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James B. Kopp

(b ?Breitenfeld, Vogtland, France, May 10, 1784; d Paris, France, 1854). French maker of woodwind instruments, principally bassoons. He was the brother of Karl Friedrich Adler (1795–1888) and Johann Georg Adler (1787–1842), woodwind makers active in Bamberg and Hermsgrün, respectively. Established in Paris about ...

Article

Janet Dickey Lein

(b Hermesgrün, Germany, Nov 9, 1862; d Markneukirchen, Germany, Dec 27, 1922). German maker of woodwind instruments. Franz Oscar Adler and his brother Robert Oswald (1865–1946) learned woodwind instrument making from their father, Johann Gottlob (1825–1900). Robert worked for Hermann Sauerhering (...

Article

Adok  

Margaret J. Kartomi

Frame drum of the Saningbakar area of West Sumatra. The steeply tapering frame, up to 20 cm deep, is made of wood or coconut shell. The head, made of tiger skin laced with rattan cord, can be up to 40 cm in diameter and is struck by hand or with a stick to produce a deeply resonant sound. The ...

Article

Philip Bate and Wally Horwood

In 

See Sax family

Article

Laurence Libin

Term for an anthropo- or zoomorphic ceramic rattle of the pre-Contact Americas. In American archaeology ‘adorno’ (from Sp. adornar, ‘to decorate’) generally refers to a decoration attached to the rim (not the side) of a ceramic vessel. Many adornos have been broken off, perhaps intentionally, and are found separately. A significant number of these attached or detached effigies, typically about 6 cm tall or larger, are hollow and contain well-formed, loose pellets, also made of ceramic and fired together with the effigy and its vessel. In the USA adorno rattles have been found in pre-Mississippian and Mississippian-era sites, most examples dating from about ...

Article

See Trazegnies family

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Adufe  

John M. Schecter

Hand-beaten frame drum, of Muslim origin, played in Iberia, Latin America, and North Africa. Typically, a wooden frame about 30 to 45 cm square and 6 to 9 cm deep is covered with sheep or goat skin on one or both sides. Triangular and hexagonal shapes are occasionally found nowadays. The heads are normally tacked on and the tacks covered by ribbon, or in Morocco a single skin can be stitched over the frame. Rattling elements are sometimes enclosed. In Spain and Portugal it is played primarily by women (see illustration) often to accompany their singing. In Portugal it is prominently used with other instruments to accompany the ...

Article

Ae-be  

Raymond Ammann

Idiophone of the Loyalty Islands (off New Caledonia). It joins most of the choral singing that accompanies dances. The names of the instrument reflect ideas associated with unity or being struck. It is a disc-shaped parcel, 20 to 30 cm in diameter and 10 to 15 cm thick, typically of coconut fibres covered by leaves of the tree ...

Article

Aelyau  

Laurence Libin

Frame drum of Alaska, reported at the end of the 19th century. One from Point Barrow (in US.W.si) had a shallow hoop shaped as an oval, 56 by 48 cm, with a handle attached at the side, and a seal peritonium as the head. Apparently the name denoted the typical frame drum encountered from Alaska to Greenland and Siberia....

Article

Aeolian  

Cynthia Adams Hoover, Edwin M. Good and Barbara Owen

Name associated with a series of American piano, organ, and player piano manufacturers.

Founded by William B(urton) Tremaine (1840–1907), who had begun as a piano maker with Tremaine Brothers in New York City. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (...

Article

Laurence Libin

Term applied to any instrument sounded by air, and in particular to instruments set in vibration by natural wind currents, usually outdoors. It has been applied to bells, bows, harps, pipes, and tube zithers.

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American firm of player piano manufacturers. It was founded by William B. Tremaine, who had begun as a piano builder with Tremaine Brothers. He formed the Mechanical Orguinette Co. in New York (1878) and the Aeolian Organ & Music Co. (by 1888) to manufacture automatic organs and perforated music rolls. His son Harry B. Tremaine sensed the possibility of a larger market and directed the company in an extensive advertising campaign that resulted in the sale of millions of player pianos during the first three decades of the 20th century. In 1913 the company introduced the Duo-Art Reproducing Piano, a sophisticated mechanism (fitted in high-quality pianos) that made it possible to record and reproduce through paper rolls the slightest nuances of dynamics, tempo, and phrasing; a number of leading pianists of that time were recorded in this way....

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

American piano manufacturer. It was formed as the result of two mergers, the first of which, on 1 Sept 1932, between the Aeolian Co. and the American Piano Corporation (formerly the American Piano Co.), created the Aeolian American Corporation. In May 1959 the assets of the corporation were purchased by Winter & Co. The parent company changed its name to the Aeolian Corporation on ...

Article

Stephen Bonner

A string instrument (chordophone) sounded by natural wind, interesting as much for its symbolic significance as for its musical importance.

Normally four to 12 (but sometimes 24 or 48) strings ‘of catgut or brass wire, equal in length, unequal in thickness’ (Magasin pittoresque, 1845...

Article

Barbara Owen

American organ building firm. It was formed in 1931 when the firm of Ernest M(artin) Skinner & Co. acquired the organ department of the Aeolian Co., which had made its reputation building organs with self-playing mechanisms for private houses, changing its name to Aeolian-Skinner. In ...

Article

Term applied generically to instruments activated by the wind. Examples include several types of instrument with the prefix Aeolian, notably the Aeolian harp. The term may also denote an instrument whose sound imitates that of the wind, for example the Wind machine.

See also Aeolian ...

Article

Howard Mayer Brown and Frances Palmer

General term for musical instruments that produce their sound by setting up vibrations in a body of air. Aerophones form one of the original four classes of instruments (along with idiophones, membranophones and chordophones) in the hierarchical classification devised by E.M. von Hornbostel and C. Sachs and published by them in ...

Article

A device invented by the German flautist Bernhard Samuels in 1911. By means of a tube with a mouthpiece, it provides players of wind instruments with air from bellows operated by the foot and thus enables them to sustain notes indefinitely as on the organ. Although Richard Strauss called for it in his ...

Article

Afiw  

José Maceda

Idioglot Jew’s harp of the northern Philippines. Most are made of bamboo, but some are of brass or bronze with a slender triangular tongue cut through a small sheet of metal, the tongue remaining fully enclosed but attached only at the base of the triangle. Among the Bontok people it is known as the ...

Article

Flute of the Fon people of Benin and Togo.