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(b Pisky, near Khar′kiv, 8/Sept 20, 1876; d Paris, Jan 8, 1945). Ukrainian composer and pianist. Aged ten he was sent, along with his brother Yakiv (later known as the composer Stepovy), to sing in the choir of the Imperial Chapel in St Petersburg. It was during his time there (1886–95) that he began to compose under the influence of his teachers Balakirev and Lyapunov. He finished studies with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov at the St Petersburg Conservatory in 1901, the year in which the latter conducted the first performance of the Lyric Poem, op.20. Akimenko then became the director of a music school in Tbilisi (1901–03). He performed widely as a pianist, particularly in France and Switzerland, and lived for a while in Paris (1903–06) before returning to Khar′kiv. In 1914 he was invited to teach composition and theory at the St Petersburg Conservatory, a post he held until ...

Article

Faruk Yener

revised by Münir Nurettin Beken

(b Istanbul, May 6, 1908; d Ankara, Feb 16, 1999). Turkish composer. He was a member of the Turkish Five, a group of outstanding composers who, from the 1930s, promoted a Western musical style. Akses first played the violin and then took up the cello at the age of 14. He studied harmony with Cemal Reşit Rey at the Istanbul Municipal Conservatory. In 1926 he left for Vienna where he attended Joseph Marx’s harmony, counterpoint and composition classes for advanced students at the Academy. After receiving his diploma in 1931, he went to Prague and studied with Josef Suk and Alois Hába at the Prague Conservatory. He returned to Turkey in 1934 and was appointed a teacher of composition at the Music Teachers School, becoming its director in 1948. He then took a number of official positions: in 1949 he was director general of the Fine Arts Section of the Ministry of Education, then cultural attaché in Berne (...

Article

(b Kiev, 19 Sept/Oct 1, 1898; d Moscow, July 28, 1960). Ukrainian musicologist and composer. He entered the Kiev Academy of the Russian Musical Society in 1911, but in 1914 he was exiled to the northern Olonets government by tsarist authorities. Returning eventually to Kiev he continued his musical education and worked illegally in courses for workers. At the Kiev Conservatory (reorganized by Glier on the basis of the old academy) he studied composition with Glier and Boleslav Yavorsky, and graduated in 1920 from the piano class, where he had studied with Khodorovsky and Heinnich Neuhaus. In the same year he graduated from the Institute of National Economy.

Al′shvang began teaching in public classes on music history in 1919, and in the same year he was appointed head of the Soviet Military Music School in Kiev. From 1923 he taught at the Kiev Conservatory and at the Valery Bryusov Institute of Literature and Fine Arts in Moscow. From ...

Article

Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057. His music treatise, completed after 1036 and entitled Ḥāwī al-funūn wa-salwat al-maḥzūn (‘Compendium of the arts to comfort sad hearts’), is of particular interest in that it deals with various topics of little concern to other authorities. Written from the perspective of a cultured musician rather than that of a philosopher-theorist, it calls upon a literary tradition of writing about music, and its historical content is frankly derivative, even if of interest for the implication of continuity with the court music of 9th-century Baghdad. But it is wide-ranging in its treatment of contemporary practice, dealing not only with such basics as mode and rhythm, but also with such matters as the normal sequence of events in performance, deportment and etiquette, the materials and construction of the ‘...

Article

Erkki Salmenhaara

[Erik]

(b Ilmajoki, Feb 2, 1911; d Tampere, Sept 2, 1996). Finnish musicologist and folklorist. He studied at Helsinki Conservatory (1929–36) and under A.O. Väisänen at Helsinki University (MA 1942), where he took the doctorate in 1956 with a dissertation on the polska in Finland. His extended fieldwork on folk music and instruments in Finland and Sweden resulted in a collection of over 10,000 melodies (now in Tampere University library). After teaching music at Helsinki Conservatory (1951–7) and lecturing at Helsinki University (1957–62) he held a research grant from the State Humanities Committee (1962–75). He was professor of folk research at Tampere University (1975–7) and director of the university folk research institute (1977–81). He was active in many folk music research organizations. A list of his writings is included in the Festschrift Kentältä kentälle: juhlakirja Erkki Ala-Könnin 70 - vuotispäiväksi 2.2.1981...

