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Ingmar Bengtsson

revised by Bertil H. van Boer

(b Uppland, Dec 1714; d Stockholm, Aug 9, 1767). Swedish violinist, copyist, composer and poet. He was active in Stockholm from 1727, and was employed as a member of the royal chapel from 1735; in 1738 he became Konzertmeister and in 1745 Kapellmeister. He succeeded his teacher, J.H. Roman, as chief court Kapellmeister from 1758 until at least 1765.

Brant contributed energetically to Stockholm’s musical life, particularly during the 1730s and 40s, organizing, for example, a series of subscription concerts (1738–41) in which young amateur noblemen and members of the court chapel worked together. He also planned with Roman an educational institution (or ‘seminarium’) for music, which did not materialize.

Brant was one of the most capable and successful music copyists in Sweden during the mid-18th century. He also had a good knowledge of languages and wrote some poems which reflect the spirit of the age. His position as a composer is difficult to establish: while one contemporary account states that he had ‘shown his knowledge in composition’ (J. Wellander), another noted that he had written only a few small ‘occasional pieces’ (J.F. Hallardt). Although 18 extant works have been attributed to him (three to four symphonies, a sonata for flute and basso continuo, two cantatas and a few solo songs), Bengtsson has shown that only one work (a song published in ...


Rudolf Lück

revised by Samantha Owens

(b prob. Bologna, c1690; d Ludwigsburg, Oct 3, 1758). Italian violinist and composer. He first appears in documents when in 1715 the Electress of Bavaria brought him from Venice to Munich as a violinist. In October 1716, after the death of Oberkapellmeister Johann Christoph Pez, he became music director (Director musices) in charge of chamber music at the Württemberg court in Stuttgart. At the end of January 1718 Brescianello dedicated an opera pastorale on the subject of Pyramus and Thisbe to his employer Duke Eberhard Ludwig, although there is little evidence to suggest the work was ever performed. From 1719 to 1721 he had to face heated battles with his rival Reinhard Keiser, who sought unsuccessfully for Pez’s long vacant position. On 1 February 1721 Brescianello was appointed Württemberg Rath und Oberkapellmeister, making him the first Italian to be placed in charge of the Hofkapelle...


Edward R. Reilly

(b Provence, c1690; d Paris, Jan 13, 1768). French flautist and teacher, active in Germany. Marseilles is sometimes cited as his native city, but 18th-century sources indicate only that he came from Provence. As a young man he was taken to Constantinople by the French ambassador, and there, sometime before 1712, taught Johann Jacob Bach, J.S. Bach's elder brother. In November 1715 Buffardin entered the service of Augustus II in Dresden, and was soon regarded as one of the outstanding players in the court orchestra. Under Augustus III his stipend of 500 thalers was raised to 1000, and in 1749 he was pensioned. During his years in Dresden he maintained contacts with his homeland, and in 1726 and 1737 performed in the Concert Spirituel in Paris. He returned to France in 1750 and on 24 July of that year performed for the Dauphine. A letter by Buffardin concerning the use of quarter-tones on the flute appeared in the ...


Barry S. Brook, Richard Viano and Jitka Brabcová

[Antonín Štěpán, Anton, Antonio]

(b Mělník, Bohemia, Feb 9, 1751; d St Petersburg 13/June 25, 1821). Czech composer and bassoonist, active in France and Russia. All 18th-century printed and manuscript copies of his own works spell the name ‘Bullant’. Confusion about his origins has been resolved by the discovery of his birth record in the Mělník register, confirming Dlabač’s statement about his Bohemian origins. According to the register his parents were Josef Bulant from Mělník (Podolí quarter) and his wife Kateřina. The name Bulant occurs quite frequently in the Mělník register in the years 1742–1804, frequently spelt in different ways (Bulan, Bulanan, Bulanti, Belant). It is clearly of non-Czech origin (fuelling older musicological speculation about the composer’s origin in northern France); it may have arrived in central Bohemia via the French army, for instance during the Silesian wars (Mělník lies on the direct path often taken by foreign armies). There is no record of Bullant’s musical schooling or of when and why he went to France. Prince August Anton Joseph Lobkowitz maintained an orchestra and theatre on his Mělník estate, in which Bullant may have played. It is possible that Bullant’s departure for Paris may have been connected with Prince Lobkowicz’s departure for Madrid (...


