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Greg A. Handel


(b West Hempstead, NY, April 26, 1956). American music educator, choral arranger, editor, and conductor. He was a member of the American Boychoir (1969–71), and received degrees from St Olaf College (BM 1978), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (MM 1980), and Michigan State University (DMA 1987). He was on the summer faculty of the American Boychoir School and now serves on the Board of Trustees. He taught at Calvin College (1980–90) before becoming the fourth conductor of the St Olaf Choir and the Harry R. and Thora H. Tosdal Endowed Professor of Music (1990–). Armstrong is the editor for Earthsongs publications and co-editor of the St. Olaf Choir Series. He chronicled the history of the St Olaf Choir in his doctoral dissertation. He is featured on an instructional video for adolescent singers, Body, Mind, Spirit, Voice (2002...


Robert Hoskins

(b London, Aug 10, 1740; d London, Oct 22, 1802). English composer, conductor, organist and editor. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, a commoner, and, according to some sources, the Princess Amelia. Arnold received his education as a Child of the Chapel Royal (c1750 to August 1758) and on leaving became known as an organist, conductor and teacher, and composed prolifically. In autumn 1764 he was engaged by John Beard as harpsichordist and composer to Covent Garden; there he compiled several pastiche operas, including the popular The Maid of the Mill (1765), which is among the supreme examples of the form. In 1769 Arnold bought Marylebone Gardens, and during the next six summers produced several short all-sung burlettas, composing or at least contributing to four new examples (now lost). These productions were simply written (from the literary point of view at least) and would have appealed to an audience with no previous experience of operatic music....


(b Grodzisk, nr Poznań, July 26, 1552; d Toruń, Aug 2, 1609). Polish clergyman and hymnbook compiler. He first studied at Grodzisk, was then, from 1573, a private tutor at Ostroróg and in 1577–8 attended the University of Wittenberg. An outstanding Protestant divine, he spent his whole career as a preacher – in Warsaw from 1578, at Wȩgrów from 1581, at Kryłów (in the Małopolska district) from 1584 and at Toruń from 1586 until his death. He was the editor of the most popular Polish Protestant hymnbook, Cantional, albo pieśni duchowne (‘Cantionale, or Spiritual songs’; Toruń, 1587 or ?1578). It was enlarged and reprinted many times as Cantional, to iest pieśni krześcijańskie (‘Cantionale, or Christian songs’) at Toruń in 1596, 1601, 1620, 1638, 1648, 1672 and 1697, at Gdańsk in 1640 and 1646 and at Leipzig as late as 1728. The biggest edition, that of 1601, contains 333 songs, 106 of which were set by Adam Freytag for three to five voices (the number of these settings was reduced in later editions). The melodies were taken from traditional Catholic sources and Czech and German hymnals, and some were native Polish tunes; some of the texts were adapted, presumably by Artomius himself, to fit the traditional melodies....


Peter Ward Jones

(b 1826; d Nov 26, 1912). English music publisher. He and Henry John Parry were employed by Wessel & Co. and took over the business on the retirement of Christian Rudolph Wessel in 1860; the firm then became known as Ashdown & Parry. Parry retired in 1882 and the firm’s name changed to Edwin Ashdown, becoming a limited company in 1891. The firm’s publications included much new English music and the short-lived periodical Hanover Square (1867–9), edited by the pianist Lindsay Sloper, which consisted largely of new music. Composers in the catalogue included G.A. Macfarren, Sullivan, Elgar and Vaughan Williams, and for many years the firm was also the English agent for Bote & Bock of Berlin. Piano and choral music and solo songs came to form the core of its publishing activities. Ashdown also took over the music publishing firms of Hatzfeld & Co. (...


John Bergsagel

revised by Henrik Karlsson


(b Bredaryd, Feb 5, 1925). Swedish music administrator, writer and lexicographer. He studied the double bass, cello, organ and music theory privately and romance languages at Lund University (graduated 1958). He taught French and Spanish at the Malmö Gymnasium (1959–74), and has pursued various musical activities, including posts as music critic of the Malmö newspaper Kvällsposten (1950–80), founder and leader of Chamber Choir ’53 (1953–62), founder (1960) and director (1965–71) of the Ars Nova society for new music and programme director of Sal. Smith Chamber Music Society (1966–73). He has also taught music history at the Malmö National School of Drama (1963–71), and served as a board member of the Malmö Musikhögskola (from 1964) and the Swedish Royal Academy of Music (1966–73; general secretary from 1973–90), and as vice-chairman of the board of the Stockholm Elektronmusikstudion (...