Article

(b St Petersburg, 9/Dec 21, 1890; d Minsk, Dec 4, 1972). Belarusian composer and teacher. He received composition lessons from Yakov Prokhorov and in 1910 graduated from the St Petersburg Conservatory as an external student. During the early 1920s he worked at the Kazan′ Conservatory and at the State Institute for Music Research in Moscow; from 1924 he worked in Minsk. He was one of the organizers of the Belorussian Technical Secondary School for Music (1924), the Conservatory of Belorussia (now the Belorussian Academy of Music), and the Belorussian Composers' Organisation (1932). He taught at the conservatories at Moscow and Saratov (1941–4), and in 1946 he was appointed professor of the Conservatory of Belorussia (from 1944 to 1948 he was rector). From 1948 to 1949 he was the chairman of the BSSR Union of Composers, and in 1955 received the title of People's Artist of the BSSR....

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse

[Ottavio Felice Gaspare Maria]

(b Montegiorgio, Ascoli Piceno, Nov 16, 1881; d Montegiorgio, Dec 28, 1928). Italian musicologist, conductor and composer. He studied the piano, organ and composition at the Liceo Musicale di S Cecilia, Rome, where he gained his diploma in 1906 and was from 1912 professor of aesthetics and music history. He also graduated in 1907 from Rome University with a thesis on the Italian oratorio, subsequently expanded into an important book. His scholarly writings – notably those on Italian laudi spirituali and on Carissimi – in general helped to lay the foundations of modern Italian musicology. As a conductor he specialized in choral music, and in 1926 he founded the Madrigalisti Romani. He also fought hard for the improvement of Italian music education. His most ambitious composition, the opera Mirra, is eclectic and uneven, but shows technical enterprise – not least in the brief use of a specially constructed ‘pentaphonic harmonium’, in which the octave was divided into five equal parts (cf Indonesian ...

Article

Agustín Fernández

(b Oruro, Aug 12, 1950). Bolivian composer. He left Bolivia for Rome at the age of 19 to study composition with Ravinale at the Conservatorio di S Cecilia (1969–77) and with Donatoni at the Academia di S Cecilia Academy (1979–80). He also trained in conducting at the Conservatory (1979–81). Apart from a brief sojourn in Belgium, where he worked as a pianist for the choreographer Maurice Béjart (1977–8), he has remained in Italy, holding teaching posts (from 1980) at the Conservatories of Pesaro, S Cecilia (Rome), Pescara and (from 1995) Perugia. He has also lectured in various Latin American countries, including Bolivia and (regularly since 1994) Cuba. In 1983 he became director of the ensemble Nuove Forme Sonore, based in Rome.

Alandia has retained an aesthetic allegiance to his Bolivian roots: the orchestral work Sajsayhuaman (1980...

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Antonio Iglesias

(b Logroño, April 14, 1795; d Madrid, April 12, 1855). Spanish pianist, composer and teacher. He was the son of Mateo Pérez de Albéniz, a keyboard player and composer, from whom he received his first music lessons. Later he went to Paris for further training; he studied piano with Henri Herz and composition with Friedrich Kalkbrenner, and became a friend of Rossini. Upon his return to Spain he was organist at the church of S María in San Sebastián, and later at a church in Logroño. When Queen María Cristina founded the Madrid Conservatory he was appointed a professor, on 17 June 1830, and in 1834 he became organist of the royal chapel. He gave private instruction to Queen Isabel II, and was the first to introduce modern methods of keyboard technique and pedagogy into Spain. Although his compositions are of little interest, and are generally inferior to his father’s sonatas, he wrote a ...

