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James Bash

(b Chicago, IL, Oct 13, 1967). American composer, pianist, and educator. Applebaum grew up in a musical family in Chicago. His father, Bob Applebaum, a high school physics teacher, studied classical music and composes. Applebaum graduated from Carleton College (BM 1989); his senior thesis took him to Mexico City to interview Conlon Nancarrow. He received his Masters (1992) and his Doctorate (1996) in composition from the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), studying with Brian Ferneyhough, Joji Yuasa, RAND STEIGER, and ROGER REYNOLDS. He taught at USCD, Mississippi State University, and Carleton College before his current faculty position at Stanford University, where he also serves as the founding director of the Stanford Improvisation Collective.

Applebaum’s solo, chamber, choral, orchestral, operatic, and electro-acoustic work has been performed throughout the United States, Europe, South America, Africa, and Asia at numerous new music festivals. His music is mercurial, highly detailed, disciplined, and exacting, but it also features improvisational and whimsical aspects. As such, he is considered as much in the experimentalist camp exemplified by composers such as Cage and Zappa as part of the European modernist lineage represented by his principal teacher Brian Ferneyhough. He has drawn inspiration from jazz pioneers and maverick composers such as Nancarrow and Partch, who found it necessary to use or invent unusual instruments to realize their artistic visions....


E. Douglas Bomberger

(b Neef, Rheinland, Oct 28, 1856; d Los Angeles, Jan 28, 1932). American conductor, composer, and voice teacher of German birth. He was brought to America at age eleven, received his first musical training from his father, Clemens Arens, and later studied with John Singenberger at the Normal College in St. Francis, Wisconsin. After further studies with Joseph Rheinberger in Munich 1881–3 and with Franz Wüllner in Dresden 1883–4, where he earned a Preiszeugnis (one of six in a student body of 734), he settled in Cleveland as conductor of the Cleveland Philharmonic Society and the Cleveland Gesangverein.

He returned to Europe around 1890 to study vocal pedagogy with Julius Hey in Berlin. In 1891 and 1892 he conducted American Composers’ Concerts with orchestras in Berlin, Dresden, Leipzig, Weimar, Hamburg, and Sondershausen, concluding his tour with an appearance at the Vienna Musical and Theatrical Exhibition on 5 July 1892...


John Koegel

(b Guadalajara, Mexico, July 5, 1843; d Los Angeles, CA, June 28, 1900). American guitarist, composer, and music teacher of Mexican birth. He began his musical studies at the age of 15 in Guadalajara, where he was active in musical circles and where he also probably helped establish the Sociedad Filarmónica Jalisciense (founded 1869). Arévalo left Mexico for San Francisco in 1870, moving permanently to Los Angeles the next year. He became the preeminent guitarist in Los Angeles and Southern California, and was active there through the 1890s. Arévalo was also a teacher of guitar, voice, and piano, and a composer for the guitar. He played in many recitals, society musicales, club events, and other contexts throughout Southern California, and the Spanish- and English-language press frequently mentioned him and favorably reviewed his performances. At least two of his students achieved prominence, including guitarist Luis Toribio Romero and pianist María Pruneda. Arévalo’s guitar works are in the standard European and American salon styles of the day, though he also wrote “Latin-tinged” pieces (e.g. his guitar duet ...


Alicia Valdés Cantero

( b Havana, Oct 28, 1856; d Havana, June 30, 1930). Cuban composer, pianist and teacher . She studied first of all with her father, the pianist and composer Fernando Arizti (1828–88), and continued more formally with Francisco Fuente and Nicolás Ruiz Espadero. In 1887 a number of her piano works, including Danza, Mazurka and Reverie, were published in New York. She taught the piano privately and at Peyrellade’s Conservatorio de Música y Declamación, Havana, and gave recitals in Cuba and, in 1896, New York; she also wrote a manual of piano technique. In addition to several piano works, her compositions include violin pieces, two works for small band, and a piano trio (1893, the first chamber work to have been written by a Cuban woman); written in a traditional harmonic language, they are marked by melodic beauty and careful formal construction. Her piano writing shows the influence of Chopin. In ...


Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...


Greg A. Handel


(b West Hempstead, NY, April 26, 1956). American music educator, choral arranger, editor, and conductor. He was a member of the American Boychoir (1969–71), and received degrees from St Olaf College (BM 1978), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (MM 1980), and Michigan State University (DMA 1987). He was on the summer faculty of the American Boychoir School and now serves on the Board of Trustees. He taught at Calvin College (1980–90) before becoming the fourth conductor of the St Olaf Choir and the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Endowed Professor of Music (1990–). Armstrong is the editor for Earthsongs publications and co-editor of the St. Olaf Choir Series. He chronicled the history of the St Olaf Choir in his doctoral dissertation. He is featured on an instructional video for adolescent singers, Body, Mind, Spirit, Voice (2002...