Watkins Shaw


(b Llandaff, Nov 29, 1869; d Worcester, Nov 26, 1953). English organist, composer and editor. After instruction from his father and C. Lee Williams, Atkins became a pupil and assistant of G.R. Sinclair at Truro and Hereford, and was appointed organist of Ludlow parish church in 1893. In 1897 he became organist of Worcester Cathedral, retiring in 1950, having directed the Worcester Three Choirs Festivals from 1898 to 1948. He revived the festivals after World War I and was knighted in 1921. Though he was not a gifted conductor, the programmes of the Worcester Festivals under him showed considerable breadth of taste, and it was at his insistence that Elgar’s The Dream of Gerontius was performed in 1902. His own Hymn of Faith was given in 1905 and revived in 1993.

Atkins produced (with Elgar) an English-language edition of Bach’s St Matthew Passion, and (alone) of Bach’s St John Passion...


Daniel Heartz

revised by Laurent Guillo

(b probably in or nr Douai, c1494; d Paris, late 1551 or 1552). French music printer, publisher, bookseller, punchcutter and typecaster.

By a document notarized 13 January 1513/14 Attaingnant, described as a ‘bookseller, living in Paris’, leased a press to Jean de la Roche, reserving the right to print ecclesiastical pardons and the like, should he receive commissions. He may have gone from Douai to Paris originally with a chorister’s scholarship for the Collège de Dainville, which was subject to the cathedral chapters of Arras and Noyon. This institution leased the part of its buildings on the rue de la Harpe to Philippe Pigouchet ( fl 1490–1514), the printer-engraver famous for his Hours and the master to whom Attaingnant was probably apprenticed. Marriage to one of Pigouchet’s daughters, Claude, made Attaingnant his heir. Another of Pigouchet’s daughters, Germaine, was married to Poncet le Preux (...


Barbara Turchin

revised by Meredith M. Eliassen

(b Boston, MA, June 4, 1811; d Oakland, CA, Nov 29, 1891). American proprietor of music stores and sheet music publisher. From 1833 to 1849, Atwill operated a “Music Saloon” music store and publishing business on Broadway in New York City, using printing plates of the Thomas Birch Company. He married Eliza Dugliss in 1834. After suffering financial setbacks, the business was taken over by Samuel C. Jollie, and Atwill left his family to travel to San Francisco. He arrived penniless on 28 October 1849 but hit paydirt in the gold fields. Unlike many miners who sent paper money drafts home, Atwill sent about $75,000 in gold dust to New York. He brought his wife and daughters to California in 1854. Atwill moved his East Coast stock to California and established California’s first music store, a tiny metal-constructed building at 158 Washington Street that withstood San Francisco’s many firestorms. In New York, Atwill published Vincenzo Belini’s ...


Leanne Langley

(b London, Feb 22, 1777; d London, May 8, 1858). English editor, critic and impresario, youngest son of Edmund Ayrton. He was baptized at St Margaret's, Westminster, and probably studied music with his father. In 1794 he was a bass chorus singer at the Ancient Concerts, and by 1803, when he married Marianne Arnold (daughter of Samuel Arnold), a piano teacher. Through the Chapel Royal connections of his father and father-in-law, and the friendship of Frederick Nicolay (Queen Charlotte's music librarian), he had easy access to court circles. But it was his membership in the Society of Antiquaries (1807) that stimulated his serious interest in music history. In 1808 he began collecting materials for a historical music dictionary (never completed), eventually assembling one of the most remarkable music collections of the mid-19th century. Among his circle of acquaintances around this time, mostly journalists and barristers, Henry Crabb Robinson, Martin Burney (the music historian's grandson), Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt were prominent; T.M. Alsager, the ...


Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...


Paul C. Echols

(b Detroit, MI, Feb 19, 1803; d New Haven, CT, Dec 23, 1881). American author of hymn texts and hymnbook compiler. The son of a missionary to the Native Americans, he was educated at Yale University and Andover Theological Seminary. While at Andover he compiled a small pamphlet containing 101 missionary hymns, three of them his own: entitled Hymns and Sacred Songs; for the Monthly Concert (Andover, MA, 1823), it was intended for use at missionary prayer meetings and was the first such collection to be published in the United States. In 1825 Bacon was ordained and became pastor of the Center Church, New Haven, where he served until he joined the faculty of the Yale Divinity School in 1866. In 1833 he published in New Haven a revision of Timothy Dwight’s edition of Isaac Watts’s Psalms and Hymns, to which he appended the collection Additional Hymns, Designed as a Supplement to Dwight’s Psalms & Hymns...