(b Rome, 1659; d Naples, May 2, 1722). Italian violinist and composer. He is first heard of as a member of Carlo Mannelli’s circle in Rome: in 1682 he was one of the musicians used occasionally in the chapels of S Giacomo degli Spagnoli and S Girolamo della Carità; and in November 1683 he appears in a list of members of the Congregazione dei musici sotto l’invocazione di S Cecilia. That year he followed Alessandro Scarlatti to Naples, making his début at the Teatro S Bartolomeo. From then on he remained in Naples, marrying there in 1688. From 20 April 1684 until his death he was a musician at the royal chapel, and in 1690 he also served at the Cappella del Tesoro di S Gennaro. He was elected Governor of the Congregazione dei Musici di Palazzo Reale in 1707.

Cailò’s brilliant performing career was matched by his activities as a teacher. In ...


Lucy Robinson

(b c1680; d c1755). French composer and viol player. There is no firm evidence that he was a member of the Caix, de family family, but the fact that he played the same instrument, published works in Lyons and named a piece La Marie-Anne de Caix indicates that he might have been. He was probably the nephew of Louis de Kaix, a chaplain at the Ste Chapelle in Paris originally from Amiens; in 1697 Louis de Kaix was looking for a room where his nephew could practise the viol. Caix d’Hervelois does not appear to have received a court appointment although he dedicated his final volume of pièces de viole to Louis XV’s daughter. By 1731 he was living opposite St Eustache, in a clock maker’s house in the rue de Jour.

Caix d’Hervelois’ musical language strongly suggests that he was a pupil of Marin Marais. His five books of ...


(b Montaigut-sur-Save, Jan 26, 1700; d Paris, May 3, 1788). French concert entrepreneur and cellist. He served as basse du grand choeur in the Paris Opéra orchestra from 1736 to 1755. That he played the cello, rather than the basse de viole, is implied by Corrette in 1741: ‘at the Musique du Roi, at the Opéra, and in concerts, it is the violoncello that plays the basse continue’. By 1748 Capperan was rehearsing singers as a maître de chant. His health began failing by 1753. He had obtained the survivance of a charge in the Vingt-Quatre Violons du Roi in 1746 and succeeded to the post in 1749; he resigned it in 1759 to André-Joseph Exaudet. The Affiches de Paris reported his burial at St. Roch in Paris; the Almanach musicale gave the date of death.

On 14 June 1748, Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer made Capperan a 25 percent partner in the ...


Roger J.V. Cotte

[le cadet iii]

(b Paris, c1730; d Paris, Oct 24, 1756). French violinist and composer. His father, Caraffe le père (d Paris or Versailles, 4 March 1738), joined the Opéra orchestra in 1699 in the dual role of violinist or violist and timpanist; he subsequently joined the ‘24 Violons du Roi’ and on 20 August 1723 purchased the royal warrant to direct them. Charles-Placide Caraffe joined the Opéra orchestra in 1746 and on 19 January 1749 became a musician in ordinary in the ‘24 Violons’. On 4 April 1752 and 24 December 1754 two of his symphonies were performed at the Concert Spirituel. His Six symphonies à trois violons et une basse appeared in Paris in 1753; between 1752 and 1754 he also published eight cantatilles for solo voice and instrumental ‘simphonie’ (including Le pouvoir de la beauté, L’amant rebuté, Le sommeil, La Pastorale and Le petit maître...


Roger Fiske

revised by Rachel E. Cowgill

(fl 1728–57). English violinist and composer. He was one of the original members of the Society of Musicians in 1738, and is listed among the subscribers to Festing's Eight Concertos in Seven Parts (1739). Active in London, he was probably the same Carter who presented a benefit concert at the York Buildings on 12 April 1728, and took a share of the receipts from concerts at Goodman's Fields Theatre (27 April 1736) and Drury Lane (20 April 1742). He also gave a joint benefit concert at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre (15 March 1743) with fellow Royal Society members Frederick Bosch, Thomas Collett and Thomas Gair.

Carter also taught the violin: his Six Solos op.1 (London), a set of competent Baroque violin sonatas, was written ‘for the use of my younger scholars’, and as those who subscribed to the publication included Pepusch (...


Owain Edwards

revised by Simon McVeigh

(b Rome, 1679; d Dublin, March 7, 1752). Italian violinist and composer. He is believed to have been a pupil of Corelli in Rome, where in 1715 he and his younger brother Prospero (d 1760), also a violinist, came to the notice of Lord Burlington, Handel’s patron. In May they accompanied Burlington to England, remaining in his household until at least 1721. The two brothers spent most of their working lives in London. Pietro’s first public appearance was at a benefit concert on 23 July 1715, the first of many at which he played his own virtuoso compositions, and often also works by Corelli. He led Handel’s opera orchestra for over 20 years, and both he and Prospero are referred to in certain of Handel’s autograph scores. Besides playing the violin, they also performed on a short-lived instrument developed by Pietro akin to the viola d’amore, which, if rightly assumed to have been the ‘English violet’ Leopold Mozart mentioned in his ...


