9. From 1 January 1561 to April 1595 Ammerbach served as organist at the Thomaskirche in Leipzig. The civic records during his long tenure testify to an easy-going attitude (perhaps even resignation) to his financial difficulties and the death of his first two wives. His third wife and five children survived him.

In his first publication Ammerbach introduced what has since been called new German organ tablature in which pitches are expressed in letter notation with rhythm-signs above them. The decoration of vocal pieces when played on instruments, however, is a technique that undoubtedly predates even the earliest known written instrumental music. Ammerbach’s first tablature is also the first printed German organ music. ‘Instrument’ in the title, according to Ammerbach, includes ‘positive, regal, virginal, clavichord, clavicembalo, harpsichord and the like’. Ammerbach arranged the contents of this book, ...

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Anthony F. Carver

(b Imst, Tyrol, c1560; d Vienna, between 1 and June 21, 1590). Austrian composer. He may have belonged to a Franconian family who moved to Imst from Bamberg in the mid-16th century. He was a choirboy in the Hofkapelle of Archduke Ferdinand I at Innsbruck and probably attended the choir school there (it was founded in about 1569). According to the first of two dedications in his 1590 motet collection, he later went to Venice for further study, presumably when his voice broke. After he returned (in 1577 or 1578) he was in the employ of the Franciscan order until 1580, when he probably entered the service of Johannes Ruoff, abbot of the Cistercian monastery at Zwettl, north-west of Vienna, to whom he dedicated his 1582 book of introits. He was Kantor at the Cistercian monastery of Heiligkreuz from 1585 to 1587, when he entered the Franciscan monastery in Vienna. He later took his vows at this house and died there during the printing of his ...

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August Scharnagl

revised by Clytus Gottwald

(b Elsa, nr Coburg, Jan 26, 1540; d Marktbreit, Bavaria, Jan 26, 1589). German clergyman and hymn writer. He matriculated at the University of Wittenberg on 13 October 1561, at the University of Jena in September 1562 and at Wittenberg again in October 1564; he took the MA in 1565. Ordained at Ansbach in 1566, he first went to work at Weidelbach, near Dinkelsbühl, Bavaria, and from 1567 was deacon of the Protestant Spitalkirche at Dinkelsbühl. He lost this post in 1579 because his teaching was out of line with Lutheran christological doctrines, but in the same year he was reinstated as a vicar at Marktbreit. He published Libri tres odarum ecclesiasticarum, de sacris cantionibus (Frankfurt, 1578, repr. 1579) which contains 66 German congregational songs, with Latin translations and 64 well-known melodies. New Gesangbuch teutsch und lateinisch, darinn die fürnembste Psalmen und Gesänge der Kirchen Augsp. Confession (Frankfurt, ...

Article

William F. Prizer

[Franciscus VenetusFrancesco Varoter, etc.]

(b ?Venice, c1460; d Venice, late 1502, or before Feb 6, 1503). Italian composer and organist. He was appointed the first player of the second new organ at S Marco, Venice, in 1490, having previously been organist at S Leonardo there. He held the position at S Marco until shortly before 6 February 1503 when he was replaced by Giovanni de Marino and was described as ‘recently deceased’. He is therefore not identifiable with Francesco d’Ana of Padua who was appointed organist at Concordia Sagittaria Cathedral on 15 March 1554.

Many of Ana’s works are marked only with the initials ‘F.V.’ in Petrucci’s frottola books. In a list of corrections to Tenori e contrabassi intabulati … libro primo (1509) Petrucci named ‘F.V.’ as Francesco Varoter (Francesco the furrier). On the basis of this, Disertori attributed to Varoter all the other works ascribed to ‘F.V.’. This is improbable, and it is far more likely that the two musicians are the same. ...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b ?Urrestilla, nr Azpeitia, 1462; d Azpeitia, July 30, 1523). Spanish composer. He was the second son of Martín García de Anchieta and Urtayzaga de Loyola (an aunt of Ignatius Loyola) and may have studied at Salamanca University, where the music professor from 1481 to 1522 was Diego de Fermoselle, the elder brother of Juan del Encina. After his appointment on 6 February 1489 as a singer in Queen Isabella's court chapel at an annual salary of 20,000 maravedís Anchieta travelled constantly, for Isabella often moved her court (15 times between 1491 and 1503).

Anchieta's salary was raised to 30,000 maravedís on 30 August 1493. Two years later Isabella named him maestro de capilla to her 17-year-old son Don Juan (1478–97). His excellent services to the young prince prompted the queen to reward him with several ecclesiastical preferments. After her death in 1504 Anchieta was transferred with other members of the Castilian royal household to the service of her daughter Joanna, whose consort was Philip the Fair; in their entourage he visited Flanders, and from January to ...

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Klaus Fischer

(b Fossano, region of Cuneo, Oct 19, 1545; d Saluzzo, Cuneo, Aug 31, 1604). Italian music editor, composer and possibly writer on music. He was born into a leading aristocratic family of Melle, about 30 km from Fossano. He was educated at home and, from 1559, at Montpellier and then entered Turin University to study medicine, philosophy and rhetoric; he may also have studied music, since five of his 118 submissions for the doctorate were concerned with music. In 1566 he went to Pavia to continue his medical studies. On 29 January 1567 he graduated with outstanding results in arts and medicine from Turin University, and a few months later he was admitted to the university's college of doctors as a supernumerary lecturer. At the end of 1570 he left lecturing to become tutor and physician in the household of Count Madruzzi di Challant. When the count became an ambassador of the Duke of Savoy he accompanied him to Rome, where he arrived on ...

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Jeannine Lambrechts-Douillez and G. Grant O’Brien

In 

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Jeannine Lambrechts-Douillez and G. Grant O’Brien

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