(b ?Louvain, c1525; d ?Düsseldorf, after 1557). South Netherlandish printer. His publications are important in the history of music printing in the Low Countries. From 1545 to 1551 he worked at Louvain, probably as a university printer. Besides music, he printed mainly official documents and religious commentaries, of which a number were published by M. Rotaire and Phalèse family. During this period he printed the first, third, fourth (and perhaps fifth) of Des chansons reduictz en tablature de lut, which were Phalèse’s first music publications and the first books of lute tablature printed from type in the Low Countries.

By 1554 Baethen was in Maastricht, where his publications included a book of Flemish songs, Dat ierste boeck vanden nievve Duytsche liedekens, one of five such anthologies published in the Low Countries during the 16th century. In 1555 he moved to Düsseldorf, where he published three books of motets, ...


David Tunley

(b c1720; d Paris, c1798). French publisher, composer and teacher. On 27 April 1765 he took over the music publishing house known as A la Règle d’Or, which comprised businesses once owned by Boivin, Ballard and Bayard. During some 30 years he issued many works by both French and foreign composers, the latter including not only early masters like Corelli and Vivaldi, but also some of those who were influential in the development of the emerging Classical school: Carl Stamitz, Haydn, Piccinni, Paisiello, Cimarosa, Boccherini and Clementi. French composers included Gossec, Davaux, Monsigny and Brassac, and some of the earlier generation, Lully, Lalande and Campra. One of his major publications was the Journal d’ariettes des plus célèbres compositeurs, comprising 240 works issued in 63 volumes (scores and parts) from 1779 to 1788. Bailleux’s adoption of the royal privilege granted to the Ballard family led to his imprisonment during the Terror. He was released after the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (...


Philip Bate

revised by William Waterhouse

(d 1831). English woodwind instrument inventor, maker and player and music publisher. Having originally trained as a turner, he began his career playing oboe, flute and flageolet at two London theatres. As maker, his first patent was in 1803 for a new model of ‘English flageolet’, which, by changing the fingering of the tonic from six to three fingers, led in about 1805 to the development of his double flageolet model in collaboration with John Parry (ii) (1776–1851). Between 1808 and 1821 he was in partnership with John Wood as Bainbridge & Wood, writing and publishing tutors and music for his instruments. From cto 1835 the business was continued by Bainbridge’s widow Harriet, and thereafter until 1855 by his successor, Hastrick, whose mark usually included the words ‘late Bainbridge, inventor’.

The firm’s speciality was the ‘English flute’ or ‘English flageolet’ – not to be confused with the French or the ‘quadrille’ flageolet – in its single, double and occasionally triple form. In addition they made single and double concert flutes with flageolet-type heads to be held transversely. These instruments, designed for amateurs of both sexes, enjoued enormous popularity, the double flageolet being much plagiarised (in spite of two unsuccessful legal actions) by rival makers both at home and abroad. Bainbridge was perhaps the earliest wind-instrument maker with the all-round abilities required to launch such projects successfully, combining single-handedly as he did the diverse skills of inventor, performer, teacher, manufacturer, author and publisher....


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b New York, June 3, 1851; d Dresden, Oct 13, 1934). American music scholar and lexicographer. Trained as a young man for a business career, he decided rather on music. For a time he was an organist in Concord, Massachusetts. He went to Germany to study in 1874 and took the doctorate at Leipzig in 1882 with a dissertation based on field studies among the Seneca Indians in New York state. This, the first serious work on American Indian music, was shown to MacDowell by Henry Gilbert, and provided themes for MacDowell's Second (‘Indian’) Suite for orchestra. Baker returned to the USA in 1891 and became literary editor and translator for the music publishing firm of Schirmer, Inc. (1892), a post he held until his retirement in 1926, when he returned to Germany. Besides making many translations into English of books, librettos and articles (the last especially for the ...