James L. Jackman

(b Naples, Nov 7, 1706; d Naples, Feb 15, 1761). Italian composer and instrumentalist. The only known facts of his life are that his parents were Domenico and Antonia Cangiano and that he was buried in the chapel of the Congregazione dei Musici di S Maria la Nova. He is principally known for having written the music for a satiric comic opera by P. Trinchera, La tavernola abentorosa, which, by its alleged impiety, offended both church and state authorities. This work illustrates a special chapter in the history of opera buffa, for it was a carnival entertainment written not for a public but for a monastic audience (a Neapolitan custom of the time). Records discovered by Prota-Giurleo show that La tavernola was performed in February 1741 in the establishments of Monteoliveto and SS Demetrio e Bonifacio. Trinchera’s plot dealt with the machinations of a hypocritical rogue disguised as a monk who, after gulling some humble Neapolitans, finally converts them all to the monastic life. Ecclesiastical dignitaries were not amused and, after an inquiry, the king ordered both the poet and his publisher arrested and copies of the libretto (which had not been authorized by the public censor) suppressed. Trinchera took sanctuary in the church of the Carmine, eventually suffered at least a month’s actual imprisonment, and was not released until the following January (his death by suicide was not connected with this incarceration, as is sometimes said, but with a later one, incurred for bankruptcy). No official blame for ...


Roger Fiske

revised by Linda Troost

(b c1709; d Jamaica, c1738). English violinist, composer and singer. He began his career as a dancing-master, but by 1729 he had succeeded Richard Jones as leader of the Drury Lane orchestra, and he was soon playing concertos in the intervals and singing small roles. He also sang the male lead in several ballad operas, for instance Carey’s The Contrivances and Cibber’s Damon and Phillida (both 1729). Burney called him ‘a man of humour’; he wrote the first of the many amusing Medley Overtures that in the next 20 years were often played before pantomimes. The tune fragments, from Purcell and Handel as well as from popular songs such as Lilliburlero, occur in the bass as well as at the top and are sometimes cleverly combined. The slow middle section of Charke’s overture is surprisingly beautiful, with its 3/4 tune accompanied in 6/8.

Unfortunately his private life was a disaster. In ...



F.G. Rendall

revised by Christopher Hogwood and Barra R. Boydell

[first name unknown]

(b ?1705–1710). Horn player, clarinettist and composer, probably Hungarian. He is a shadowy figure but important as the earliest named performer on the clarinet in the British Isles. He is first mentioned in the London Daily Post in connection with ‘two little Negro-boys, Scholars to Mr. Charles’ who performed on two french horns at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane (3 March 1738). In March 1742 he arrived in Dublin from London, heralded in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal as ‘an Hungarian, the famous French horn’, and in May he played a concerto on the clarinet and solos on the horn, ‘Hautbois d’Amoir,’ and the ‘shalamo’, a concert that was repeated by popular demand the following month. In November he took over ‘Mr Geminiani’s Concerns and Great Musick Room’ and gave lessons on the horn. He played horn and clarinet concertos in the Theatre Royal, Aungier Street, and at Smock Alley Theatre in February and ...


Neal Zaslaw

(b Paris, bap. Feb 6, 1695; d Paris, bur. Oct 7, 1766). French organist, harpsichordist, conductor and composer. Born into a family of musicians and instrument makers, he studied from 1702 under Nicolas Bernier as a choirboy at the Ste Chapelle, where in 1713 he assumed the duties of auxiliary organist. Around 1729 he was in the entourage of the wealthy patron of the arts, Bonnier de la Mosson, to whom his opp.1 and 2 were dedicated. Serving in the same Parisian household was Jean-Marie Leclair l’aîné who, although only two years Chéron’s junior and already internationally known, studied harmony and counterpoint with him. A decade later Leclair, with his op.7 violin concertos, acknowledged his debt in a warm letter of dedication to Chéron in which he stated that, ‘all the world knows that I am your pupil … If some beauties are found here, I owe them to the learned lessons that I received from you’....