Alan Walker



John Koegel

[y Ansola ]

(b Tolosa, Guipúzcoa, Spain, July 25, 1847; d Oakland, CA, Jan 27, 1915). Spanish-Basque composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher. Born into a family connected to the manufacture of berets, he studied solfège with the director of the Tolosa municipal band, and began piano and organ lessons with his parish organist. Arrillaga later studied at the Real Conservatorio de Música in Madrid—solfège with Hilarión Eslava (author of the famous solfège method), harmony with Rafael Hernando, and piano with Manuel Mendizábal. After receiving gold medals at the Madrid Conservatory for harmony and piano in July 1867, presented to him by Queen Isabel II, later in 1867 he began piano studies with Antoine-François Marmontel at the Paris Conservatoire. Around 1869, he traveled throughout Latin America, performing and teaching in San José, Costa Rica from 1870 to 1875. He moved to California in 1875, first to Los Angeles, and then soon thereafter permanently to San Francisco. He was noted for his work as a piano accompanist, performing with musicians such as singer Carlotta Patti and San Francisco guitarist-composer Manuel Ferrer. Arrillaga composed numerous instrumental and vocal works, including several for piano on Spanish themes (e.g., “Zortzico” and ...


James Chute


(b Seattle, June 27, 1953). American composer and conductor. He studied composition with Stephen Albert, Ronald Perera and Randall McClellan at Hampshire College (BA 1975). His teachers at Yale University (MM 1977) included Druckman and MacCombie (composition), and Arthur Weisberg (conducting). He also studied composition with Schuller at the Berkshire Music Center (1979) and with Yun at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1980). He served on the faculty of the Oberlin Conservatory from 1980 to 1986. A UK Fulbright Arts Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship (1987–8) enabled him to work in London from 1986 to 1988, where he was a visiting lecturer at City University. He joined the faculty of the University of Arizona in 1988. He has conducted the university-based Arizona Contemporary Ensemble, founded and co-directed the New York contemporary music ensemble Musical Elements (1977–) and served as composer-in-residence for the Phoenix SO (...


Michael B. Bakan

[Gedé ]

(b Kaliungu Kaja, Denpasar, 1955). Balinese composer, performer, teacher and musicologist. Born into a musical family, he is the brother of I Komang Astita and the cousin of Wayan Sadra and I Wayan Yudana, all well-known composers. He has taught composition and gamelan performance at the Sekolah Menengah Karawitan Indonesia and Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia in Bali since 1981. He is a graduate of these same institutions (1974 and 1980 respectively) and also holds a graduate degree (SSKar) from the Institut Seni Indonesia in Yogyakarta, as well as an MA in ethnomusicology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, where he wrote his thesis on Balinese gambuh drumming under the direction of Mantle Hood (1991). He directed the Balinese gamelan programme at the University of Maryland while a student there (1988–91), and since that time has taught gamelan at the University of Montreal (...


Angelina Petrova

(b Pazardzhik, Bulgaria, Oct 27, 1952). Bulgarian composer, pianist, harpsichord player, and pedagogue. He graduated in piano (under Prof. Sturshenov) in 1977 and in composition under Prof. Hadzhiev. He continued with postgraduate studies under Yvonne Lefébure, Zuzana Růžičková (1983), and Milan Schlechta (1977). He is a prize winner from the A. Casagrande International Piano Competition in Terni, Italy (1976), and holder of the third prize in the piano duo category (1980). He is a keen performer of 17th- and 18th-century music as well as of 20th-century works.

He is a professor of composition (2000) and has also served as Dean of the Faculty of Instrumental Music at the National Music Academy in Sofia (1993–9). He is a composer with an individual style in the sphere of tonal and modal experimentation that combines folklore and features of the contemporary instrumental score. His Piano Concerto no.2 was awarded a prize at the New Music Festival in St Petersburg (...


Patricia Brown


(b Liverpool, Feb 17, 1950). Australian performer and composer, of English birth. After studying English at the University of New South Wales (1969–77) he worked as a solo and ensemble player on a wide range of medieval, Renaissance and Baroque string, wind and percussion instruments; he also specialized in folk instruments from a variety of countries. This instrumental ability led him to work with cross-cultural groups such as Sirocco, Southern Crossings (a world music quartet founded by Atherton in 1986), and Ariel (a quartet founded in 1995 to explore new music for shakuhachi, didjeridu, percussion and electronics); he has toured and lectured widely with these groups in Australia and abroad. He has also worked as a music therapist, and was curator of instruments at the Australian Museum in Sydney (1993 and 1998). In 1993 he was appointed foundation professor of music at the University of Western Sydney, Nepean. His interests include urban ethnomusicology, organology and Korean music. His work as a composer, arranger and improviser includes film scores, and choral and chamber works....



Roger J.V. Cotte

[Atis; first name unknown]

(b St Domingue [now Haiti], April 18, 1715; d Paris, Aug 8, 1784). French creole flautist, composer and teacher. His skill as a flute virtuoso and teacher made him renowned in Paris and Vienna, but his concert career was cut short by a chin wound received in a pistol duel. He was among the first flautists to use crescendo and diminuendo instead of simple echo contrasts. His compositions, all published in Paris, are primarily intended for amateur flautists: they include duos ‘en forme de conversation’ op.1 (...



Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...


John Gillespie

revised by Laura Moore Pruett

[Bärmann, Karl ]

(b Munich, Germany, July 9, 1839; d Newton, MA, Jan 17, 1913). Pianist, teacher, and composer of German birth. His father, Carl Bärmann (1810–85), and his grandfather, Heinrich Joseph Bärmann (1784–1847), were both renowned clarinetists; the latter was an intimate friend of Weber and Mendelssohn, both of whom composed works for him. Carl Baermann studied in Munich with Franz Lachner and Peter Cornelius and later became a pupil and close friend of Franz Liszt. He taught for many years at the Königliche Musikschule in Munich, becoming a professor in 1876, then in 1881 came to the United States. He made a successful debut as pianist in Boston (22 December 1881). Having decided to remain, he became prominent there as a performer, playing Beethoven’s “Emperor” concerto with the Boston Symphony Orchestra during its first season in 1882. He was also highly esteemed as a teacher: ...


David Tunley

revised by Michael Jones


(b London, Feb 14, 1880; d Sydney, Dec 8, 1956). English composer, pianist and teacher. He studied at the RCM under Stanford and Franklin Taylor. In 1901 he was appointed to teach the piano and composition at the Newcastle Conservatory of which he became principal a few years later. He was on the Continent at the outbreak of World War I and was interned at Ruhleben. On his return to Newcastle he resumed his activities as teacher, pianist, conductor and composer until the end of 1933, when he was appointed director of the New South Wales State Conservatorium, Sydney. Immediately before his departure he was elected an FRCM and awarded an honorary DMus by the University of Durham. In Sydney he exercised a strong influence on the development of musical life, particularly through his fine conducting. His symphony ‘Before Sunrise’ won a Carnegie Award in 1917. Bainton was less affected by the modality of English folksong than were many contemporaries, although much of his work has a pastoral tone. He was drawn to late-Romantic harmony, yet even his richest writing never obscures the direct lyrical impulse. His works have clarity of form and show a high degree of craftsmanship. One of his major works, ...


Fatima Hadžić


(b Mostar, Bosnia, July 31, 1890; d Kasindo (near Sarajevo), 1951). Bosnian composer, choir conductor, and music educator. He attended the private school of music Glasbena škola F. Matějovský in Sarajevo. His music studies at the Imperial Academy of Music and the Performing Arts in Vienna (1910–11) and his studies in composition at the Royal National Hungarian Academy of Music in Budapest (1911–13) were interrupted due to his financial problems. In Sarajevo, he conducted the choirs of the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Sloga’ (1914–32), the Jewish singing society, ‘Lira’ (1927–31), and the Singing Society of Railwaymen, ‘Jedinstvo’. In 1920, he founded and conducted the Serbian Singing Society, ‘Petar Veliki Oslobodioc’, in Novo Sarajevo. From its foundation in 1920 until 1941 he worked as a teacher of piano and music theory in the District School of Music. He also worked as a music teacher in the First Gymnasium (...


William E. Boswell

(b Wenham, MA, July 10, 1811; d Boston, MA, March 11, 1889). American teacher, singer, and composer. He sang, directed choirs, and taught music in Salem, Massachusetts, and in 1833 toured the country with a concert company. He then settled in Bangor, Maine, as a businessman, but moved to Boston in 1837 to study music with John Paddon. He was director of music at W.E. Channing’s church for eight years, and succeeded Lowell Mason as superintendent of musical instruction in the Boston public schools in 1841. Also in that year he began holding “musical conventions,” which led to many appearances as soloist with the Handel and Haydn Society, of which he later became vice-president. He founded the Boston Music School and served as principal and head of the singing department until 1868, when he retired and the school closed. He was editor of the Boston Musical Journal for several years. Baker collaborated in compiling over 25 collections of songs, hymns, anthems, and glees, including ...


Timothy M. Crain


(b Indianapolis, IN, Dec 21, 1931; d Bloomington, IN, March 26, 2016). American composer and jazz cellist. He received both the BME (1953) and MME (1954) degrees from Indiana University and studied privately with J.J. Johnson, Bob Brookmeyer, George Russell, Janos Starker, John Lewis, and Gunther Schuller, among others. Unable to play the trombone professionally following a 1953 accident, Baker turned exclusively to the cello and pioneered the use of that instrument in jazz with such artists as Maynard Ferguson, Quincy Jones, George Russell, John Montgomery, and Lionel Hampton. He taught at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri, at Indiana Central University, Indianapolis, and in the Indianapolis public schools. In 1966 he joined the faculty of Indiana University, where he served as Distinguished Professor of Music and Chairperson of the Jazz Department. At IU, he established the 21st-Century Bebop Band, a student group dedicated to the preservation of bebop literature. He received honorary doctorates from Wabash College, Oberlin College, and the New England Conservatory of Music. In ...