Adriano Cavicchi

(b Venice; d Ferrara, Feb 21, 1618). Italian printer and engraver. He began to publish literary texts in 1578, setting up his printing works opposite the Castello Estense at Ferrara. He seems to have started music publishing in 1582 with a collection of madrigals for five voices by various authors entitled Il lauro secco, in which a representative group of madrigalists from Ferrara and other Italian cities paid homage to the beauty and virtuosity of Laura Peverara, a singer from Mantua and lady-in-waiting to the Duchess of Ferrara. Baldini probably acquired the edition from the heirs of Francesco Rossi and Paolo Tortorino. He later printed many collections of madrigals, canzonettas, psalms and motets by such leading composers as Lodovico Agostini, Girolamo Belli and Bonfilio. Between 1594 and 1597 he published several of the most significant works of the seconda pratica madrigalists (Luzzaschi, Gesualdo, Fontanelli and Macque).

Baldini also published a number of books on the theory and art of music and the theatre, including F. Patrizi’s ...


Margaret Cranmer

(b 1770; bur. London, Oct 7, 1833). English piano maker, music seller, publisher, printer and organ builder. He worked in Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, London, from 1787 until his death. Domenico Motta joined him briefly to form Motta & Ball about 1794; in 1818 the Post Office London Directory lists the firm as J. Ball and Son. The son must be the Edward Ball who is listed as a piano maker at Duke Street in an 1824 jury roll preserved at Westminster City Archives. James Ball is listed in the 1827 Post Office London Directory as ‘Grand cabinet & square Piano Forte maker to his Majesty’. Ball’s early five-octave square pianos with the English single action had two hand stops, one for raising the dampers and the other a ‘lute’ stop. He is best known for his square pianos, but also made cabinet pianos and grands, some of them for the Prince Regent. In ...


Pier Paolo Scattolin

(fl Padua, 1583–7). Italian amateur music editor and composer. He lived at Padua, where the only definite reference to him concerns his loan of a portative organ to the cathedral cappella on 6 December 1583. He edited the important anthology De floridi virtuosi d’Italia (Venice, 1583¹¹), for five voices, which includes works by Marenzio and Giovanni Gabrieli. The dedication, which he addressed to Prince Albert Radziwiłł, provides interesting evidence about musical relations between Italy and Poland. He also published an anthology of pieces by musicians who worked at, or had contact with, Padua, Canzonette di diversi eccellentissimi musici, libro primo (Venice, 15877), for three voices. Alongside pieces by G.B. Mosto, Annibale Padovano, M.A. da Pordenon and Giulio Renaldi appear two canzonettas of his own composition, which with their homophonic textures and simple harmony are typical of canzonettas of the period.

EitnerQ MGG1 (P. Petrobelli...


Nicholas Temperley

(fl Castleton, Derbys., 1723–53). English psalmodist and ?composer. In 1723 he published the first edition of A Book of Psalmody in conjunction with John Barber. A second edition, by Robert Barber alone, followed in 1733, and a third, entitled David’s Harp Well Tuned, in 1753. He also published The Psalm Singer’s Choice Companion in 1727. A Book of Psalmody enjoyed a good deal of popularity in the north Midlands. It was similar to other parochial collections, and most of its contents were derivative. The second edition, however, had a remarkable feature: it included, as well as chants for the canticles, a complete musical setting of Morning Prayer, litany and ante-communion on cathedral lines, but for alto, tenor and bass only. Barber made it clear on the title-page that this was designed for ‘our Country Churches’. He thus brought to its logical conclusion the trend begun by Henry Playford, who published anthems for parish church use in ...


Miriam Miller

revised by Jeremy L. Smith

(b 1565; d 1614). English music publisher. His position in the history of music printing in Elizabethan London is a contentious one. In 1596 he produced The Pathway to Musicke and A New Booke of Tabliture, the latter thought to be the book that John Dowland complained of in his The First Booke of Songes or Ayres (1597), declaring that the versions of his lute pieces were ‘falce and unperfect’. Barley was acquainted with Thomas Morley, and, when Morley acquired a music printing monopoly in 1598, six volumes appeared bearing the imprint ‘imprinted at London, in Little St. Helen's by William Barley, the assigne of Thomas Morley’. An examination of these six works, however, makes it clear that they cannot all have been printed by the same man or on the same press. The most significant of this group are Antony Holborne's Pavans, Galliards, Almains, the first appearance in print in England of music for instruments rather than voices, and Thomas Morley's ...