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Gloria Eive

(b Faenza, bap. Dec 31, 1716; d Faenza, Oct 12, 1785). Italian violinist, composer and teacher. He studied with Tartini, probably between 1730 or 1731 and 1733, by which date his name appears in the list of musicians at Faenza Cathedral, as third (and last) violinist under the direction of his brother, Don Francesco Alberghi, maestro di cappella. In 1742 he was referred to in Faenza chronicles as ‘Paolo Alberghi, Professore’, and both his virtuosity and his compositions – sonatas and violin concertos – were extravagantly praised. In 1753 he became first violinist and, on his brother’s death in 1760, maestro di cappella as well; he retained both positions until his death. Alberghi supplemented his small salary from the cathedral by playing for civic festivities and for the two academies of Faenza, and by composing and teaching; among his pupils were Bernardo Campagnoli, Antonio Bisoni, Cristoforo Babbi and possibly Giuseppe Sarti (unconfirmed). A portrait of Alberghi in the Biblioteca Comunale of Faenza (which, together with the Archivio Capitolare del Duomo, contains much biographical material in manuscript) indicates that he was blind in one eye....

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Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

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Nikolai Paulsen

(b Trondheim, July 27, 1919). Norwegian composer, organist and teacher. A qualified architect (1943), he studied the organ with Ludvig Nielsen, Arild Sandvold and Per Stenberg, and also had lessons with Tarp in Copenhagen, Ralph Downes in London and Jelinek in Vienna. He worked as an organist in Trondheim (1947–68) and as a lecturer in music at Trondheim University (1968–72) before his appointment as director of the conservatory in the city (1972). His music shows the influences variously of Palestrina, Haydn, Les Six and Bartók; national elements occur, but they are not striking.

(selective list)

Article

Nigel Fortune

(b Moncalieri, nr Turin, probably between 1580 and 1590; d 1626 or later). Italian composer and musician. He came of a long-established family whose members had included painters and a royal doctor. He became a musician in the service of the court of Savoy at Turin. In 1619 a number of students destined for careers in music or the church were assigned to his care. During the next few years he deputized for Sigismondo d’India, director of court chamber music who was often absent, as a composer of occasional music for court use which he published in his op.2 of 1623. In that year d’India left the court, but Albini did not succeed him. He soon became instead a musician to Cardinal Maurizio, son of the Duke of Savoy, Carlo Emanuele I. This position, which he held when his op.4 appeared in 1626, probably necessitated his spending most of his time in Rome. His surviving music is contained in two similar volumes: ...

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Astrid Rajterová

(b Arad, Romania, Aug 12, 1885; d Bratislava, Aug 30, 1958). Slovak composer, conductor and teacher. He acquired his early musical education from various teachers, including Karol Forstner, organist of the cathedral of St Martin, Bratislava. From 1895 to 1903 he studied at the Royal Catholic Gymnasium in Poszony (now Bratislava), becoming friends with Bartók and Ernő Dohnányi, with whom he took an active part in the musical life of the school and of the town. From 1904 to 1908 he attended the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, studying composition with Koessler, the piano with Thomán and then Bartók, conducting with Ferenc Szandtner and chamber music performance with Popper. During his studies Albrecht enjoyed considerable success as a pianist, though he later decided to devote his time fully to composition. From 1908 he was organist at the cathedral in Bratislava and a teacher at the municipal music school. In ...

Article

Eric Blom

revised by Malcolm Turner

(b Magdeburg, March 31, 1902; d Kiel, Jan 20, 1961). German musicologist. He studied at the Essen Conservatory (1913–21), at the University of Münster and (1921–5) at Berlin with Wolf, Abert, Sachs and von Hornbostel. From 1925 to 1937 he held various teaching posts, organized music festivals in Bremen (1929), Essen (1931) and Aachen (1933), and was active in the Reichsverband Deutscher Tonkünstler und Musiklehrer. After a short period as choral adviser to the Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda, he joined the Staatliche Institut für Deutsche Musikforschung, Berlin, in 1939, becoming professor there in 1940 and director in 1941. In 1942 he was elected a member of the Senate of the Preussische Akademie der Künste, representing on that body the interests of musicology.