Francesco Giuntini and John Walter Hill

(b Florence, Sept 18, 1698; d after 1749). Italian trumpeter, impresario and composer. The word ‘corazza’ (cuirassier), used in connection with his name, suggests a link between his family (of German origin) and the Swiss Guard of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. On 13 December 1719 he joined a company of Florentine musicians. His activity as an impresario and composer of dramatic music was mostly in Florence, but also in other Tuscan cities such as Lucca, Pisa and Pistoia. After 1738 he is described in some librettos as ‘professor di tromba’ by imperial appointment, and after 1743 as ‘maestro di cappella della Real Brigata de’ Carabinieri di Sua Maestà Cattolica’. A French privilege to print his instrumental music, issued to Chinzer on 11 March 1749, suggests that he was in Paris at that time.

In his operas he continued the tradition of Florentine commedia per musica until its popularity was supplanted by the Neapolitan variety. His sonatas often employ rounded binary form, small-scale phrase repetition, reverse dotting, echo phrasing and small, ornamental figures typical of mid-century style. Lack of imagination is notable in his motifs....


(b ?Paris, c1728–30; d Versailles, May 31, 1760). French cellist and composer. Older members of his family included Marin Chrétien (d ?Versailles, 1657), a baritone in the chambre du roi but a tenor in the chambre de la reine, and Jacques Chrétien (d after 1683), a maker of brass instruments which are still valuable. Jean-Baptiste is often referred to as Charles-Antoine Chrétien in early reference sources. From the age of 14 he held a post in the chambre du roi, where he studied with Campra. In 1744 he was a soloist at the Concert Spirituel and in 1746 he made his début as a composer at Versailles with a motet ‘with which the whole court was pleased’, according to the Mercure de France. Later he composed orchestral and chamber music as well as stage works; his divertissement lyrique, Iris, ou L’orage dissipé, was favourably reviewed by the ...


Jean Grundy Fanelli

(b Pisa, Sept 27, 1677; d Pisa, May 16, 1754). Italian composer and instrumentalist. He was the son of Constantino Clari, a violinist at the church of the Cavalieri di S Stefano in Pisa. Teofilo Macchetti, maestro di cappella of Pisa Cathedral, who referred to him as ‘Carlino’, was possibly his teacher. Clari studied for four years with Paolo Colonna in Bologna, finishing his studies in 1695, the year his opera Il savio delirante was performed at the Teatro Pubblico there. For the following eight years he worked freelance, mainly in Pisa and Florence, and in 1697 he was elected to membership of the Accademia Filarmonica of Bologna. His father asked Lorenzo Cattani, maestro di cappella of S Stefano dei Cavalieri in Pisa, to engage him as a regular member of the cappella, but he was not taken on. It was only through Clari's contacts with the Medici family in Florence, as a protégé of Prince Ferdinando in particular, that he was eventually appointed ...


Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, bap. Oct 28, 1673; d London, bur. Sept 23, 1725). English composer and violinist. His father, William Clayton (c1636–1697), was given one of the nine new places for the violin created for Charles II’s Royal Private Musick in 1660. Some violin tunes by him survive in manuscript. Thomas joined his father in the royal musical establishment as a violinist in 1689, receiving a full place in 1693. He inherited property from both parents (his mother died in 1700) and received his father’s music books and instruments and his shares in the Drury Lane theatre. By autumn 1704 he had been to Italy to study music, although he was in England to sign each year for the livery payment due to him on 30 November.

On 28 October 1704 the Diverting Post reported that two operas, one of them by Clayton, were being prepared for the opening of John Vanbrugh’s new playhouse in the Haymarket. However, Clayton’s opera, ...


Ian Bartlett

(b Dublin, c1714; d London, c1750). Irish violinist and composer. He was a child prodigy who went on to play a prominent role as soloist and orchestral player in London from about 1730 to 1744. He was the product of a strong tradition of violin playing in Ireland. He was taught by his father (probably William Clegg, a state musician in Dublin until 1723) and William Viner from an exceptionally early age, and subsequently by Dubourg (violin) and Giovanni Bononcini (presumably composition). His first public concert was in Dublin in March 1723; his London début in May was considered by Burney to have been one of the most memorable musical events of that year. While he pursued his career mainly in London, Clegg returned to Dublin occasionally to participate in concerts with his sister, a leading soprano there. Hawkins remarked on the clarity and speed of Clegg's execution and the strength of his tone; Burney placed him with Veracini as one of the two most sought after solo violinists in London during the early 1730s. Mental disturbance led to his being admitted to Bethlem Hospital (...


(b Correggio, nr Reggio nell’Emilia, 2nd half of the 17th century; d Rome, c1735). Italian composer and instrumentalist. He worked for Cardinal Ottoboni from 1692 to 1698 and from 1694 he held the post of maestro di cappella in Rome, but it is not known at which church (he is also cited as ‘maestro’ in the registers of the Società del Centesimo). In ...