After the war he became director of the Landesinstitut für Musikforschung, Kiel, in 1947, where he remained until his death, becoming professor at the University of Kiel in ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Philadelphia, July 8, 1899; d Philadelphia, July 6, 1984). American musicologist and music librarian. He studied Romance languages and literature at the University of Pennsylvania, where he received the BA in 1921, the MA in 1925 and the PhD in 1931, and at the University of Copenhagen from 1922 to 1923. He taught both French and music at the University of Pennsylvania from 1923 until 1970, when he retired as emeritus professor of music. From 1937 he was curator of the university library, which was renamed the Otto E. Albrecht Music Library on his retirement. He also held several government positions, serving on the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees for Bavaria (1945–6), as chief of the publications section for the United States Military Government in Hesse (1947) and in Russia as specialist in musicology for the Department of State (1961).

Albrecht's historical interests included music in America to ...

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Robert N. Freeman

(b Klosterneuburg, nr Vienna, Feb 3, 1736; d Vienna, March 7, 1809). Austrian composer, teacher, theorist and organist. From the age of seven he served as a choirboy for the Augustinians in Klosterneuburg, where he learnt the organ and figured bass from the dean, Leopold Pittner. His studies in composition under G.M. Monn (if accurately reported by Albrechtsberger's pupil Johann Fuss) must have taken place during this period. As a student and choirboy at Melk Abbey from 1749 until 1754, he received a thorough training in composition and organ from Marian Gurtler, the regens chori, and Joseph Weiss, the abbey's organist. After a year of study at the Jesuit seminary in Vienna he worked as an organist in various provincial localities: Raab (now Győr, Hungary), 1755–7; Maria Taferl, near Melk, 1757–9; and Melk Abbey, 1759–65, where he succeeded his former teacher Weiss. His precise place of employment in ...

Article

Peter Marr

(b Plymouth, bap. Jan 28, 1740; d Walsall, bur. March 27, 1791). English organist and composer, eldest son of John Alcock (i). As a chorister under his father at Lichfield Cathedral, he deputized for him from the age of 12, and from 1758 to 1768 he was organist and master of the song school at Newark. In 1766 father and son both went to Oxford, the former to take the DMus degree and the latter the BMus degree which he gained with a setting of Pope’s Messiah (in GB-Ob ). His final appointment, at St Matthew’s, Walsall, followed in 1773, not long after his father had opened a new organ there. His published compositions include church music, songs and cantatas, together with convivial and instrumental music (including a duet for two bassoons or cellos). A volume of anecdotes, The Instructive and Entertaining Companion (Wolverhampton, 1779; ?unique copy in ...

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Sophie Fuller

[Amanda Christina Elizabeth; Ring, Montague]

(b London, March 16, 1866; d London, March 5, 1956). English composer, singer and teacher. An important member of London’s black community, Amanda Ira Aldridge was the daughter of the famous tragic actor Ira Aldridge. In 1883 she won a scholarship to the RCM. A pupil of Jenny Lind, her successful career as a contralto was ended by damage to her throat caused by laryngitis. She then established a distinguished career as a teacher, with pupils that included Marian Anderson and Paul Robeson.

Aldridge started publishing her compositions in her thirties, using the pseudonym Montague Ring. Her surviving works are in a popular style with strong rhythmic appeal. She published over 25 songs, often with words by African-American poets, such as ‘Where the Paw-Paw Grows’ (words by H.E. Downing, 1907) and ‘Summah is de Lovin’ Time’ (P.L. Dunbar, 1925). Her best-known work, Three African Dances, for piano, uses themes with West African origins....

Article

José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....